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Hepatocyte polarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666185/hepatocyte-nuclear-receptor-shp-suppresses-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#1
An Zou, Nancy Magee, Fengyan Deng, Sarah Lehn, Cuncong Zhong, Yuxia Zhang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a burgeoning health problem worldwide, ranging from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL, steatosis without hepatocellular injury) to the more aggressive nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, steatosis with ballooning, inflammation, or fibrosis). Although many studies have greatly contributed to the elucidation of NAFLD pathogenesis, the disease progression from NAFL to NASH still remains incompletely understood. Nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (Nr0b2, SHP) is a transcriptional regulator critical for the regulation of bile acid, glucose, and lipid metabolism...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649066/macrophage-polarization-favors-epithelial-repair-during-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#2
Marc Garnier, Aude Gibelin, Arnaud A Mailleux, Véronique Leçon, Margarita Hurtado-Nedelec, Jamila Laschet, Grégoire Trebbia, Mathilde Neuville, Sébastien Tanaka, Bruno Crestani, Monique Dehoux, Christophe Quesnel
OBJECTIVES: Alveolar macrophage polarization and role on alveolar repair during human acute respiratory distress syndrome remain unclear. This study aimed to determine during human acute respiratory distress syndrome: the alveolar macrophage polarization, the effect of alveolar environment on macrophage polarization, and the role of polarized macrophages on epithelial repair. DESIGN: Experimental ex vivo and in vitro investigations. SETTING: Four ICUs in three teaching hospitals...
April 11, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624127/depolarized-hepatocytes-express-the-stem-progenitor-cell-marker-neighbor-of-punc-e11-after-bile-duct-ligation-in-mice
#3
Andrea Bowe, Susanne Zweerink, Vera Mück, Vangelis Kondylis, Sigrid Schulte, Tobias Goeser, Dirk Nierhoff
There is a medical need of biomarkers for disease stratification in cholestatic liver diseases that come along with changes in hepatocyte polarity. Neighbor of Punc E11 (Nope) is an oncofetal marker that is lost after final differentiation and polarization of hepatocytes. We analyzed the expression pattern of Nope and connexin (Cx) 26 as markers of hepatocyte polarization during murine liver development as well as in adult liver with or without bile duct ligation (BDL) by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blotting (WB), and immunohistochemistry...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610169/erythropoietic-protoporphyria-initial-diagnosis-with-cholestatic-liver-disease
#4
Amy Coffey, Daniel H Leung, Norma M Quintanilla
The porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders that result from defects in heme biosynthesis. Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is the most common inherited porphyria in children and is diagnosed in most individuals after the onset of cutaneous manifestations. Hepatobiliary disease affects the minority of individuals with EPP and usually manifests in patients with an established diagnosis of EPP. We report on a classic but rare case of EPP that masqueraded as cholestasis. An 8-year-old boy was referred to the Hepatology Clinic after an abrupt onset of jaundice with a longstanding history of dermatitis...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563328/peroxisomal-%C3%AE-oxidation-regulates-whole-body-metabolism-inflammatory-vigor-and-pathogenesis-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
Maria E Moreno-Fernandez, Daniel A Giles, Traci E Stankiewicz, Rachel Sheridan, Rebekah Karns, Monica Cappelletti, Kristin Lampe, Rajib Mukherjee, Christian Sina, Anthony Sallese, James P Bridges, Simon P Hogan, Bruce J Aronow, Kasper Hoebe, Senad Divanovic
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a metabolic predisposition for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), represents a disease spectrum ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis to cirrhosis. Acox1, a rate-limiting enzyme in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation, regulates metabolism, spontaneous hepatic steatosis, and hepatocellular damage over time. However, it is unknown whether Acox1 modulates inflammation relevant to NAFLD pathogenesis or if Acox1-associated metabolic and inflammatory derangements uncover and accelerate potential for NAFLD progression...
March 22, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544098/single-particle-imaging-of-polarized-hepatoma-organoids-upon-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-reveals-an-ordered-and-sequential-entry-process
#6
Yasmine Baktash, Anisha Madhav, Kelly E Coller, Glenn Randall
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters hepatocytes via various entry factors, including scavenger receptor BI (SR-B1), cluster of differentiation 81 (CD81), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), claudin-1 (CLDN1), and occludin (OCLN). As CLDN1 and OCLN are not readily accessible due to their tight junctional localization, HCV likely accesses them by either disrupting cellular polarity or migrating to the tight junction. In this study, we image HCV entry into a three-dimensional polarized hepatoma system and reveal that the virus sequentially engages these entry factors through actin-dependent mechanisms...
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527930/hplc-profiling-of-phenolics-and-flavonoids-of-adonidia-merrillii-fruits-and-their-antioxidant-and-cytotoxic-properties
#7
Ali Vafaei, Jamaludin Bin Mohamad, Ehsan Karimi
In this study the antioxidant and cytotoxicity activity of the Adonidia merrillii fruits were investigated using different solvent polarities (methanol, ethyl acetate and water). The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the methanolic extract was higher compare with other extract with respective values of 17.80 ± 0.45 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW) and 5.43 ± 0.33 mg rutin equivalents/g DW. Beside that The RP-HPLC analyses indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, naringin and rutin...
March 12, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527264/multipotent-stromal-cells-stimulate-liver-regeneration-by-influencing-the-macrophage-polarization-in-rat
#8
Andrey Elchaninov, Timur Fatkhudinov, Natalia Usman, Irina Arutyunyan, Andrey Makarov, Anastasia Lokhonina, Irina Eremina, Viktor Surovtsev, Dmitry Goldshtein, Galina Bolshakova, Valeria Glinkina, Gennady Sukhikh
AIM: To investigate the influence of the umbilical cord-derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) on recovery of the liver after the subtotal resection, that is, removal of 80% of the organ mass, a renowned model of the small-for-size liver remnant syndrome. METHODS: The MSCs were obtained from the intervascular tissue of umbilical cords, dissected from rat fetuses, by the explant culture technique. The vital labeling of MSCs with РКН26 was carried out on the 3rd passage...
February 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519653/controlled-cell-morphology-and-liver-specific-function-of-engineered-primary-hepatocytes-by-fibroblast-layer-cell-densities
#9
Yusuke Sakai, Makiko Koike, Daisuke Kawahara, Hideko Hasegawa, Tomomi Murai, Kosho Yamanouchi, Akihiko Soyama, Masaaki Hidaka, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Fumihiko Fujita, Tamotsu Kuroki, Susumu Eguchi
Engineered primary hepatocytes, including co-cultured hepatocyte sheets, are an attractive to basic scientific and clinical researchers because they maintain liver-specific functions, have reconstructed cell polarity, and have high transplantation efficiency. However, co-culture conditions regarding engineered primary hepatocytes were suboptimal in promoting these advantages. Here we report that the hepatocyte morphology and liver-specific function levels are controlled by the normal human diploid fibroblast (TIG-118 cell) layer cell density...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510700/an-rnai-screen-of-rho-signalling-networks-identifies-rhoh-as-a-regulator-of-rac1-in-prostate-cancer-cell-migration
#10
Virginia Tajadura-Ortega, Ritu Garg, Richard Allen, Claudia Owczarek, Michael D Bright, Samuel Kean, Aisyah Mohd-Noor, Anita Grigoriadis, Timothy C Elston, Klaus M Hahn, Anne J Ridley
BACKGROUND: Cell migration is essential for development and tissue repair, but it also contributes to disease. Rho GTPases regulate cell migration, but a comprehensive analysis of how each Rho signalling component affects migration has not been carried out. RESULTS: Through an RNA interference screen, and using a prostate cancer cell line, we find that approximately 25% of Rho network components alter migration. Some genes enhance migration while others decrease basal and/or hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated migration...
March 6, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505983/from-a-common-progenitor-to-distinct-liver-epithelial-phenotypes
#11
REVIEW
Anne Müsch
The vertebrate liver presents a fascinating case study for how cell form is optimized for function. To execute its duties the liver assembles two distinct lumen-forming epithelial phenotypes: Firstly, cords with a branched, capillary-like luminal network formed between hepatocytes (bile canaliculi); and secondly, tubular ducts formed by biliary epithelial cells arranged around a central cavity and connected to the bile canaliculi. How these remarkably different epithelial polarity phenotypes are generated and joined into a contiguous luminal network are major unresolved questions...
March 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494709/japanese-quince-chaenomeles-japonica-l-fruit-polyphenolic-extract-modulates-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-hepg2-cells-via-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#12
Małgorzata Zakłos-Szyda, Nina Pawlik
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a chronic diet-related disease which due to many dangerous complications has become a prominent health problem of the world. The aim of the study was to explore the in vitro activity of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica L., family Rosaceae, JQ) fruit polyphenolic extract as modulator of carbohydrates metabolism. The research was designed to investigate the effect of JQ polyphenolic extract on glucose metabolism in human hepatoma HepG2 cell line cultured under normal non-metabolically changed and hyperglycemic conditions...
March 1, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480939/the-formation-of-p62-positive-inclusion-body-is-associated-with-macrophage-polarization-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Hirofumi Fukushima, Shunhei Yamashina, Atsushi Arakawa, Gentaro Taniguchi, Tomonori Aoyama, Akira Uchiyama, Kazuyoshi Kon, Kenichi Ikejima, Sumio Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Hepatic inclusion composed of autophagy-specific substrate p62 is one of the histological features of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and can be a precursor to hepatic carcinogenesis. The expression of p62 was enhanced by not only autophagic dysfunction but also oxidative stress and inflammation. M1/M2 phenotypic balance of macrophages plays a pivotal role in the progression of NAFLD. We evaluated the correlation between macrophage-polarization and the formation of p62 aggregation in NAFLD...
February 26, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480007/extending-proteome-coverage-by-combining-ms-ms-methods-and-a-modified-bioinformatics-platform-adapted-for-database-searching-of-positive-and-negative-polarity-193-nm-ultraviolet-photodissociation-mass-spectra
#14
Sylvester M Greer, Marshall Bern, Christopher Becker, Jennifer S Brodbelt
To extend proteome coverage obtained from bottom-up mass spectrometry approaches, three complementary ion activation methods, higher energy collision dissociation (HCD), ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD), and negative mode UVPD (NUVPD), are used to interrogate the tryptic peptides in a human hepatocyte lysate using a high performance Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The utility of combining results from multiple activation techniques (HCD+UVPD+NUVPD) is analyzed for total depth and breadth of proteome coverage...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473277/the-formation-of-p62-positive-inclusion-body-is-associated-with-macrophage-polarization-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
Hirofumi Fukushima, Shunhei Yamashina, Atsushi Arakawa, Gentaro Taniguchi, Tomonori Aoyama, Akira Uchiyama, Kazuyoshi Kon, Kenichi Ikejima, Sumio Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Hepatic inclusion composed of autophagy-specific substrate p62 is one of the histological features of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and can be a precursor to hepatic carcinogenesis. The expression of p62 was enhanced by not only autophagic dysfunction but also oxidative stress and inflammation. M1/M2 phenotypic balance of macrophages plays a pivotal role in the progression of NAFLD. We evaluated the correlation between macrophage-polarization and the formation of p62 aggregation in NAFLD...
February 23, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466728/lkb1-as-a-gatekeeper-of-hepatocyte-proliferation-and-genomic-integrity-during-liver-regeneration
#16
Vanessa Maillet, Nadia Boussetta, Jocelyne Leclerc, Véronique Fauveau, Marc Foretz, Benoit Viollet, Jean-Pierre Couty, Séverine Celton-Morizur, Christine Perret, Chantal Desdouets
Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is involved in several biological processes and is a key regulator of hepatic metabolism and polarity. Here, we demonstrate that the master kinase LKB1 plays a dual role in liver regeneration, independently of its major target, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We found that the loss of hepatic Lkb1 expression promoted hepatocyte proliferation acceleration independently of metabolic/energetic balance. LKB1 regulates G0 /G1 progression, specifically by controlling epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404462/intermittent-hypoxia-is-a-proinflammatory-stimulus-resulting-in-il-6-expression-and-m1-macrophage-polarization
#17
Esperance Schaefer, Winona Wu, Christina Mark, Andrew Yang, Erik DiGiacomo, Charles Carlton-Smith, Shadi Salloum, Cynthia Brisac, Wenyu Lin, Kathleen E Corey, Raymond T Chung
The biological factors that promote inflammation or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in the setting of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease remain incompletely understood. Clinical studies have demonstrated an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and both inflammation and fibrosis in NASH, but the mechanism has not been identified. In this study, we use in vitro modeling to examine the impact of intermittent hypoxia on the liver. Hepatocyte, stellate cell, and macrophage cell lines were exposed to intermittent or sustained hypoxia...
June 2017: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404441/the-role-of-human-cytochrome-p450-2e1-in-liver-inflammation-and-fibrosis
#18
Jun Xu, Hsiao-Yen Ma, Shuang Liang, Mengxi Sun, Gabriel Karin, Yukinori Koyama, Ronglin Hu, Oswald Quehenberger, Nicholas O Davidson, Edward A Dennis, Tatiana Kisseleva, David A Brenner
Cytochrome P450 2E1 ( CYP2E1 ) plays an important role in alcohol and toxin metabolism by catalyzing the conversion of substrates into more polar metabolites and producing reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress promotes hepatocyte injury and death, which in turn induces inflammation, activation of hepatic stellate cells, and liver fibrosis. Here, we analyzed mice expressing only the human CYP2E1 gene (hCYP2E1) to determine differences in hCYP2E1 versus endogenous mouse Cyp2e1 function with different liver injuries...
December 2017: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366910/tgf%C3%AE-1-mediated-suppression-of-cytochrome-p450-cyp-induction-responses-in-rat-hepatocyte-fibroblast-co-cultures
#19
Yu Yu, Abhishek Ananthanarayanan, Nisha Hari Singh, Xin Hong, Rashidah Binte Sakban, Nikhil Mittal, Luo Xiaobei, Jeffrey Robens, Lei Xia, Michael McMillian, Hanry Yu
Co-culture of hepatocyte and fibroblasts has shown distinct advantages in enhancing certain liver specific functions and maintaining hepatic polarity. However, the utility of hepatocyte co-culture models for studies, such as drug-drug interaction studies, has not been completely elucidated. In this study the induction of Cyp1a2, Cyp2b1/2, and Cyp3a2, the three major cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms in the rat liver, was evaluated in randomly mixed co-cultures and micropatterned co-cultures. We found that in both co-culture configurations, the drug-induced Cyp1a2, Cyp2b1/2, Cyp3a2 mRNA and activity were suppressed relative to those in monocultured hepatocytes...
January 31, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356040/basolateral-cd147-induces-hepatocyte-polarity-loss-by-e-cadherin-ubiquitination-and-degradation-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progress
#20
Meng Lu, Jiao Wu, Zhi-Wei Hao, Yu-Kui Shang, Jing Xu, Gang Nan, Xia Li, Zhi-Nan Chen, Huijie Bian
Hepatocytes are epithelial cells with highly specialized polarity. The disorder and loss of hepatocyte polarity leads to a weakness of cell adhesion and connection, the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and eventually the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147), a tumor-related glycoprotein, promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the invasion of HCC. However, the function of CD147 in hepatocyte depolarization is unknown. Here we identified that CD147 was basolaterally polarized in hepatocyte membrane of liver tissues and HepG2 cells...
January 21, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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