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Cell polarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545113/rac1-is-dispensable-for-oocyte-maturation-and-female-fertility-in-vivo
#1
Jian-Xiu Hao, Tie-Gang Meng, Li-Hua Fan, Yuan-Qing Yao
Oocyte maturation, the important process to produce female haploid gamete, accompanies with polarity establishment and highly asymmetric cell division to emit minor polar body within little cytoplasm. Microfilaments play central roles in polarity establishment and asymmetric cell division. Several actin regulators like WASP protein family as well as small GTPases function in microfilament dynamics, involving the process. Rac1, one member of RhoGTPases, has been reported to regulate the polarity and asymmetric cell division in mouse oocytes in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544998/chronic-toxicity-of-five-metals-to-the-polar-marine-microalga-cryothecomonas-armigera-application-of-a-new-bioassay
#2
Darren J Koppel, Francesca Gissi, Merrin S Adams, Catherine K King, Dianne F Jolley
The paucity of ecotoxicological data for Antarctic organisms is impeding the development of region-specific water quality guidelines. To address this limitation, toxicity testing protocols need to be developed to account for the unique physiology of polar organisms, in particular their slow growth rates. In this study, a toxicity test protocol was developed to investigate the toxicities of five metals to the polar marine microalga Cryothecomonas armigera. The concentrations which reduced population growth rate by 10% (EC10) after 24-d for Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Ni were 21...
May 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544270/localization-and-domain-characterization-of-the-sfla-regulator-of-flagellar-formation-in-vibrio-alginolyticus
#3
Satoshi Inaba, Takehiko Nishigaki, Norihiro Takekawa, Seiji Kojima, Michio Homma
Many swimming bacteria use flagella as locomotive organelles. The spatial and numerical regulation of flagellar biosynthesis differs by bacterial species. The marine bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus use a single polar flagellum whose number is regulated positively by FlhF and negatively by FlhG. Cells lacking FlhF and FlhG have no flagellum. The motility defect in an flhFG deletion was suppressed by a mutation in the sflA gene that resulted in the production of multiple, peritrichous flagella. SflA is a Vibrio-specific protein...
May 22, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543308/exocytic-trafficking-pathways-in-plants-why-and-how-they-are-redirected
#4
REVIEW
Takehiko Kanazawa, Takashi Ueda
The membrane trafficking system is responsible for precise transportation and localization of proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides among single membrane-bound organelles, the plasma membrane, and the extracellular space. While the exocytic trafficking pathway is considered to be a default transport pathway in many organisms, including land plants, research has shown that evolutionary processes led to an increase in the number of machinery components involved in the plant exocytic pathway. This study provides an overview of the diversification of exocytic trafficking pathways in plants, which mediate the formation and maintenance of cell polarity, interaction with symbiotic and pathogenic microbes, and cytokinesis...
May 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542929/the-immune-response-to-prevotella-bacteria-in-chronic-inflammatory-disease
#5
REVIEW
Jeppe Madura Larsen
The microbiota plays a central role in human health and disease by shaping immune development, immune responses, metabolism, and protecting from invading pathogens. Technical advances that allow comprehensive characterization of microbial communities by genetic sequencing have sparked the hunt for disease modulating bacteria. Emerging studies in humans have linked increased abundance of Prevotella species at mucosal sites to localized and systemic disease, including periodontitis, bacterial vaginosis, rheumatoid arthritis, metabolic disorders, and low-grade systemic inflammation...
May 19, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542719/ibuprofen-and-diclofenac-treatments-reduce-proliferation-of-pancreatic-acinar-cells-upon-inflammatory-injury-and-mitogenic-stimulation
#6
Marta Bombardo, Ermanno Malagola, Rong Chen, Alina Rudnicka, Rolf Graf, Sabrina Sonda
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are administered to manage pain typically found in patients suffering from pancreatitis. NSAIDs also display anti-proliferative activity against cancer cells, however their effects in normal, untransformed cells is poorly understood. Here we evaluated whether NSAIDs inhibit proliferation of pancreatic acinar cells during the development of acute pancreatitis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The NSAIDs ibuprofen and diclofenac were administered to C57BL/6 mice after induction of pancreatitis with serial injection of cerulein...
May 19, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542159/clonorchis-sinensis-antigens-alter-hepatic-macrophage-polarization-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#7
Eun-Min Kim, You Shine Kwak, Myung-Hee Yi, Ju Yeong Kim, Woon-Mok Sohn, Tai-Soon Yong
Clonorchis sinensis infection elicits hepatic inflammation, which can lead to cholangitis, periductal hepatic fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and even cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatic macrophages are an intrinsic element of both innate and acquired immunity. This study was conducted to demonstrate the dynamics of hepatic macrophage polarization during C. sinensis infection in mice and to identify factors regulating this polarization. Treatment of hepatic macrophages isolated from normal mice with C. sinensis excretory/secretory products (ESPs) resulted in the preferential generation of classically activated hepatic macrophages (M1 macrophages) and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
May 24, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542149/jak-stat-signaling-is-necessary-for-cell-monosis-prior-to-epithelial-cell-apoptotic-extrusion
#8
Alba Y Torres, Marianne Malartre, Anne-Marie Pret, François Agnès
Epithelial cell extrusion is crucial for proper development and tissue homeostasis. High-resolution 3D reconstruction and 4D imaging, combined with genetic analyis, have allowed us to reveal the highly-sterotyped morphogenetic events controlled by JAK/STAT signaling in a developmentally-programmed case of epithelial cell extrusion. Specialized somatic cells, Polar Cells (PCs), are produced in excess and then undergo apoptotic elimination from the follicular epithelium in the Drosophila ovary. We show that supernumerary PCs are first systematically enveloped by PC neighbors on all sides, first laterally, then apically in conjunction with highly-reinforced adherens junctions, and finally basally...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542148/modulation-of-liver-regeneration-via-myeloid-pten-deficiency
#9
Wen-Tao Ma, Yan-Jie Jia, Qing-Zhi Liu, Yan-Qing Yang, Jing-Bo Yang, Zhi-Bin Zhao, Zhen-Ye Yang, Qing-Hua Shi, Hong-Di Ma, M Eric Gershwin, Zhe-Xiong Lian
Molecular mechanisms that modulate liver regeneration are of critical importance for a number of hepatic disorders. Kupffer cells and natural killer (NK) cells are two cell subsets indispensable for liver regeneration. We have focused on these two populations and, in particular, the interplay between them. Importantly, we demonstrate that deletion of the myeloid phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10 (PTEN) leading to an M2-like polarization of Kupffer cells, which results in decreased activation of NK cells...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541907/compact-highly-efficient-and-fully-flexible-circularly-polarized-antenna-enabled-by-silver-nanowires-for-wireless-body-area-networks
#10
Zhi Hao Jiang, Zheng Cui, Taiwei Yue, Yong Zhu, Douglas H Werner
A compact and flexible circularly polarized (CP) wearable antenna is introduced for wireless body-area network systems at the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band, which is implemented by employing a low-loss composite of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and silver nanowires (AgNWs). The circularly polarized radiation is enabled by placing a planar linearly polarized loop monopole above a finite anisotropic artificial ground plane. By truncating the anisotropic artificial ground plane to contain only 2 by 2 unit cells, an integrated antenna with a compact form factor of 0...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541707/identification-of-a-potent-selective-and-efficacious-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-%C3%AE-pi3k%C3%AE-inhibitor-for-the-treatment-of-immunological-disorders
#11
Qingjie Liu, Qing Shi, David Marcoux, Douglas G Batt, Lyndon Cornelius, Lan-Ying Qin, Zheming Ruan, James Neels, Myra Beaudoin Bertrand, Anurag S Srivastava, Ling Li, Robert Joseph Cherney, Hua Gong, Scott H Watterson, Carolyn Weigelt, Kathleen M Gillooly, Kim W McIntyre, Jenny H Xie, Mary T Obermeier, Aberra Fura, Bogdan Sleczka, Kevin Stefanski, R Marcus Fancher, Shweta Padmanabhan, Thatipamula Rp, Ipsit Kundu, Kallem Rajareddy, Rodney Smith, James K Hennan, Dezhi Xing, Jingsong Fan, Paul C Levesque, Qian Ruan, Sidney Pitt, Rosemary Zhang, Donna Pedicord, Jie Pan, Melissa Yarde, Hao Lu, Jonathan Lippy, Christine Goldstine, Stacey Skala, Richard A Rampulla, Arvind Mathur, Anuradha Gupta, Pirama Nayagam Arunachalam, John S Sack, Jodi K Muckelbauer, Mary Ellen Cvijic, Luisa M Salter-Cid, Rajeev S Bhide, Michael A Poss, John Hynes, Percy H Carter, John E Macor, Stefan Ruepp, Gary L Schieven, Joseph A Tino
PI3Kδ plays an important role controlling immune cell function and has therefore been identified as a potential target for the treatment of immunological disorders. This article highlights our work towards the identification of a potent, selective, and efficacious PI3Kδ inhibitor. Through careful SAR, the successful replacement of a polar pyrazole group by a simple chloro or trifluoromethyl group led to improved Caco-2 permeability, reduced Caco-2 efflux, reduced hERG PC activity, and increased selectivity profile while maintaining potency in the CD69 hWB assay...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541665/identification-of-small-molecule-translesion-synthesis-inhibitors-that-target-the-rev1-ct-rir-protein-protein-interaction
#12
Vibhavari Sail, Alessandro A Rizzo, Nimrat Chatterjee, Radha Charan Dash, Zuleyha Ozen, Graham C Walker, Dmitry M Korzhnev, M Kyle Hadden
Translesion synthesis (TLS) is an important mechanism through which proliferating cells tolerate DNA damage during replication. The mutagenic Rev1/Polζ-dependent branch of TLS helps cancer cells survive first-line genotoxic chemotherapy and introduces mutations that can contribute to the acquired resistance so often observed with standard anti-cancer regimens. As such, inhibition of Rev1/Polζ-dependent TLS has recently emerged as a strategy to enhance the efficacy of first-line chemotherapy and reduce the acquisition of chemoresistance by decreasing tumor mutation rate...
May 25, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541045/orally-absorbed-cyclic-peptides
#13
Daniel S Nielsen, Nicholas E Shepherd, Weijun Xu, Andrew J Lucke, Martin J Stoermer, David P Fairlie
Peptides and proteins are not orally bioavailable in mammals, although a few peptides are intestinally absorbed in small amounts. Polypeptides are generally too large and polar to passively diffuse through lipid membranes, while most known active transport mechanisms facilitate cell uptake of only very small peptides. Systematic evaluations of peptides with molecular weights above 500 Da are needed to identify parameters that influence oral bioavailability. Here we describe 125 cyclic peptides containing four to thirty-seven amino acids that are orally absorbed by mammals...
May 25, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539409/spatial-analysis-of-cdc42-activity-reveals-a-role-for-plasma-membrane-associated-cdc42-in-centrosome-regulation
#14
Kari A Herrington, Andrew L Trinh, Carolyn Dang, Ellen O'Shaughnessy, Klaus M Hahn, Enrico Gratton, Michelle A Digman, Christine Sütterlin
The ability of the small GTPase Cdc42 to regulate diverse cellular processes depends on tight spatial control of its activity. Cdc42 function is best understood at the plasma membrane (PM), where it regulates cytoskeletal organization and cell polarization. Active Cdc42 has also been detected at the Golgi, but its role and regulation at this organelle is only partially understood. Here we analyze the spatial distribution of Cdc42 activity by monitoring the dynamics of the Cdc42 FLARE biosensor using the phasor approach to FLIM-FRET...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539408/temporal-regulation-of-epithelium-formation-mediated-by-foxa-mklp1-mgcracgap-and-par-6
#15
Stephen E Von Stetina, Jennifer Liang, Georgios Marnellos, Susan E Mango
To establish the animal body plan, embryos link the external epidermis to the internal digestive tract. In Caenorhabditis elegans, this linkage is achieved by the Arcade Cells, which form an epithelial bridge between the foregut and epidermis, but little is known about how development of these three epithelia is coordinated temporally. The Arcade Cell epithelium is generated after the epidermis and digestive tract epithelia have matured, ensuring that both organs can withstand the mechanical stress of embryo elongation; mis-timing of epithelium formation leads to defects in morphogenesis...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538176/tonic-lat-hdac7-signals-sustain-nur77-and-irf4-expression-to-tune-naive-cd4%C3%A2-t-cells
#16
Darienne R Myers, Tannia Lau, Evan Markegard, Hyung W Lim, Herbert Kasler, Minghua Zhu, Andrea Barczak, John P Huizar, Julie Zikherman, David J Erle, Weiguo Zhang, Eric Verdin, Jeroen P Roose
CD4(+) T cells differentiate into T helper cell subsets in feedforward manners with synergistic signals from the T cell receptor (TCR), cytokines, and lineage-specific transcription factors. Naive CD4(+) T cells avoid spontaneous engagement of feedforward mechanisms but retain a prepared state. T cells lacking the adaptor molecule LAT demonstrate impaired TCR-induced signals yet cause a spontaneous lymphoproliferative T helper 2 (TH2) cell syndrome in mice. Thus, LAT constitutes an unexplained maintenance cue...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538152/apoptotic-bax-at-oxidatively-stressed-mitochondrial-membranes-lipid-dynamics-and-permeabilization
#17
Artur Peter Günther Dingeldein, Šárka Pokorná, Martin Lidman, Tobias Sparrman, Radek Šachl, Martin Hof, Gerhard Gröbner
Mitochondria are crucial compartments of eukaryotic cells because they function as the cellular power plant and play a central role in the early stages of programmed cell death (apoptosis). To avoid undesired cell death, this apoptotic pathway is tightly regulated by members of the Bcl-2 protein family, which interact on the external surface of the mitochondria, i.e., the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM), and modulate its permeability to apoptotic factors, controlling their release into the cytosol. A growing body of evidence suggests that the MOM lipids play active roles in this permeabilization process...
May 23, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538141/cancer-cell-and-macrophage-cross-talk-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#18
REVIEW
Nathalie Dehne, Javier Mora, Dmitry Namgaladze, Andreas Weigert, Bernhard Brüne
Tumors are composed of tumor cells, nonmalignant cells, and the vascular system. Among them is intense communication via cell-cell contact-dependent mechanisms and/or soluble messengers. In the tumor microenvironment cells often face a certain degree of oxygen and nutrient deprivation. Hypoxic stress alters the metabolism of tumor cells but also of macrophages, as one dominating immune cell population in most solid tumors, with subsequent changes in the microenvironment. This alters the phenotype and metabolism of macrophages, to induce a tumor-promoting reprogramming...
May 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538104/wnt5a-regulates-the-expression-of-ror2-tyrosine-kinase-receptor-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#19
Ghamartaj Hossein, Somayeh Arabzadeh, Zahra Salehi-Doulabi, Zeynab Dehghani-Ghobadi, Yasaman Heidarian, Maryam Talebi-Juybari
Wnt5A and Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (ROR2) proteins both regulate developmental processes, cell movement, and cell polarity. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a possible regulatory role of Wnt5A on ROR2 expression in human ovarian cancer cell lines. Moreover, the expression of Wnt5A and ROR2 mRNA and protein levels were assessed in human epithelial serous ovarian cancer (HSOC) specimens. ROR2 was strongly decreased in cells treated with siRNA against Wnt5A compared to scramble-treated or lipofectamine-treated cells (P<0...
May 24, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537545/paenibacillus-lacus-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-water-reservoir
#20
Wen-Ming Chen, Kai-Rou Lin, Shih-Yi Sheu
A bacterial strain, designated Agd-32T, was isolated from a water sample taken from the Agongdian Reservoir in Taiwan and characterized using a polyphasic taxonomy approach. Cells of strain Agd-32T were Gram-stain-variable, aerobic, motile by means of peritrichous flagella, endospore-forming, rod-shaped and surrounded by a thick capsule. Strain Agd-32T contained anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0 as the predominant fatty acids. The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7, and the polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified aminophosphoglycolipid, one unidentified glycolipid, one unidentified phospholipid and one unidentified lipid...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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