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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431206/phase-transfer-ligand-exchange-of-lead-chalcogenide-quantum-dots-for-direct-deposition-of-thick-highly-conductive-films
#1
Qianglu Lin, Hyeong Jin Yun, Wenyong Liu, Hyung-Jun Song, Nikolay S Makarov, Oleksandr Isaienko, Tom Nakotte, Gen Chen, Hongmei Luo, Victor I Klimov, Jeffrey M Pietryga
The use of semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) in optoelectronic devices typically requires post-synthetic chemical surface treatments to enhance electronic coupling between QDs and allow for efficient charge transport in QD films. Despite their importance to solar cells, and infrared (IR) light-emitting diodes and photodetectors, advances in these chemical treatments for lead chalcogenide (PbE, E = S, Se, Te) QDs have lagged behind those of, for instance, II-VI semiconductor QDs. Here, we introduce a method for fast and effective ligand exchange for PbE QDs in solution, resulting in QDs completely passivated by a wide range of small anionic ligands...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430827/dual-role-of-the-toxoplasma-gondii-clathrin-adaptor-ap1-in-the-sorting-of-rhoptry-and-microneme-proteins-and-in-parasite-division
#2
Kannan Venugopal, Elisabeth Werkmeister, Nicolas Barois, Jean-Michel Saliou, Anais Poncet, Ludovic Huot, Fabien Sindikubwabo, Mohamed Ali Hakimi, Gordon Langsley, Frank Lafont, Sabrina Marion
Toxoplasma gondii possesses a highly polarized secretory system, which efficiently assembles de novo micronemes and rhoptries during parasite replication. These apical secretory organelles release their contents into host cells promoting parasite invasion and survival. Using a CreLox-based inducible knock-out strategy and the ddFKBP over-expression system, we unraveled novel functions of the clathrin adaptor complex TgAP1. First, our data indicate that AP1 in T. gondii likely functions as a conserved heterotetrameric complex composed of the four subunits γ, β, μ1, σ1 and interacts with known regulators of clathrin-mediated vesicular budding such as the unique ENTH-domain containing protein, which we named Epsin-like protein (TgEpsL)...
April 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430595/minus-end-directed-kinesin-14-kifc1-regulates-the-positioning-and-architecture-of-the-golgi-apparatus
#3
Zhen-Yu She, Meng-Ying Pan, Fu-Qing Tan, Wan-Xi Yang
The Golgi apparatus is the central organelle along the eukaryotic secretory and endocytic pathway. In non-polarized mammalian cells, the Golgi complex is usually located proximal to the nucleus at the cell center and is closely associated with the microtubule organizing center. Microtubule networks are essential in the organization and central localization of the Golgi apparatus, but the molecular basis underlying these processes are poorly understood. Here we reveal that minus end-directed kinesin-14 KIFC1 proteins are required for the structural integrity and positioning of the Golgi complex in non-polarized mammalian cells...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430418/effects-of-small-polar-molecules-ma-and-h2o-on-degradation-processes-of-perovskite-solar-cells
#4
Chunqing Ma, Dong Shen, Jian Qing, Hrisheekesh Thachoth Chandran, Ming-Fai Lo, Chun-Sing Lee
Degradation mechanisms of methylammonium lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have drawn much attention recently. Herein, the bulk and surface degradation processes of the perovskite were differentiated for the first time by employing combinational studies using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), capacitance frequency (CF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies with particular attention on the roles of small polar molecules (MA(+) and H2O). CF study shows that short-circuit current density of the PSCs is increased by H2O at the beginning of the degradation process coupled with an increased surface capacitance...
April 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429675/cell-biology-of-hyphal-growth
#5
Gero Steinberg, Miguel A Peñalva, Meritxell Riquelme, Han A Wösten, Steven D Harris
Filamentous fungi are a large and ancient clade of microorganisms that occupy a broad range of ecological niches. The success of filamentous fungi is largely due to their elongate hypha, a chain of cells, separated from each other by septa. Hyphae grow by polarized exocytosis at the apex, which allows the fungus to overcome long distances and invade many substrates, including soils and host tissues. Hyphal tip growth is initiated by establishment of a growth site and the subsequent maintenance of the growth axis, with transport of growth supplies, including membranes and proteins, delivered by motors along the cytoskeleton to the hyphal apex...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429593/model-amphiphilic-block-copolymers-with-tailored-molecular-weight-and-composition-in-pdms-based-films-to-limit-soft-biofouling
#6
Brandon M Wenning, Elisa Martinelli, Sophie Mieszkin, John A Finlay, Daniel A Fischer, James A Callow, Maureen E Callow, Amanda Leonardi, Christopher K Ober, Giancarlo Galli
A set of controlled surface composition films was produced utilizing amphiphilic surface-active block copolymers dispersed in a crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) network. These block copolymers contained oligo(ethylene glycol) (PEGMA) and fluoroalkyl (AF6) side chains in selected ratios and molecular weights to control surface chemistry as well as antifouling (AF) and fouling-release (FR) performance. AF and FR properties were assessed by carrying out settlement and removal assays using two algae, the green macroalga Ulva linza (favors attachment to polar surfaces) and the unicellular diatom Navicula incerta (favors attachment to non-polar surfaces)...
April 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429324/photomovement-in-euglena
#7
Donat-P Häder, Mineo Iseki
Motile microorganisms such as the green Euglena gracilis use a number of external stimuli to orient in their environment. They respond to light with photophobic responses, photokinesis and phototaxis, all of which can result in accumulations of the organisms in suitable habitats. The light responses operate synergistically with gravitaxis, aerotaxis and other responses. Originally the microscopically obvious stigma was thought to be the photoreceptor, but later the paraxonemal body (PAB, paraflagellar body) has been identified as the light responsive organelle, located in the trailing flagellum inside the reservoir...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429167/corynebacterium-defluvii-sp-nov-isolated-from-sewage
#8
Qiu-Li Yu, Zheng-Fei Yan, Xin He, Feng-Hua Tian, Chuan-Wen Jia, Chang-Tian Li
A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shapeds, cata-lase-positive, and oxidase-negative strain, designated Y49(T), was isolated from sewage collected from Jilin Agricultural University, China. It grew at 20-40°C (optimum at 30°C), at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum at 7.0) and at 0-1.0% sodium chloride (optimum at 0%). The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-8 (MK-8) and the polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, four unidentified lipids, and two unidentified aminolipids...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428992/dynamic-shear-force-microscopy-of-confined-liquids-at-a-gold-electrode
#9
Günther Krämer, Florian Hausen, Roland Bennewitz
The confinement of liquids in nanometer-scale gaps can lead to changes in their viscous shear properties. For liquids of polar molecules, the charge state of the confining surfaces has a significant influence on the structure in the confined liquid. Here we report on the implementation of dynamic shear force microscopy in an electrochemical cell. Lateral oscillations of the tip of an atomic force microscope were magnetically activated at a frequency of about 50 kHz. The damping of the lateral tip oscillation was recorded as a function of the tip-sample distance and of the electrode potential at the surface of a Au(100) single crystal electrode...
April 21, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428954/uncovering-the-roles-of-septins-in-cilia
#10
REVIEW
Oliva Palander, Maha El-Zeiry, William S Trimble
Septins are a family of GTP-binding proteins that associate with cellular membranes and the cytoskeleton. Their ability to polymerize into filamentous structures permits them to serve as diffusion barriers for membrane proteins and as multi-molecular scaffolds that recruit components of signaling pathways. At the cellular level, septins contribute to the regulation of numerous processes, including cytokinesis, cell polarity, cell migration, and many others. In this review, we discuss emerging evidence for roles of mammalian septins in the biogenesis and function of flagella and cilia, and how this may impact human diseases such as ciliopathies...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428203/tslp-activated-dendritic-cells-induce-human-t-follicular-helper-cell-differentiation-through-ox40-ligand
#11
Lucia Pattarini, Coline Trichot, Sofia Bogiatzi, Maximilien Grandclaudon, Stephan Meller, Zela Keuylian, Melanie Durand, Elisabetta Volpe, Stefania Madonna, Andrea Cavani, Andrea Chiricozzi, Marco Romanelli, Toshiyuki Hori, Alain Hovnanian, Bernhard Homey, Vassili Soumelis
T follicular helper cells (Tfh) are important regulators of humoral responses. Human Tfh polarization pathways have been thus far associated with Th1 and Th17 polarization pathways. How human Tfh cells differentiate in Th2-skewed environments is unknown. We show that thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)-activated dendritic cells (DCs) promote human Tfh differentiation from naive CD4 T cells. We identified a novel population, distinct from Th2 cells, expressing IL-21 and TNF, suggestive of inflammatory cells...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428163/public-response-to-scientific-misconduct-assessing-changes-in-public-sentiment-toward-the-stimulus-triggered-acquisition-of-pluripotency-stap-cell-case-via-twitter
#12
Alberto Gayle, Motomu Shimaoka
BACKGROUND: In this age of social media, any news-good or bad-has the potential to spread in unpredictable ways. Changes in public sentiment have the potential to either drive or limit investment in publicly funded activities, such as scientific research. As a result, understanding the ways in which reported cases of scientific misconduct shape public sentiment is becoming increasingly essential-for researchers and institutions, as well as for policy makers and funders. In this study, we thus set out to assess and define the patterns according to which public sentiment may change in response to reported cases of scientific misconduct...
April 20, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428068/comparative-analysis-of-gene-expression-profiles-for-several-migrating-cell-types-identifies-cell-migration-regulators
#13
Young-Kyung Bae, Frank Macabenta, Heather Leigh Curtis, Angelike Stathopoulos
Cell migration is an instrumental process that ensures cells are properly positioned to support the specification of distinct tissue types during development. To provide insight, we used fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate two migrating cell types from the Drosophila embryo: caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM) cells, precursors of longitudinal muscles of the gut, and hemocytes (HCs), the Drosophila equivalent of blood cells. ~350 genes were identified from each of the sorted samples using RNA-seq, and in situ hybridization was used to confirm expression within each cell type or, alternatively, within other interacting, co-sorted cell types...
April 17, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427965/t1-st2-deficient-mice-display-protection-against-leishmania-infantum-experimental-infection
#14
Khalid Eltahir Khalid, Manuela Sales, Laís Sacramento, Diego L Costa, Djalma de Souza, Vanessa Carregaro, Joao Santana da Silva
T1/ST2 is a surface marker selectively expressed on type 2 helper (TH2) effector cells. As Leishmania infection in susceptible BALB/c mice have ascribed to a polarized TH2 response, this study aim to investigate the T1/ST2 (the receptor for IL-33), as a typical TH2 marker in the postulation that a shift towards a beneficial TH1 response would occur in the absence of ST2. For this, ST2 knockout (ST2(-/-)) and WT BALB/c mice were experimentally infected in the retro-orbital sinus with L. infantum. We showed that ST2(-/-) animals displayed better control of parasite burden in both spleen and liver tissues at different time points of chronic phases, and reduced spleenomegaly and hepatomegaly compared with the wild-type (WT) mice...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427201/wnt5a-planar-cell-polarity-signaling-pathway-in-urothelial-carcinoma-a-potential-prognostic-biomarker
#15
Mark Saling, Jordan K Duckett, Ian Ackers, Karen Coschigano, Scott Jenkinson, Ramiro Malgor
Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and the most common malignancy of the urinary tract. Bladder cancers detected at an early stage have a very high five-year survival rate, but when detected after local metastasis the rate is only about 50%. Our group recently reported a positive correlation between the expression of Wnt5a, a member of the Wnt proteins family, and histopathological grade and stage of urothelial carcinoma (UC). The objective of this study was to analyze UC cases reported in Athens, Ohio and investigate the major components of Wnt5a / planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway in UC human tissue samples and UC cell lines...
March 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427147/brca1-controls-the-cell-division-axis-and-governs-ploidy-and-phenotype-in-human-mammary-cells
#16
Zhengcheng He, Nagarajan Kannan, Oksana Nemirovsky, Helen Chen, Marisa Connell, Brian Taylor, Jihong Jiang, Linda M Pilarski, Markus C Fleisch, Dieter Niederacher, Miguel Angel Pujana, Connie J Eaves, Christopher A Maxwell
BRCA1 deficiency may perturb the differentiation hierarchy present in the normal mammary gland and is associated with the genesis of breast cancers that are genomically unstable and typically display a basal-like transcriptome. Oriented cell division is a mechanism known to regulate cell fates and to restrict tumor formation. We now show that the cell division axis is altered following shRNA-mediated BRCA1 depletion in immortalized but non-tumorigenic, or freshly isolated normal human mammary cells with graded consequences in progeny cells that include aneuploidy, perturbation of cell polarity in spheroid cultures, and a selective loss of cells with luminal features...
February 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427135/-effects-of-allogeneic-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-polarization-of-peritoneal-macrophages-in-rats-with-sepsis
#17
Y H Zheng, B Xiong, Y Y Deng, W Lai, S Y Zheng, H N Bian, Z A Liu, Z F Huang, C W Sun, H H Li, H M Luo, L H Ma, H X Chen
Objective: To explore the effects of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on polarization of peritoneal macrophages isolated from rats with sepsis induced by endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: (1) BMSCs were isolated, cultured and purified from 5 SD rats with whole bone marrow adherent method. The third passage of cells were collected for morphologic observation, detection of expressions of stem cell surface markers CD29, CD44, CD45, and CD90 with flow cytometer, and identification of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426977/blue-violet-laser-inactivates-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-by-altering-its-transmembrane-potential
#18
Gabriel Biener, Daniela S Masson-Meyers, Violet V Bumah, Grant Hussey, Michael R Stoneman, Chukuka S Enwemeka, Valerica Raicu
The resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to antibiotics presents serious clinical problems that prompted the need for finding alternative or combination therapies. One such therapy is irradiation with blue light. To determine the alterations in metabolic processes implicated in the observed antimicrobial effects of blue light, we investigated the changes in membrane potential and the presence of free-radical-producing photo-acceptor molecules. Bacterial cultures irradiated with one or two doses of 405nm laser light (each consisting of 121J/cm(2)) were imaged with spectrally resolved laser-scanning microscopes to detect endogenous fluorescent species as well as the voltage sensitive dye 3,3'-Diethyloxacarbocyanine iodide...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426751/the-role-of-microsporidian-polar-tube-protein-4-ptp4-in-host-cell-infection
#19
Bing Han, Valérie Polonais, Tatsuki Sugi, Rama Yakubu, Peter M Takvorian, Ann Cali, Keith Maier, Mengxian Long, Matthew Levy, Herbert B Tanowitz, Guoqing Pan, Frédéric Delbac, Zeyang Zhou, Louis M Weiss
Microsporidia have been identified as pathogens that have important effects on our health, food security and economy. A key to the success of these obligate intracellular pathogens is their unique invasion organelle, the polar tube, which delivers the nucleus containing sporoplasm into host cells during invasion. Due to the size of the polar tube, the rapidity of polar tube discharge and sporoplasm passage, and the absence of genetic techniques for the manipulation of microsporidia, study of this organelle has been difficult and there is relatively little known regarding polar tube formation and the function of the proteins making up this structure...
April 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426370/pin-formed-protein-a-door-to-reveal-the-mechanism-for-auxin-triggered-initiation-of-cotton-fiber
#20
Mi Zhang, Yuehua Xiao, Jianyan Zeng, Yan Pei
Cotton fibers are differentiated ovule epidermal cells that provide an ideal model to study cell differentiation and elongation. Establishment of auxin maximum in fiber cells is crucial for cotton-fiber protrusion from ovule surface. However, it is unclear where the auxin originates from and how the auxin accumulates in fiber cells. Our recent results indicate that the auxin is mainly imported from the outside of ovules, and transported to fiber cells through GhPIN (homolog of PIN-formed proteins in cotton) -mediated polar auxin transport, rather than in situ synthesis...
April 20, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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