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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214372/canonical-and-cellular-pathways-timing-gamete-release-in-acropora-digitifera-okinawa-japan
#1
Y Rosenberg, T Doniger, S Harii, F Sinniger, O Levy
Natural light cycles are important for synchronizing behavioral and physiological rhythms over varying time-periods in both plants and animals. An endogenous clock, regulated by positive and negative elements, interacting in feedback loops, control these rhythms. Many corals exhibit diel cycles of polyp expansion and contraction entrained by solar light patterns and monthly cycles of spawning or planulation that correspond to nocturnal lunar light cycles. However, despite considerable interest in studies of coral reproduction, there is currently not enough molecular information about the cellular pathways involved with synchronizing spawning/planulation in broadcast spawners and brooders...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214347/involvement-of-the-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-vav3-in-central-nervous-system-development-and-plasticity
#2
Annika Ulc, Christine Gottschling, Ina Schäfer, David Wegrzyn, Simon van Leeuwen, Veronika Luft, Jacqueline Reinhard, Andreas Faissner
Small GTP-hydrolysing enzymes (GTPases) of the RhoA family play manifold roles in cell biology and are regulated by upstream guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Herein, we focus on the GEFs of the Vav subfamily. Vav1 was originally described as a protooncogene of the hematopoietic lineage. The GEFs Vav2 and Vav3 are more broadly expressed in various tissues. In particular, the GEF Vav3 may play important roles in the developing nervous system during the differentiation of neural stem cells into the major lineages, namely neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes...
February 18, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213499/geometry-and-network-connectivity-govern-the-mechanics-of-stress-fibers
#3
Elena Kassianidou, Christoph A Brand, Ulrich S Schwarz, Sanjay Kumar
Actomyosin stress fibers (SFs) play key roles in driving polarized motility and generating traction forces, yet little is known about how tension borne by an individual SF is governed by SF geometry and its connectivity to other cytoskeletal elements. We now address this question by combining single-cell micropatterning with subcellular laser ablation to probe the mechanics of single, geometrically defined SFs. The retraction length of geometrically isolated SFs after cutting depends strongly on SF length, demonstrating that longer SFs dissipate more energy upon incision...
February 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213466/mechanisms-of-cell-polarity-controlled-epithelial-homeostasis-and-immunity-in-the-intestine
#4
Leon J Klunder, Klaas Nico Faber, Gerard Dijkstra, Sven C D van IJzendoorn
Intestinal epithelial cell polarity is instrumental to maintain epithelial homeostasis and balance communications between the gut lumen and bodily tissue, thereby controlling the defense against gastrointestinal pathogens and maintenance of immune tolerance to commensal bacteria. In this review, we highlight recent advances with regard to the molecular mechanisms of cell polarity-controlled epithelial homeostasis and immunity in the human intestine.
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213463/membrane-transport-across-polarized-epithelia
#5
Maria Daniela Garcia-Castillo, Daniel J-F Chinnapen, Wayne I Lencer
Polarized epithelial cells line diverse surfaces throughout the body forming selective barriers between the external environment and the internal milieu. To cross these epithelial barriers, large solutes and other cargoes must undergo transcytosis, an endocytic pathway unique to polarized cell types, and significant for the development of cell polarity, uptake of viral and bacterial pathogens, transepithelial signaling, and immunoglobulin transport. Here, we review recent advances in our knowledge of the transcytotic pathway for proteins and lipids...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213094/aspirin-triggered-resolvin-d1-modified-materials-promote-the-accumulation-of-pro-regenerative-immune-cell-subsets-and-enhance-vascular-remodeling
#6
Mary Caitlin P Sok, Maxianne C Tria, Claire E Olingy, Cheryl L San Emeterio, Edward A Botchwey
: Many goals in tissue engineering rely on modulating cellular localization and polarization of cell signaling, including the inhibition of inflammatory infiltrate, facilitation of inflammatory cell egress, and clearance of apoptotic cells. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived resolvins are gaining increasing recognition for their essential roles in inhibition of neutrophil invasion into inflamed tissue and promotion of macrophage phagocytosis of cellular debris as well as their egress to the lymphatics...
February 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212753/the-trail-induced-cancer-secretome-promotes-a-tumor-supportive-immune-microenvironment-via-ccr2
#7
Torsten Hartwig, Antonella Montinaro, Silvia von Karstedt, Alexandra Sevko, Silvia Surinova, Ankur Chakravarthy, Lucia Taraborrelli, Peter Draber, Elodie Lafont, Frederick Arce Vargas, Mona A El-Bahrawy, Sergio A Quezada, Henning Walczak
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is known for specifically killing cancer cells, whereas in resistant cancers, TRAIL/TRAIL-R can promote metastasis via Rac1 and PI3K. It remains unknown, however, whether and to what extent TRAIL/TRAIL-R signaling in cancer cells can affect the immune microenvironment. Here we show that TRAIL-triggered cytokine secretion from TRAIL-resistant cancer cells is FADD dependent and identify the TRAIL-induced secretome to drive monocyte polarization to myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and M2-like macrophages...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212670/characterization-of-schistosoma-japonicum-cp1412-protein-as-a-novel-member-of-the-ribonuclease-t2-molecule-family-with-immune-regulatory-function
#8
Xue-Dan Ke, Shuang Shen, Li-Jun Song, Chuan-Xin Yu, Mihoko Kikuchi, Kenji Hirayama, Hong Gao, Jie Wang, Xuren Yin, Yuan Yao, Qian Liu, Wei Zhou
BACKGROUND: Schistosome infection typically induces a polarized Th2 type host immune response. As egg antigen molecules play key roles in this immunoregulatory process, clarifying their functions in schistosomiasis would facilitate the development of vaccine and immunotherapeutic methods. Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) CP1412 (GenBank: AY57074.1) has been identified as a new member of the RNase T2 family with immune regulatory functions. METHODS: The expression plasmid Sj CP1412-pET28a was constructed and transformed into bacteria for production of recombinant Sj CP1412 protein (rSj CP1412) via IPTG induction...
February 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211309/chryseobacterium-reticulitermitis-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-gut-of-reticulitermes-aculabialis
#9
Yun Zhao, Yu Wang, Dan Hong Li, Yu Deng, Hong Yang
A Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, aerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, strain Ra1T, was isolated from the gut of a wood-feeding lower termite, Reticulitermes aculabialis. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain was closely related to Chryseobacterium rigui JCM 18078T (96.7%). Growth was observed at 15-45℃ (optimum 30℃), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 8.0) and in the presence of 0-2% NaCl (optimum 0%). The DNA G+C content of strain Ra1T was 39.9 mol%. The cells contained MK-6 as the sole respiratory quinone and the major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0, summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω6c and/or C16:1ω7c) and summed feature 9 (comprising C16:0 10-methyl and/or iso-C17:1ω9c)...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209925/the-stress-polarity-pathway-ampk-giv-es-protection-against-metabolic-insults
#10
Pradipta Ghosh
Loss of cell polarity impairs organ development and function; it can also serve as one of the first triggers for oncogenesis. In 2006-2007 two groups simultaneously reported the existence of a special pathway for maintaining epithelial polarity in the face of environmental stressors. In this pathway, AMPK, a key sensor of metabolic stress stabilizes tight junctions, preserves cell polarity, and thereby, maintains epithelial barrier functions. Accumulating evidence since has shown that pharmacologic activation of AMPK by Metformin protects the epithelial barrier against multiple environmental and pathological stressful states and suppresses tumorigenesis...
February 15, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209899/gtpase-activity-coupled-treadmilling-of-the-bacterial-tubulin-ftsz-organizes-septal-cell-wall-synthesis
#11
Xinxing Yang, Zhixin Lyu, Amanda Miguel, Ryan McQuillen, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Jie Xiao
The bacterial tubulin FtsZ is the central component of the cell division machinery, coordinating an ensemble of proteins involved in septal cell wall synthesis to ensure successful constriction. How cells achieve this coordination is unknown. We found that in Escherichia coli cells, FtsZ exhibits dynamic treadmilling predominantly determined by its guanosine triphosphatase activity. The treadmilling dynamics direct the processive movement of the septal cell wall synthesis machinery but do not limit the rate of septal synthesis...
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209780/microtubule-associated-protein-4-map4-controls-nanovesicle-dynamics-and-t-cell-activation
#12
Eugenio Bustos-Morán, Noelia Blas-Rus, Noa Martin-Cófreces, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid
The Immune Synapse (IS) is a specialized structure formed at the contact area between T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APC), essential for the adaptive immune response. Proper T cell activation requires its polarization towards the APC, which is highly dependent on the tubulin cytoskeleton. Microtubule associated protein-4 (MAP4) is a microtubule (MT)-stabilizing protein that controls MTs in physiological processes such as cell division, migration, vesicular transport or primary cilia formation. In this study, we have assessed the role of MAP4 in T cell activation...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209777/cd6-as-a-potential-target-for-treating-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Yan Li, Nora G Singer, Joy Whitbred, Michael A Bowen, David A Fox, Feng Lin
CD6 was established as a marker of T cells more than three decades ago, and recent studies have identified CD6 as a risk gene for multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease in which autoreactive T cells are integrally involved. Nevertheless, the precise role of CD6 in regulating T-cell responses is controversial and its significance in the pathogenesis of various diseases remains elusive, partly due to the lack of animals engineered to alter expression of the CD6 gene. In this report, we found that CD6 KO mice showed decreased pathogenic T-cell responses, reduced spinal cord T-cell infiltration, and attenuated disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS...
February 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209732/direct-measurement-of-cortical-force-generation-and-polarization-in-a-living-parasite
#14
Rachel V Stadler, Lauren A White, Ke Hu, Brian P Helmke, William H Guilford
Apicomplexa is a large phylum of intracellular parasites that are notable for the diseases they cause, including toxoplasmosis, malaria and cryptosporidiosis. A conserved motile system is critical to their lifecycles as it drives directional gliding motility between cells, as well as invasion of and egress from host cells. However, our understanding of this system is limited by a lack of measurements of the forces driving parasite motion. We used a laser trap to measure the function of the motility apparatus of living Toxoplasma gondii by adhering a microsphere to the surface of an immobilized parasite...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209528/decellularized-human-colorectal-cancer-matrices-polarize-macrophages-towards-an-anti-inflammatory-phenotype-promoting-cancer-cell-invasion-via-ccl18
#15
M L Pinto, E Rios, A C Silva, S C Neves, H R Caires, A T Pinto, C Durães, F A Carvalho, A P Cardoso, N C Santos, C C Barrias, D S Nascimento, P Pinto-do-Ó, M A Barbosa, F Carneiro, M J Oliveira
Macrophages are frequently identified in solid tumors, playing important roles in cancer progression. Their remarkable plasticity makes them very sensitive to environmental factors, including the extracellular matrix (ECM). In the present work, we investigated the impact of human colorectal tumor matrices on macrophage polarization and on macrophage-mediated cancer cell invasion. Accordingly, we developed an innovative 3D-organotypic model, based on the decellularization of normal and tumor tissues derived from colorectal cancer patients' surgical resections...
February 5, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209172/evaluation-of-the-contribution-of-the-transmembrane-region-to-the-ectodomain-conformation-of-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein
#16
Hanh T Nguyen, Navid Madani, Haitao Ding, Emerald Elder, Amy Princiotto, Christopher Gu, Patrice Darby, James Alin, Alon Herschhorn, John C Kappes, Youdong Mao, Joseph G Sodroski
BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env), a Type 1 transmembrane protein, assembles into a trimeric spike complex that mediates virus entry into host cells. The high potential energy of the metastable, unliganded Env trimer is maintained by multiple non-covalent contacts among the gp120 exterior and gp41 transmembrane Env subunits. Structural studies suggest that the gp41 transmembrane region forms a left-handed coiled coil that contributes to the Env trimer interprotomer contacts...
February 16, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208666/the-mechanisms-and-biomedical-applications-of-an-nir-bodipy-based-switchable-fluorescent-probe
#17
Bingbing Cheng, Venugopal Bandi, Shuai Yu, Francis D'Souza, Kytai T Nguyen, Yi Hong, Liping Tang, Baohong Yuan
Highly environment-sensitive fluorophores have been desired for many biomedical applications. Because of the noninvasive operation, high sensitivity, and high specificity to the microenvironment change, they can be used as excellent probes for fluorescence sensing/imaging, cell tracking/imaging, molecular imaging for cancer, and so on (i.e., polarity, viscosity, temperature, or pH measurement). In this work, investigations of the switching mechanism of a recently reported near-infrared environment-sensitive fluorophore, ADP(CA)₂, were conducted...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208438/crawling-and-turning-in-a-minimal-reaction-diffusion-cell-motility-model-coupling-cell-shape-and-biochemistry
#18
Brian A Camley, Yanxiang Zhao, Bo Li, Herbert Levine, Wouter-Jan Rappel
We study a minimal model of a crawling eukaryotic cell with a chemical polarity controlled by a reaction-diffusion mechanism describing Rho GTPase dynamics. The size, shape, and speed of the cell emerge from the combination of the chemical polarity, which controls the locations where actin polymerization occurs, and the physical properties of the cell, including its membrane tension. We find in our model both highly persistent trajectories, in which the cell crawls in a straight line, and turning trajectories, where the cell transitions from crawling in a line to crawling in a circle...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207738/testing-the-limits-of-gradient-sensing
#19
Vinal Lakhani, Timothy C Elston
The ability to detect a chemical gradient is fundamental to many cellular processes. In multicellular organisms gradient sensing plays an important role in many physiological processes such as wound healing and development. Unicellular organisms use gradient sensing to move (chemotaxis) or grow (chemotropism) towards a favorable environment. Some cells are capable of detecting extremely shallow gradients, even in the presence of significant molecular-level noise. For example, yeast have been reported to detect pheromone gradients as shallow as 0...
February 16, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207276/hydrophobic-nanoparticles-reduce-the-%C3%AE-sheet-content-of-sevi-amyloid-fibrils-and-inhibit-sevi-enhanced-hiv-infectivity
#20
Daniel A Sheik, Jeffrey M Chamberlain, Lauren R Brooks, Melissa L Clark, Young Hun Kim, Geoffray Leriche, Clifford P Kubiak, Stephen Dewhurst, Jerry Yang
Semen-Derived Enhancer of Virus Infection (SEVI) fibrils are naturally abundant amyloid aggregates found in semen that facilitate viral attachment and internalization of HIV in cells, thereby increasing the probability of infection. Mature SEVI fibrils are comprised of aggregated peptides exhibiting high β-sheet secondary structural characteristics. Herein, we show that polymers containing hydrophobic side chains can interact with SEVI and reduce its β-sheet content by ~45% compared to the β-sheet content of SEVI in the presence of polymers with hydrophilic side chains, as estimated by Polarization Modulation-Infrared Reflectance Absorption Spectroscopy Measurements...
February 16, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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