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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331905/macrophage-phenotype-switch-by-sequential-action-of-immunomodulatory-cytokines-from-hydrogel-layers-on-titania-nanotubes
#1
Junhong Chen, Mengting Li, Congling Yang, Xianzhen Yin, Ke Duan, Jianxin Wang, Bo Feng
Inflammatory response occurring between tissues and implants after implantation has attracted increasing attention because it can cause local tissue necrosis and even implant failure. Macrophages play a key role in all stages of inflammation. Pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages comprise two main phenotypes and the switch from M1 to M2 at specific time points is important for wound healing and tissue regeneration. Therefore, we hypothesized that biomaterial systems capable of facilitating macrophage phenotype switching should attenuate inflammation and enhance healing...
January 9, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331044/journey-of-oocyte-from-metaphase-i-to-metaphase-ii-stage-in-mammals
#2
Alka Sharma, Meenakshi Tiwari, Anumegha Gupta, Ashutosh N Pandey, Pramod K Yadav, Shail K Chaube
In mammals, journey from metaphase-I (M-I) to metaphase-II (M-II) is important since oocyte extrude first polar body (PB-I) and gets converted into haploid gamete. The molecular and cellular changes associated with meiotic cell cycle progression from M-I to M-II stage and extrusion of PB-I remain ill understood. Several factors drive oocyte meiosis from M-I to M-II stage. The mitogen-activated protein kinase3/1 (MAPK3/1), signal molecules and Rho family GTPases act through various pathways to drive cell cycle progression from M-I to M-II stage...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330807/evaluation-of-macrophage-polarization-in-pancreatic-cancer-microenvironment-under-hypoxia
#3
Kuldeep S Attri, Kamiya Mehla, Pankaj K Singh
Hypoxic microenvironment found in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and other solid tumors is central to physiological and metabolic alterations of immune cells that significantly impact tumor growth dynamics. Hypoxic adaptations in the immune cells are primarily mediated by the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), which regulates cellular metabolism by modulating glycolysis and other interconnected metabolic pathways. HIF-1α plays distinct roles in M1 and M2 macrophage polarization, which, in turn, regulates tumor cell immune escape and growth...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330793/hypoxia-induced-metabolomic-alterations-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#4
Venugopal Gunda, Sushil Kumar, Aneesha Dasgupta, Pankaj K Singh
Hypoxic conditions in the pancreatic tumor microenvironment lead to the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), which acts as the master regulator of cancer cell metabolism. HIF-1α-mediated metabolic reprogramming results in large-scale metabolite perturbations. Characterization of the metabolic intermediates and the corresponding metabolic pathways altered by HIF-1α would facilitate the identification of therapeutic targets for hypoxic microenvironments prevalent in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and other solid tumors...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330675/recognizing-conserved-non-canonical-localization-patterns-of-toll-like-receptors-in-tissues-and-across-species
#5
REVIEW
Glenn Hamonic, J Alex Pasternak, Heather L Wilson
Toll-like receptors (TLR) 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 were originally characterized as exclusively expressed on the cell surface and TLR 3, 7, 8 and 9 were said to be localized to the endosomes. However, continued research in this area shows that TLR localization may be altered across cell-types, and in response to stimulation, age or disease. Mucosal surfaces must remain tolerant to the commensal flora and thus intracellular or basal lateral localization of TLRs at mucosal surfaces may be necessary to prevent induction of an inflammatory response to commensal flora while still allowing the possibility for the receptors to prime an immune response when a pathogen has crossed the epithelial barrier...
January 12, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330471/slc26a3-dra-prevents-tnf-alpha-induced-barrier-dysfunction-and-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-acute-colitis
#6
Xiangming Ding, Dongxiao Li, Mengke Li, Han Wang, Qin He, Yunwu Wang, Hongbing Yu, Dean Tian, Qin Yu
SLC26A3 encodes a Cl-/HCO3- ion transporter that is also known as downregulated in adenoma (DRA) and is involved in HCO3-/mucus formation. The role of DRA in the epithelial barrier has not been previously established. In this study, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro mechanisms of DRA in the colon epithelial barrier. Immunofluorescence (IF) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) studies reveal that DRA binds directly to tight junction (TJ) proteins and affects the expression of TJ proteins in polarized Caco-2BBe cells...
January 12, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329794/redox-signals-and-macrophage-biology-for-the-upcoming-issue-of-molecular-aspects-of-medicine-on-signaling-by-reactive-oxygen-species
#7
REVIEW
Andreas Weigert, Andreas von Knethen, Dominik Fuhrmann, Nathalie Dehne, Bernhard Brüne
Macrophages are known for their versatile role in biology. They sense and clear structures that contain exogenous or endogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This process is tightly linked to the production of a mixture of potentially harmful oxidants and cytokines. Their inherent destructive behavior is directed against foreign material or structures of 'altered self', which explains the role of macrophages during innate immune reactions and inflammation. However, there is also another side of macrophages when they turn into a tissue regenerative, pro-resolving, and healing phenotype...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329020/a-novel-mouse-model-of-atopic-dermatitis-that-is-t-helper-2-th2-polarized-by-an-epicutaneous-allergen
#8
Hyun Jung Park, Wahn Soo Choi, Won Young Lee, Youngsok Choi, Chankyu Park, Jin Hoi Kim, Kwon Ho Hong, Hyuk Song
The pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) involves T helper 2 (Th2) cells, and effective therapies remain elusive due to the paucity of animal models. We aimed to develop a mouse model of an immune system aberration caused by allergen. Experiments were conducted in two phases. In experiment 1, BALB/c mice were sensitized with one of four chemical allergens - toluene diisocyanate (TDI), hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), trimellitic anhydride (TMA), or 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) - for 3 weeks. Based on results of experiment 1, immunological features were compared between TMA-sensitized BALB/c mice and NC/Nga mice, after exposure to mite extracts, harmful chemicals and detergents in experiment 2...
December 29, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328317/planar-polarization-routing-optical-cross-connects-using-nematic-liquid-crystal-waveguides
#9
Tenghao Li, Qingming Chen, Weixing Yu, Xuming Zhang
This paper presents the device design and performance analysis of a novel design of planar optical cross-connect (OXC) using nematic liquid crystal (NLC) waveguides. It employs N × N switching matrix in cross-bar fabric. In each unit cell, the input light is set in either the transverse electric (TE) mode or the transverse magnetic (TM) mode by electrically reorienting the NLC in the waveguide. The light then enters a passive waveguide and is routed to different paths depending on the polarization state (TE/TM mode)...
January 8, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328100/high-q-all-dielectric-thermal-emitters-for-mid-infrared-gas-sensing-applications
#10
Muhammad O Ali, Niall Tait, Shulabh Gupta
A simple all-dielectric thermal emitter unit cell for narrowband gas-sensing application is proposed, providing large Q-factors compared to its plasmonic counterpart. It consists of a high-index dielectric-based elliptical puck on top of a back-reflector, providing narrowband thermal emission. Using full-wave simulations, it is demonstrated that the achievable Q-factors in this structure are orders of magnitude larger than what have been shown for plasmonic cells, thanks to their low-loss electrical characteristics...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327259/5-aminolevulinic-acid-squalene-nanoassemblies-for-tumor-photodetection-and-therapy-in-vitro-studies
#11
Andrej Babič, V Herceg, E Bastien, H-P Lassalle, L Bezdetnaya, Norbert Lange
Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) as natural photosensitizer derived from administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has found clinical use for photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy of several cancers. However, broader use of 5-ALA in oncology is hampered by its charge and polarity that result in its reduced capacity for passing biological barriers and reaching the tumor tissue. Advanced drug delivery platforms are needed to improve the biodistribution of 5-ALA. Here, we report a new approach for the delivery of 5-ALA...
January 11, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327067/overexpression-of-nogo-receptor-3-ngr3-correlates-with-poor-prognosis-and-contributes-to-the-migration-of-epithelial-cells-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-patients
#12
Jiang-Yi He, Ping Han, Yu Zhang, Yong-Dong Liu, Shi-Jian Song, Guo-Kai Feng, Yu An, Ai-Jun Zhou, Hong-Bo Wang, Li Yuan, Zhi-Rui Lin, Tian-Liang Xia, Man-Zhi Li, Yan-Min Liu, Xiao-Ming Huang, Hua Zhang, Qian Zhong
Lymph node metastasis (N classification) is one of the most important prognostic factors of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and nerve involvement is associated with the transition of the N category in NPC patients. Although the nervous system has been reported to participate in many types of cancer progression, its functions in NPC progression remains unknown. Through analysis of gene profiling data, we demonstrate an enrichment of genes associated with neuronal development and differentiation in NPC tissues and cell lines...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326982/discovery-of-slow-magnetic-fluctuations-and-critical-slowing-down-in-the-pseudogap-phase-of-yba2cu3o-y
#13
Jian Zhang, Zhaofeng Ding, Cheng Tan, Kevin Huang, Oscar O Bernal, Pei-Chun Ho, Gerald D Morris, Adrian D Hillier, Pabitra K Biswas, Stephen P Cottrell, Hui Xiang, Xin Yao, Douglas E MacLaughlin, Lei Shu
The origin of the pseudogap region below a temperature T* is at the heart of the mysteries of cuprate high-temperature superconductors. Unusual properties of the pseudogap phase, such as broken time-reversal and inversion symmetry are observed in several symmetry-sensitive experiments: polarized neutron diffraction, optical birefringence, dichroic angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, second harmonic generation, and polar Kerr effect. These properties suggest that the pseudogap region is a genuine thermodynamic phase and are predicted by theories invoking ordered loop currents or other forms of intra-unit-cell (IUC) magnetic order...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326287/the-apical-scaffold-big-bang-binds-to-spectrins-and-regulates-the-growth-of-drosophila-melanogaster-wing-discs
#14
Elodie Forest, Rémi Logeay, Charles Géminard, Diala Kantar, Florence Frayssinoux, Lisa Heron-Milhavet, Alexandre Djiane
During development, cell numbers are tightly regulated, ensuring that tissues and organs reach their correct size and shape. Recent evidence has highlighted the intricate connections between the cytoskeleton and the regulation of the key growth control Hippo pathway. Looking for apical scaffolds regulating tissue growth, we describe that Drosophila melanogaster big bang (Bbg), a poorly characterized multi-PDZ scaffold, controls epithelial tissue growth without affecting epithelial polarity and architecture...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326135/isolation-of-human-testicular-cells-and-co-culture-with-embryonic-stem-cells
#15
Meenakshi Gaur, Cyril Ramathal, Renee A Reijo Pera, Paul J Turek, Constance M John
Our overall goal is to create a three-dimensional human cell-based testicular model for toxicological and spermatogenesis studies. Methods to purify the major somatic testicular cells, namely Leydig cells (LCs), peritubular myoid cells (PCs) and Sertoli cells (SCs), from rats, mice and guinea pigs have been reported. In humans, the isolation of populations enriched for primary LCs, PCs or SCs also have described. One objective of this study was to determine if populations of cells enriched for all three of these cell types can be isolated from testes of single human donors, and we were successful in doing so from testes of three donors...
February 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326042/keratin-13-gene-is-epigenetically-suppressed-during-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-a-human-keratinocyte-cell-line
#16
Mitsutoki Hatta, Yuki Miyake, Kunitoshi Uchida, Jun Yamazaki
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biological event in which epithelial cells lose their polarity and cell-cell adhesions and concomitantly acquire mesenchymal traits, and is thought to play an important role in pathological processes such as wound healing and cancer progression. In this study, we evaluated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-treated human keratinocyte HaCaT cells as an in vitro model of EMT. HaCaT cells were changed into an elongated fibroblast-like morphology, which is indicative of EMT in response to TGF-β1...
January 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325022/large-scale-exome-datasets-reveal-a-new-class-of-adaptor-related-protein-complex-2-sigma-subunit-ap2%C3%AF-mutations-located-at-the-interface-with-the-ap2-alpha-subunit-that-impair-calcium-sensing-receptor-signalling
#17
Caroline M Gorvin, Raghu Metpally, Victoria J Stokes, Fadil M Hannan, Sarath B Krishnamurthy, John D Overton, Jeffrey G Reid, Gerda E Breitwieser, Rajesh V Thakker
Mutations of the sigma subunit of the heterotetrameric adaptor-related protein complex 2 (AP2σ) impair signalling of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), and cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia type 3 (FHH3). To date, FHH3-associated AP2σ mutations have only been identified at one residue, Arg15. We hypothesized that additional rare AP2σ variants may also be associated with altered CaSR function and hypercalcaemia, and sought for these by analysing >111,995 exomes (>60,706 from ExAc and dbSNP, and 51,289 from the Geisinger Health System-Regeneron DiscovEHR dataset which also contains clinical data)...
January 9, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324844/absence-of-myeloid-klf4-reduces-prostate-cancer-growth-with-pro-atherosclerotic-activation-of-tumor-myeloid-cells-and-infiltration-of-cd8-t-cells
#18
David J Barakat, Rahul Suresh, Theresa Barberi, Kenneth J Pienta, Brian W Simons, Alan D Friedman
The microenvironment of prostate cancer often includes abundant tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), with their acquisition of an M2 phenotype correlating with local aggressiveness and metastasis. Tumor-derived M-CSF contributes to TAM M2 polarization, and M-CSF receptor inhibition slows prostate cancer growth in model systems. As additional cytokines can direct TAM M2 polarization, targeting downstream transcription factors could avoid resistance. Klf4 and C/EBPβ each contribute to monocyte development, and reduced expression of macrophage Klf4 or C/EBPβ favors their adoption of a pro-inflammatory M1 state...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324807/vegf-may-contribute-to-macrophage-recruitment-and-m2-polarization-in-the-decidua
#19
Karen C Wheeler, Manoj K Jena, Bhola S Pradhan, Neha Nayak, Subhendu Das, Chaur-Dong Hsu, David S Wheeler, Kang Chen, Nihar R Nayak
It is increasingly evident that cytokines and growth factors produced in the decidua play a pivotal role in the regulation of the local immune microenvironment and the establishment of pregnancy. One of the major growth factors produced in the decidua is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which acts not only on endothelial cells, but also on multiple other cell types, including macrophages. We sought to determine whether decidua-derived VEGF affects macrophage recruitment and polarization using human endometrial/decidual tissue samples, primary human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), and the human monocyte cell line THP1...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324052/the-expression-profile-of-claudin-family-members-in-the-developing-mouse-lung-and-expression-alterations-resulting-from-exposure-to-secondhand-smoke-shs
#20
Joshua B Lewis, Felix R Jimenez, Brigham J Merrell, Brent Kimbler, Juan A Arroyo, Paul R Reynolds
Claudins are tight junctional proteins implicated in cell polarity and epithelial barrier maintenance. Claudin misregulation adversely impacts developmental aspects of cell differentiation and proliferation. The current research evaluated transcriptional expression for Claudins 1-11 and 18 in the developing murine lung at embryonic days (E) 14.5, 16.5, and 18.5 and at post-natal day (PN) 3 and PN15. Mouse lungs were also assessed by immunohistochemical analysis to qualitatively evaluate Claudin protein expression...
January 11, 2018: Experimental Lung Research
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