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Hepatocyte polarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890367/galectin-7-promotes-proliferation-and-th1-2-cells-polarization-toward-th1-in-activated-cd4-t-cells-by-inhibiting-the-tgf%C3%AE-smad3-pathway
#1
Zhenlong Luo, Yudong Ji, Dean Tian, Yong Zhang, Sheng Chang, Chao Yang, Hongmin Zhou, Zhonghua Klaus Chen
Galectin-7 (Gal-7) has been associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis. It is known that Gal-7 antagonises TGFβ-mediated effects in hepatocytes by interacting with Smad3. Previously, we have demonstrated that Gal-7 is related to CD4+ T cells responses; nevertheless, its effect and functional mechanism on CD4+ T cells responses remain unclear. The murine CD4+ T cells were respectively cultured with Gal-7, anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs, or with anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs & Gal-7. The effects of Gal-7 on proliferation and the phenotypic changes in CD4+ T cells were assessed by flow cytometry...
June 8, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29805305/generation-of-smurf2-conditional-knockout-mice
#2
Yi Tang, Liu-Ya Tang, Xuan Xu, Cuiling Li, Chuxia Deng, Ying E Zhang
Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2) is a HECT domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase. Together with its closely related homolog Smurf1, Smurf2 was initially recognized as a negative regulator of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, but subsequent studies have expanded its function to regulate many different signaling pathways and play important roles in genomic stability, cell polarity, tissue homeostasis and carcinogenesis. Mice with conventional knockout of Smurf1 or Smurf2 alleles are viable, but conventional Smurf1 and Smurf2 double knockout mice were early embryonic lethal...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792530/manganese-transport-and-toxicity-in-polarized-wif-b-hepatocytes
#3
Khristy J Thompson, Jennifer Hein, Andrew Baez, Jose Carlo Sosa, Marianne Wessling-Resnick
Mn toxicity arises from nutritional problems, community and occupational exposures, and genetic risks. Mn blood levels are controlled by hepatobiliary clearance. The goals of this study were to determine the cellular distribution of Mn transporters in polarized hepatocytes, to establish an in vitro assay for hepatocyte Mn efflux, and to examine possible roles the Mn transporters would play in metal import and export. For these experiments, hepatocytoma WIF-B cells were grown for 12-14 days to achieve maximal polarity...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774991/aggregate-mesenchymal-stem-cell-delivery-ameliorates-the-regenerative-niche-for-muscle-repair
#4
Marissa A Ruehle, Hazel Y Stevens, Aaron M Beedle, Robert E Guldberg, Jarrod A Call
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle wasting disease due to the absence of the dystrophin protein from the muscle cell membrane which renders the muscle susceptible to continuous damage. In DMD patients, muscle weakness, together with cycles of degeneration/regeneration and replacement with non-contractile tissue, limit mobility and lifespan. Since the loss of dystrophin result in loss of polarity and a reduction in the number of self-renewing satellite cells, it is postulated that these patients could achieve an improved quality of life if delivered cells could restore satellite cell function...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729199/vacuolar-protein-sorting-33b-is-a-tumor-suppressor-in-hepatocarcinogenesis
#5
Conghui Wang, Yuqiang Cheng, Xiuping Zhang, Nan Li, Lin Zhang, Shengdian Wang, Xuemei Tong, Ying Xu, Guo-Qiang Chen, Shuqun Cheng, Xuemei Fan, Junling Liu
Polarity defects are frequently involved in liver diseases, such as chronic hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and so on. It was reported that vacuolar protein sorting 33B (Vps33b) plays critical roles in maintenance of hepatocyte polarity, however the functional roles and mechanisms of Vps33b in HCC occurrence and progression remain unknown. First of all, we showed that Vps33b is down-regulated in human and mouse liver cancer samples, and the low expression levels of Vps33b correlate with the poor prognosis of many HCC patients...
May 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728709/enterodiol-is-actively-transported-by-rat-liver-cell-membranes
#6
Alejandro de Athayde Moncorvo Collado, Paula B Salazar, Carlos Minahk
The interaction of enterodiol and the well-described polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) with hepatic membranes has been matter of interest in the last few years. On one hand, EGCG is only able to bind to the phospholipid polar head groups, as it has been already described in synthetic lipid bilayers and erythrocyte membranes but cannot get inserted into the hydrophobic core or be transported into the lumen of membrane vesicles. On the other, enterodiol has no interaction with non-energized membranes either, but it is able to interact and even be transported upon addition of ATP...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708961/cellular-mechanisms-of-hepatoprotection-mediated-by-m2-like-macrophages
#7
Li Bai, Liming Fu, Lu Li, Feng Ren, Qingfen Zheng, Shuang Liu, Yuanping Han, Sujun Zheng, Yu Chen, Zhongping Duan
BACKGROUND Acute liver injury in the setting of hepatic fibrosis is an intriguing and still unsettled issue. We previously have demonstrated the protective effects conferred by M2-like macrophages in the fibrotic liver. In the present work, we further decipher the cellular mechanisms governing this hepatoprotection. MATERIAL AND METHODS Macrophages were isolated from control mice (M0 macrophages), then polarized into M1 or M2 phenotype using IFN-γ or IL-4, respectively. Conditioned media (CM) from M0, M1, and M2 macrophages were harvested and applied to M1 macrophages...
April 30, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703775/correction-for-belouzard-et-al-entry-and-release-of-hepatitis-c-virus-in-polarized-human-hepatocytes
#8
Sandrine Belouzard, Adeline Danneels, Lucie Fénéant, Karin Séron, Yves Rouillé, Jean Dubuisson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695615/metabolism-of-a-5ht-6-antagonist-2-methyl-1-phenylsulfonyl-4-piperazin-1-yl-1h-benzo-d-imidazole-sam-760-impact-of-sulfonamide-metabolism-on-diminution-of-a-ketoconazole-mediated-clinical-drug-drug-interaction
#9
Aarti Sawant-Basak, R Scott Obach, Angela Doran, Peter Lockwood, Klaas Schildknegt, Hongying Gao, Jessica Mancuso, Susanna Tse, Thomas A Comery
SAM-760 [(2-methyl-1-(phenylsulfonyl)-4-(piperazin-1-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole)], a 5HT6 antagonist, was investigated in humans for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In liver microsomes and recombinant cytochrome P450 (P450) isozymes, SAM-760 was predominantly metabolized by CYP3A (∼85%). Based on these observations and an expectation of a 5-fold magnitude of interaction with moderate to strong CYP3A inhibitors, a clinical DDI study was performed. In the presence of ketoconazole, the mean C max and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinite time values of SAM-760 showed only a modest increase by 30% and 38%, respectively...
July 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686039/stem-cell-derived-culture-models-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#10
Viet Loan Dao Thi, Xianfang Wu, Charles M Rice
Similar to other hepatotropic viruses, hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been notoriously difficult to propagate in cell culture, limiting studies to unravel its biology. Recently, major advances have been made by passaging primary HEV isolates and selecting variants that replicate efficiently in carcinoma cells. These adaptations, however, can alter HEV biology. We have explored human embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cell (hESC/iPSC)-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) as an alternative to conventional hepatoma and hepatocyte cell culture systems for HEV studies...
April 23, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666185/hepatocyte-nuclear-receptor-shp-suppresses-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#11
An Zou, Nancy Magee, Fengyan Deng, Sarah Lehn, Cuncong Zhong, Yuxia Zhang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a burgeoning health problem worldwide, ranging from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL, steatosis without hepatocellular injury) to the more aggressive nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, steatosis with ballooning, inflammation, or fibrosis). Although many studies have greatly contributed to the elucidation of NAFLD pathogenesis, the disease progression from NAFL to NASH remains incompletely understood. Nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (Nr0b2, SHP ) is a transcriptional regulator critical for the regulation of bile acid, glucose, and lipid metabolism...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649066/macrophage-polarization-favors-epithelial-repair-during-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#12
Marc Garnier, Aude Gibelin, Arnaud A Mailleux, Véronique Leçon, Margarita Hurtado-Nedelec, Jamila Laschet, Grégoire Trebbia, Mathilde Neuville, Sébastien Tanaka, Bruno Crestani, Monique Dehoux, Christophe Quesnel
OBJECTIVES: Alveolar macrophage polarization and role on alveolar repair during human acute respiratory distress syndrome remain unclear. This study aimed to determine during human acute respiratory distress syndrome: the alveolar macrophage polarization, the effect of alveolar environment on macrophage polarization, and the role of polarized macrophages on epithelial repair. DESIGN: Experimental ex vivo and in vitro investigations. SETTING: Four ICUs in three teaching hospitals...
April 11, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624127/depolarized-hepatocytes-express-the-stem-progenitor-cell-marker-neighbor-of-punc-e11-after-bile-duct-ligation-in-mice
#13
Andrea Bowe, Susanne Zweerink, Vera Mück, Vangelis Kondylis, Sigrid Schulte, Tobias Goeser, Dirk Nierhoff
There is a medical need of biomarkers for disease stratification in cholestatic liver diseases that come along with changes in hepatocyte polarity. Neighbor of Punc E11 (Nope) is an oncofetal marker that is lost after final differentiation and polarization of hepatocytes. We analyzed the expression pattern of Nope and connexin (Cx) 26 as markers of hepatocyte polarization during murine liver development as well as in adult liver with or without bile duct ligation (BDL) by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blotting (WB), and immunohistochemistry...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610169/erythropoietic-protoporphyria-initial-diagnosis-with-cholestatic-liver-disease
#14
Amy Coffey, Daniel H Leung, Norma M Quintanilla
The porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders that result from defects in heme biosynthesis. Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is the most common inherited porphyria in children and is diagnosed in most individuals after the onset of cutaneous manifestations. Hepatobiliary disease affects the minority of individuals with EPP and usually manifests in patients with an established diagnosis of EPP. We report on a classic but rare case of EPP that masqueraded as cholestasis. An 8-year-old boy was referred to the Hepatology Clinic after an abrupt onset of jaundice with a longstanding history of dermatitis...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563328/peroxisomal-%C3%AE-oxidation-regulates-whole-body-metabolism-inflammatory-vigor-and-pathogenesis-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
Maria E Moreno-Fernandez, Daniel A Giles, Traci E Stankiewicz, Rachel Sheridan, Rebekah Karns, Monica Cappelletti, Kristin Lampe, Rajib Mukherjee, Christian Sina, Anthony Sallese, James P Bridges, Simon P Hogan, Bruce J Aronow, Kasper Hoebe, Senad Divanovic
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a metabolic predisposition for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), represents a disease spectrum ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis to cirrhosis. Acox1, a rate-limiting enzyme in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation, regulates metabolism, spontaneous hepatic steatosis, and hepatocellular damage over time. However, it is unknown whether Acox1 modulates inflammation relevant to NAFLD pathogenesis or if Acox1-associated metabolic and inflammatory derangements uncover and accelerate potential for NAFLD progression...
March 22, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544098/single-particle-imaging-of-polarized-hepatoma-organoids-upon-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-reveals-an-ordered-and-sequential-entry-process
#16
Yasmine Baktash, Anisha Madhav, Kelly E Coller, Glenn Randall
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters hepatocytes via various entry factors, including scavenger receptor BI (SR-B1), cluster of differentiation 81 (CD81), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), claudin-1 (CLDN1), and occludin (OCLN). As CLDN1 and OCLN are not readily accessible due to their tight junctional localization, HCV likely accesses them by either disrupting cellular polarity or migrating to the tight junction. In this study, we image HCV entry into a three-dimensional polarized hepatoma system and reveal that the virus sequentially engages these entry factors through actin-dependent mechanisms...
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527930/hplc-profiling-of-phenolics-and-flavonoids-of-adonidia-merrillii-fruits-and-their-antioxidant-and-cytotoxic-properties
#17
Ali Vafaei, Jamaludin Bin Mohamad, Ehsan Karimi
In this study the antioxidant and cytotoxicity activity of the Adonidia merrillii fruits were investigated using different solvent polarities (methanol, ethyl acetate and water). The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the methanolic extract was higher compare with other extract with respective values of 17.80 ± 0.45 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW) and 5.43 ± 0.33 mg rutin equivalents/g DW. Beside that The RP-HPLC analyses indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, naringin and rutin...
March 12, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527264/multipotent-stromal-cells-stimulate-liver-regeneration-by-influencing-the-macrophage-polarization-in-rat
#18
Andrey Elchaninov, Timur Fatkhudinov, Natalia Usman, Irina Arutyunyan, Andrey Makarov, Anastasia Lokhonina, Irina Eremina, Viktor Surovtsev, Dmitry Goldshtein, Galina Bolshakova, Valeria Glinkina, Gennady Sukhikh
AIM: To investigate the influence of the umbilical cord-derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) on recovery of the liver after the subtotal resection, that is, removal of 80% of the organ mass, a renowned model of the small-for-size liver remnant syndrome. METHODS: The MSCs were obtained from the intervascular tissue of umbilical cords, dissected from rat fetuses, by the explant culture technique. The vital labeling of MSCs with РКН26 was carried out on the 3rd passage...
February 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519653/controlled-cell-morphology-and-liver-specific-function-of-engineered-primary-hepatocytes-by-fibroblast-layer-cell-densities
#19
Yusuke Sakai, Makiko Koike, Daisuke Kawahara, Hideko Hasegawa, Tomomi Murai, Kosho Yamanouchi, Akihiko Soyama, Masaaki Hidaka, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Fumihiko Fujita, Tamotsu Kuroki, Susumu Eguchi
Engineered primary hepatocytes, including co-cultured hepatocyte sheets, are an attractive to basic scientific and clinical researchers because they maintain liver-specific functions, have reconstructed cell polarity, and have high transplantation efficiency. However, co-culture conditions regarding engineered primary hepatocytes were suboptimal in promoting these advantages. Here we report that the hepatocyte morphology and liver-specific function levels are controlled by the normal human diploid fibroblast (TIG-118 cell) layer cell density...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510700/an-rnai-screen-of-rho-signalling-networks-identifies-rhoh-as-a-regulator-of-rac1-in-prostate-cancer-cell-migration
#20
Virginia Tajadura-Ortega, Ritu Garg, Richard Allen, Claudia Owczarek, Michael D Bright, Samuel Kean, Aisyah Mohd-Noor, Anita Grigoriadis, Timothy C Elston, Klaus M Hahn, Anne J Ridley
BACKGROUND: Cell migration is essential for development and tissue repair, but it also contributes to disease. Rho GTPases regulate cell migration, but a comprehensive analysis of how each Rho signalling component affects migration has not been carried out. RESULTS: Through an RNA interference screen, and using a prostate cancer cell line, we find that approximately 25% of Rho network components alter migration. Some genes enhance migration while others decrease basal and/or hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated migration...
March 6, 2018: BMC Biology
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