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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775998/high-pressure-raman-study-of-type-i-collagen
#1
Amalia Maria Paschou, Maria Katsikini, Dimitrios Christofilos, John Arvanitidis, Sotirios Ves
The high pressure response of type-I collagen from bovine Achilles tendon is investigated with micro-Raman spectroscopy. Fluorinert™ and methanol-ethanol mixtures were used as pressure transmitting media (PTM) in a diamond anvil cell. The Raman spectrum of collagen is dominated by three bands centred at approximately 1450, 1660 and 2930 cm-1 , attributed to C-H deformation, C=O stretching of the peptide bond (amide-I band) and C-H stretching modes, respectively. Upon pressure increase, using Fluorinert™ as PTM, a shift towards higher frequencies of the C-H stretching and deformation peaks is observed...
May 18, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775864/exogenous-hydrogen-peroxide-inhibits-primary-root-gravitropism-by-regulating-auxin-distribution-during-arabidopsis-seed-germination
#2
Lina Zhou, Hongzhou Hou, Tao Yang, Yuke Lian, Yan Sun, Zhiyuan Bian, Chongying Wang
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is the key factor in many physiological and metabolic processes in plants. During seed germination, exogenous H2 O2 application influences gravitropism and induces curvature of the primary root in grass pea and pea seedlings. However, it remains unclear whether and how this happens in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, the effect of exogenous H2 O2 on the gravitropic response of primary roots during Arabidopsis seed germination was studied using histology and molecular biology approaches...
May 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775478/treadmilling-analysis-reveals-new-insights-into-dynamic-ftsz-ring-architecture
#3
Diego A Ramirez-Diaz, Daniela A García-Soriano, Ana Raso, Jonas Mücksch, Mario Feingold, Germán Rivas, Petra Schwille
FtsZ, the primary protein of the bacterial Z ring guiding cell division, has been recently shown to engage in intriguing treadmilling dynamics along the circumference of the division plane. When coreconstituted in vitro with FtsA, one of its natural membrane anchors, on flat supported membranes, these proteins assemble into dynamic chiral vortices compatible with treadmilling of curved polar filaments. Replacing FtsA by a membrane-targeting sequence (mts) to FtsZ, we have discovered conditions for the formation of dynamic rings, showing that the phenomenon is intrinsic to FtsZ...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775390/polarization-and-distribution-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-and-cox-2-expression-in-basal-cell-carcinoma-of-the-ocular-adnexae
#4
Ute Kaiser, Karin U Loeffler, Jennifer Nadal, Frank G Holz, Martina C Herwig-Carl
PURPOSE: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a locally invasive skin tumor which can be subdivided into a circumscribed nodular and an invasive fibrosing subtype. There is increasing evidence that macrophages play an important role in interacting between tumor cells and their microenvironment, thereby affecting not only the invasive potential but also the patients' prognosis. Thus, we wanted to compare these two BCC variants with regard to tumor-related inflammation, COX-2 expression, distribution and polarization of tumor-associated macrophages...
May 18, 2018: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775272/remarkable-enhancement-in-the-photoelectric-performance-of-uniform-flower-like-mesoporous-fe3o4-wrapped-in-nitrogen-doped-graphene-networks
#5
Jixin Yao, Kang Zhang, Wen Wang, Xueqin Zuo, Qun Yang, Huaibao Tang, Mingzai Wu, Guang Li
The porous structure and excellent specific surface area are superior for use as a counter electrode (CE) material. In addition, N-doped graphene possesses a remarkable electron-transfer pathway and many active sites. Therefore, a novel idea is to wrap uniform flower-like mesoporous Fe3O4 (Fe3O4UFM) in a N-doped graphene (N-RGO) network structure to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE). The hybrid materials of Fe3O4UFM@N-RGO are first used as a CE in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), showing a preeminent conductive interconnected 3D porous structure with more catalytic activity sites and a better ability for and a faster reaction rate of charge transfer, resulting in quicker reduction of I_3^- than Pt...
May 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775232/mannosylinositol-phosphorylceramides-and-ergosterol-coodinately-maintain-cell-wall-integrity-in-the-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#6
Seiya Tanaka, Motohiro Tani
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, complex sphingolipids have three types of polar head group, and breakdown of the normal composition causes several cellular dysfunctions. Previously we found that loss of biosynthesis of mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide (MIPC) causes a defect in cell wall integrity. In this study, we screened for multicopy suppressor genes that rescue the defect in cell wall integrity in cells lacking MIPC synthases (Sur1 and Csh1), and found that the defect is partly suppressed by upregulation of ergosterol biosynthesis...
May 18, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775177/novosphingobium-arvoryzae-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-flooded-rice-field
#7
Shih-Yi Sheu, Cheng-Wen Huang, Jhen-Ci Chen, Zih-Han Chen, Wen-Ming Chen
A bacterial strain, designated Jyi-02T , was isolated from a flooded rice field in Taiwan and characterized using the polyphasic taxonomy approach. Cells of strain Jyi-02T were aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and formed yellowish orange coloured colonies. Growth occurred at 10-40 °C (optimum, 20 °C) and pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0-1.0 % NaCl (optimum, 0 %, w/v). The major fatty acids (>10 %) of strain Jyi-02T were C18 : 1ω7c, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and C14 : 0 2-OH...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774991/aggregate-mesenchymal-stem-cell-delivery-ameliorates-the-regenerative-niche-for-muscle-repair
#8
Marissa A Ruehle, Hazel Y Stevens, Aaron M Beedle, Robert E Guldberg, Jarrod A Call
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle wasting disease due to the absence of the dystrophin protein from the muscle cell membrane which renders the muscle susceptible to continuous damage. In DMD patients, muscle weakness, together with cycles of degeneration/regeneration and replacement with non-contractile tissue, limit mobility and lifespan. Since the loss of dystrophin result in loss of polarity and a reduction in the number of self-renewing satellite cells, it is postulated that these patients could achieve an improved quality of life if delivered cells could restore satellite cell function...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774917/uniform-li-deposition-regulated-via-three-dimensional-polyvinyl-alcohol-nanofiber-networks-for-effective-li-metal-anodes
#9
Gang Wang, Xunhui Xiong, Zhihua Lin, Jie Zheng, Zheng Fenghua, Youpeng Li, Yanzhen Liu, Chenghao Yang, Yiwei Tang, Meilin Liu
Lithium metal anodes are considered to be the most promising anode material for next-generation advanced energy storage devices due to their high reversible capacity and extremely low anode potential. Nevertheless, the formation of dendritic Li, induced by the repeated breaking and repairing of solid electrolyte interphase layers, always causes poor cycling performance and low coulombic efficiency, as well as serious safety problems, which have hindered the practical application of Li anodes for a long time...
May 18, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774430/clathrin-independent-endocytosis-an-increasing-degree-of-complexity
#10
REVIEW
Kirsten Sandvig, Simona Kavaliauskiene, Tore Skotland
This article aims at providing an update on the complexity of clathrin-independent endocytosis. It is now almost 30 years since we first wrote a review about its existence; at that time many people believed that with the exception of macropinocytosis, which will only be briefly mentioned in this review, all uptake could be accounted for by clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Now it is generally accepted that there are different clathrin-independent mechanisms, some of them regulated by ligands and membrane lipid composition...
May 17, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774027/clinical-remission-of-sight-threatening-non-infectious-uveitis-is-characterized-by-an-upregulation-of-peripheral-t-regulatory-cell-polarized-towards-t-bet-and-tigit
#11
Rose M Gilbert, Xiaozhe Zhang, Robert D Sampson, Michael R Ehrenstein, Dao X Nguyen, Mahid Chaudhry, Charles Mein, Nadiya Mahmud, Grazyna Galatowicz, Oren Tomkins-Netzer, Virginia L Calder, Sue Lightman
Background: Non-infectious uveitis can cause chronic relapsing and remitting ocular inflammation, which may require high dose systemic immunosuppression to prevent severe sight loss. It has been classically described as an autoimmune disease, mediated by pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 T-cell subsets. Studies suggest that natural immunosuppressive CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ T-regulatory cells (Tregs) are involved in resolution of inflammation and may be involved in the maintenance of clinical remission...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774026/critical-role-of-alternative-m2-skewing-in-mir-155-deletion-mediated-protection-of-colitis
#12
Jintao Li, Ji Zhang, Hongxia Guo, Shimin Yang, Weiping Fan, Nan Ye, Zhiqiang Tian, Tiantian Yu, Guoping Ai, Zigang Shen, Haiyang He, Ping Yan, Hui Lin, Xue Luo, Hongli Li, Yuzhang Wu
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with dysregulation of both innate and adaptive immune response in the intestine. MicroRNA (miR)-155 is frequently expressed and functions in many immune cell types. Besides its function in adaptive immunity, miR-155 is a key regulator of the innate immune response in macrophages, dendritic cells, and even in epithelia cells. Although the roles of miR-155 within T and B lymphocytes in colitis have been reported, its function in innate immune cells has not been thoroughly examined...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773671/targeted-inhibition-of-cd74-attenuates-adipose-cox-2-mif-mediated-m1-macrophage-polarization-and-retards-obesity-related-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#13
Pei-Chi Chan, Ting-Ni Wu, Ying-Chuan Chen, Chieh-Hua Lu, Martin Wabitsch, Yu-Feng Tian, Po-Shiuan Hsieh
Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation is crucial to the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance. Our aim was to investigate the contribution of COX-2/MIF-mediated crosstalk between hypertrophic adipocytes and macrophages to the etiology of AT inflammation and involvement of CD74 using human SGBS adipocytes, THP-1 macrophages and mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. The MIF and CD74 mRNA levels in the adipocytes and SVCs (stromal vascular cells) of white fat were highly correlated with body weight, HOMA-IR and adipose macrophage marker expression levels, especially those in SVCs...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772239/small-gtpase-r-ras-participates-in-neural-tube-formation-in-zebrafish-embryonic-spinal-cord
#14
Shinya Ohata, Hideko Uga, Hitoshi Okamoto, Toshiaki Katada
Ras related (R-Ras), a small GTPase, is involved in the maintenance of apico-basal polarity in neuroepithelial cells of the zebrafish hindbrain, axonal collapse in cultured murine hippocampal neurons, and maturation of blood vessels in adult mice. However, the role of R-Ras in neural tube formation remains unknown. Using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (AMOs), we found that in the spinal cord of zebrafish embryos, the lumen was formed bilaterally in rras morphants, whereas it was formed at the midline in control embryos...
May 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771935/cell-iron-status-influences-macrophage-polarization
#15
Rafiou Agoro, Meriem Taleb, Valerie F J Quesniaux, Catherine Mura
Macrophages play crucial roles in innate immune response and in the priming of adaptive immunity, and are characterized by their phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity. Reprogramming intracellular metabolism in response to microenvironmental signals is required for M1/M2 macrophage polarization and function. Here we assessed the influence of iron on the polarization of the immune response in vivo and in vitro. Iron-enriched diet increased M2 marker Arg1 and Ym1 expression in liver and peritoneal macrophages, while iron deficiency decreased Arg1 expression...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771911/asymmetric-polar-localization-dynamics-of-the-serine-chemoreceptor-protein-tsr-in-escherichia-coli
#16
Dongmyung Oh, Yang Yu, Hochan Lee, Jae-Hyung Jeon, Barry L Wanner, Ken Ritchie
The spatial location of proteins in living cells can be critical for their function. For example, the E. coli chemotaxis machinery is localized to the cell poles. Here we describe the polar localization of the serine chemoreceptor Tsr using a strain synthesizing a fluorescent Tsr-Venus fusion at a low level from a single-copy chromosomal construct. Using photobleaching and imaging during recovery by new synthesis, we observed distinct asymmetry between a bright (old) pole and a dim (new) pole. The old pole was shown to be a more stable cluster and to recover after photobleaching faster, which is consistent with the hypothesis that newly synthesized Tsr proteins are inserted directly at or near the old pole...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771533/half-cell-ion-concentration-polarization-on-nafion-coated-electrode
#17
Rhokyun Kwak, Jongyoon Han
On ion selective membranes, cation/anion selective transport under electric field initiates ion concentration polarization (ICP); ion concentration increases at one side of the membrane (ion enrichment), while it decreases at the other side (ion depletion). This polarization always occurs as the pair of ion enrichment and ion depletion. Here, departing from such pair generation, we demonstrate that only half of ICP (either ion enrichment or ion depletion) can be solitary on a Nafion-coated electrode. Current-voltage-time responses and conductance measurement capture this half-cell ICP with qualitative in situ pH / ion concentration visualization...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771488/enhanced-corrosion-resistance-and-interfacial-conductivity-of-tic-x-a-c-nanolayered-coatings-via-synergy-of-substrate-bias-voltage-for-bipolar-plates-applications-in-pemfcs
#18
Peiyun Yi, Weixin Zhang, Feifei Bi, Linfa Peng, Xinmin Lai
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are renewable and clean energy conversion device, of which the metallic bipolar plates are one of the key components. However, high interfacial contact resistance and poor corrosion resistance are still great challenges for the commercialization of metallic bipolar plates. In this study, we demonstrated a novel strategy for depositing TiCx /a-C nanolayered coatings by synergy of 60 V and 300 V bias voltage to enhance corrosion resistance and interfacial conductivity...
May 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771441/combinatory-effect-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-transplantation-and-quercetin-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rat
#19
X Wang, Y-Y Wang, L-L Zhang, G-T Li, H-T Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the synergistic effects of quercetin (Qu) administration and transplantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (HUMSCs) following spinal cord injury (SCI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: HUMSCs were isolated, cultured and certificated via flow cytometry. Sixty Sprague-Dawley (SD) female rats were used and SCI models were made. All rats were divided into five experimental groups: culture medium treated group (n=28); HUSMCs + quercetin-treated group (n = 28); HUMSCs treated group (n=28); quercetin-treated group (n = 28); sham group (n = 20)...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770147/koumine-attenuates-neuroglia-activation-and-inflammatory-response-to-neuropathic-pain
#20
Gui-Lin Jin, Sai-Di He, Shao-Mei Lin, Li-Mian Hong, Wan-Qing Chen, Ying Xu, Jian Yang, Su-Ping Li, Chang-Xi Yu
Despite decades of studies, the currently available drugs largely fail to control neuropathic pain. Koumine-an alkaloidal constituent derived from the medicinal plant Gelsemium elegans Benth.-has been shown to possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and the possible underlying mechanisms of koumine. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of koumine were explored by using chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve (CCI) neuropathic pain model in vivo and LPS-induced injury in microglia BV2 cells in vitro ...
2018: Neural Plasticity
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