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Cell polarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931032/a-microtubule-based-minimal-model-for-spontaneous-and-persistent-spherical-cell-polarity
#1
Panayiotis Foteinopoulos, Bela M Mulder
We propose a minimal model for the spontaneous and persistent generation of polarity in a spherical cell based on dynamic microtubules and a single mobile molecular component. This component, dubbed the polarity factor, binds to microtubules nucleated from a centrosome located in the center of the cell, is subsequently delivered to the cell membrane, where it diffuses until it unbinds. The only feedback mechanism we impose is that the residence time of the microtubules at the membrane increases with the local density of the polarity factor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930998/in-vitro-ovule-cultivation-for-live-cell-imaging-of-zygote-polarization-and-embryo-patterning-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#2
Daisuke Kurihara, Yusuke Kimata, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Minako Ueda
In most flowering plants, the zygote and embryo are hidden deep in the mother tissue, and thus it has long been a mystery of how they develop dynamically; for example, how the zygote polarizes to establish the body axis and how the embryo specifies various cell fates during organ formation. This manuscript describes an in vitro ovule culture method to perform live-cell imaging of developing zygotes and embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana. The optimized cultivation medium allows zygotes or early embryos to grow into fertile plants...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930992/a-cell-culture-model-of-resistance-arteries
#3
Lauren A Biwer, Christophe Lechauve, Sheri Vanhoose, Mitchell J Weiss, Brant E Isakson
The myoendothelial junction (MEJ), a unique signaling microdomain in small diameter resistance arteries, exhibits localization of specific proteins and signaling processes that can control vascular tone and blood pressure. As it is a projection from either the endothelial or smooth muscle cell, and due to its small size (on average, an area of ~1 µm(2)), the MEJ is difficult to study in isolation. However, we have developed a cell culture model called the vascular cell co-culture (VCCC) that allows for in vitro MEJ formation, endothelial cell polarization, and dissection of signaling proteins and processes in the vascular wall of resistance arteries...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930582/hypothesis-on-interactions-of-macromolecules-based-on-molecular-vibration-patterns-in-cells-and-tissues
#4
Werner Jaross
The molecular vibration patterns of structure-forming macromolecules in the living cell create very specific electromagnetic frequency patterns which might be used for information on spatial position in the three-dimensional structure as well as the chemical characteristics. Chemical change of a molecule results in a change of the vibration pattern and thus in a change of the emitted electromagnetic frequency pattern. These patterns have to be received by proteins responsible for the necessary interactions and functions...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928959/cell-polarity-cell-adhesion-and-spermatogenesis-role-of-cytoskeletons
#5
REVIEW
Linxi Li, Ying Gao, Haiqi Chen, Tito Jesus, Elizabeth Tang, Nan Li, Qingquan Lian, Ren-Shan Ge, C Yan Cheng
In the rat testis, studies have shown that cell polarity, in particular spermatid polarity, to support spermatogenesis is conferred by the coordinated efforts of the Par-, Crumbs-, and Scribble-based polarity complexes in the seminiferous epithelium. Furthermore, planar cell polarity (PCP) is conferred by PCP proteins such as Van Gogh-like 2 (Vangl2) in the testis. On the other hand, cell junctions at the Sertoli cell-spermatid (steps 8-19) interface are exclusively supported by adhesion protein complexes (for example, α6β1-integrin-laminin-α3,β3,γ3 and nectin-3-afadin) at the actin-rich apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES) since the apical ES is the only anchoring device in step 8-19 spermatids...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928899/hyperpolarized-13-c-diffusion-mrs-of-co-polarized-pyruvate-and-fumarate-to-measure-lactate-export-and-necrosis
#6
Benedikt Feuerecker, Markus Durst, Michael Michalik, Günter Schneider, Dieter Saur, Marion Menzel, Markus Schwaiger, Franz Schilling
Background: Non-invasive tumor characterization and monitoring are among the key goals of medical imaging. Using hyperpolarized (13)C-labelled metabolic probes fast metabolic pathways can be probed in real-time, providing new opportunities for tumor characterization. In this in vitro study, we investigated whether measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of co-polarized (13)C-labeled pyruvic acid and fumaric acid can non-invasively detect both necrosis and changes in lactate export, which are parameters indicative of tumor aggressiveness...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928639/microglia-polarization-with-m1-m2-phenotype-changes-in-rd1-mouse-model-of-retinal-degeneration
#7
Tian Zhou, Zijing Huang, Xiaowei Sun, Xiaowei Zhu, Lingli Zhou, Mei Li, Bing Cheng, Xialin Liu, Chang He
Microglia activation is recognized as the hallmark of neuroinflammation. However, the activation profile and phenotype changes of microglia during the process of retinal degeneration are poorly understood. This study aimed to elucidate the time-spatial pattern of microglia distribution and characterize the polarized phenotype of activated microglia during retinal neuroinflammation and degeneration in rd1 (Pde6β(rd1/rd1)) mice, the classic model of inherited retinal degeneration. Retinae of rd1 mice at different postnatal days (P7, P14, P21, P28, P56, and P180) were prepared for further analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928421/upregulation-of-cisd2-augments-ros-homeostasis-and-contributes-to-tumorigenesis-and-poor-prognosis-of-lung-adenocarcinoma
#8
Shih-Miao Li, Chung-Hsing Chen, Ya-Wen Chen, Yi-Chen Yen, Wen-Tsen Fang, Fang-Yu Tsai, Junn-Liang Chang, Ying-Ying Shen, Shiu-Feng Huang, Chih-Pin Chuu, I-Shou Chang, Chao A Hsiung, Shih Sheng Jiang
CISD2 is a redox-sensitive gene critical for normal development and mitochondrial integrity. CISD2 was known to have aberrant expression in several types of human cancers. However, its relation with lung cancer is still not clear. In this study we found CISD2 mRNA was significantly upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) samples, compared with their adjacent normal counterparts, and was correlated with tumor stage, grade, and prognosis based on analysis of clinical specimens-derived expression data in public domain and our validation assay...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928394/rna-localization-is-a-key-determinant-of-neurite-enriched-proteome
#9
Alessandra Zappulo, David van den Bruck, Camilla Ciolli Mattioli, Vedran Franke, Koshi Imami, Erik McShane, Mireia Moreno-Estelles, Lorenzo Calviello, Andrei Filipchyk, Esteban Peguero-Sanchez, Thomas Müller, Andrew Woehler, Carmen Birchmeier, Enrique Merino, Nikolaus Rajewsky, Uwe Ohler, Esteban O Mazzoni, Matthias Selbach, Altuna Akalin, Marina Chekulaeva
Protein subcellular localization is fundamental to the establishment of the body axis, cell migration, synaptic plasticity, and a vast range of other biological processes. Protein localization occurs through three mechanisms: protein transport, mRNA localization, and local translation. However, the relative contribution of each process to neuronal polarity remains unknown. Using neurons differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells, we analyze protein and RNA expression and translation rates in isolated cell bodies and neurites genome-wide...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928159/bmp4-induces-m2-macrophage-polarization-and-favors-tumor-progression-in-bladder-cancer
#10
Víctor G Martínez, Carolina Rubio, Mónica Martínez-Fernández, Cristina Segovia, Fernando López-Calderón, Marina Garín, Alicia Teijeira, Ester Munera-Maravilla, Alberto Varas, Rosa Sacedón, Felix Guerrero-Ramos, Felipe Villacampa, Federico de la Rosa, Daniel Castellano, Eduardo López-Collazo, Jesus M Paramio, Ángeles Vicente, Marta Dueñas
PURPOSE: Bladder cancer (BC) is a current clinical and social problem. At diagnosis, most patients present non-muscle invasive tumors, characterized by a high recurrence rate, which could progress to muscle invasive disease and metastasis. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-dependent signaling arising from stromal bladder tissue mediates urothelial homeostasis by promoting urothelial cell differentiation. However, the possible role of BMP ligands in BC is still unclear. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tumor and normal tissue from 68 patients with urothelial cancer were prospectively collected and analyzed for expression of BMP and macrophage markers...
September 19, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927933/azopolymer-photopatterning-for-directional-control-of-angiogenesis
#11
Chiara Fedele, Maria De Gregorio, Paolo A Netti, Silvia Cavalli, Chiara Attanasio
Understanding cellular behavior in response to microenvironmental stimuli is central to tissue engineering. An increasing number of reports emphasize the high sensitivity of cells to the physical characteristics of the surrounding milieu and in particular, topographical cues. In this work, we investigated the influence of dynamic topographic signal presentation on sprout formation and the possibility to obtain a space-time control over sprouting directionality without growth factors, in order to investigate the contribution of just topography in the angiogenic process...
September 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927852/antiproliferative-activity-of-the-antrodia-camphorata-secondary-metabolite-4-7-dimethoxy-5-methylbenzo-d-1-3-dioxole-and-analogues
#12
Sing Yee Yeung, Matthew J Piggott
Both the traditional Chinese medicinal fungus, Antrodia camphorata, and its secondary metabolite, 4,7-dimethoxy-5-methylbenzo[d][1,3]dioxole, have been reported to possess promising anticancer activity. In this work the natural product and analogues bearing more polar substituents were synthesised and assessed for antiproliferative activity in the NCI-60 screen. Although each compound inhibited the growth of some cell lines at 10μM, none had sufficient activity to warrant further investigation.
September 16, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926857/the-amelioration-of-insulin-resistance-in-salt-loading-subjects-by-potassium-supplementation-is-associated-with-a-reduction-in-plasma-il-17a-levels
#13
Wen Wen, Zhaofei Wan, Dong Zhou, Juan Zhou, Zuyi Yuan
Background High dietary salt intake contributes to the development of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases including metabolic syndrome (MetS) which potassium supplementation can potentially reverse. T helper (Th) 17 cells as well as its production interleukin (IL)-17A are involved in the pathogenesis of MetS. The polarization of Th17 cells and enhanced IL-17A production induced by high salt might increase the risk of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. Methods 45 normotensive subjects (aged 29 to 65 years) were enrolled from a rural community of Northern China at random...
September 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926619/liver-x-receptor-activation-promotes-differentiation-of-regulatory-t-cells
#14
Martin Herold, Johanna Breuer, Stephanie Hucke, Percy Knolle, Nicholas Schwab, Heinz Wiendl, Luisa Klotz
The nuclear receptor Liver X Receptor (LXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that has been implicated in control of chronic inflammation by downregulating pro-inflammatory T cell responses. An impaired function of regulatory T cells, a subset of CD4+ T cells with a crucial role in maintaining lymphocytes homeostasis and immune regulation, is frequently observed in chronic inflammatory diseases. We observed that pharmacological activation of LXR in T cells not only resulted in a thorough suppression of Th1 and Th17 polarization in vitro, but also significantly induced regulatory T cells (Treg) cell differentiation in a receptor-specific fashion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926118/chop-induced-loss-of-intestinal-epithelial-stemness-contributes-to-bile-duct-ligation-induced-cholestatic-liver-injury
#15
Runping Liu, Xiaojiaoyang Li, Zhiming Huang, Derrick Zhao, Bhagyalaxmi Sukka Ganesh, Guanhua Lai, William M Pandak, Phillip B Hylemon, Jasmohan S Bajaj, Arun J Sanyal, Huiping Zhou
Impaired intestinal barrier function promotes the progression of various liver diseases including cholestatic liver disease. The close association of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) with inflammatory bowel disease highlights the importance of the gut-liver axis. It has been reported that bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced liver fibrosis is significantly reduced in C/EBP homologous protein knock out (CHOP(-/-) ) mice. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we demonstrate that BDL induces striking and acute hepatic ER stress responses after 1 day, which return to normal after 3 days...
September 19, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926037/strain-induced-ferroelectricity-and-lattice-coupling-in-basno3-and-srsno3
#16
Yajun Zhang, Jie Wang, M P K Sahoo, Takahiro Shimada, Takayuki Kitamura
Perovskite stannates such as BaSnO3 and SrSnO3 exhibit promising photovoltaic properties, and hold promise for application in solar cell devices. However, the lack of ferroelectricity and the wide band gap in these materials limit their potential for photovoltaic applications. Here, by first-principles calculations, we demonstrate the realization of a primary ferroelectric polarization in non-ferroelectric BaSnO3 and SrSnO3 through strain engineering. In addition to the appearance of polarization, the band gaps of the materials are greatly narrowed when the paraelectric to ferroelectric phase transition takes place under compressive strain...
September 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925950/targeting-host-cell-surface-nucleolin-for-rsv-therapy-challenges-and-opportunities
#17
Peter Mastrangelo, Michael J Norris, Wenming Duan, Edward G Barrett, Theo J Moraes, Richard G Hegele
Nucleolin (NCL) has been reported as a cellular receptor for the human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We studied the effects of re-purposing AS1411, an anti-cancer compound that binds cell surface NCL, as a possible novel strategy for RSV therapy in vitro and in vivo. AS1411 was administered to RSV-infected cultures of non-polarized (HEp-2) and polarized (MDCK) epithelial cells and to virus-infected mice and cotton rats. Results of in vitro experiments showed that AS1411, used in micromolar concentrations, was associated with decreases in the number of virus-positive cells...
September 19, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925706/field-effect-transistors-based-on-van-der-waals-grown-and-dry-transferred-all-inorganic-perovskite-ultrathin-platelets
#18
Chengxue Huo, Xuhai Liu, Xiufeng Song, Ziming Wang, Haibo Zeng
Nowadays, the research on perovskite transistors is still in its infancy, despite the fact that perovskite-based solar cells and light-emitting diodes have been widely investigated. Two major hurdles exist before obtaining reliable perovskite-based transistors: the processing difficulty for their sensitivity to polar solvents and unsatisfactory perovskite quality on the transistor platform. Here, for the first time, we report on high-performance all-inorganic perovskite FETs profiting from both van der Waals epitaxial boundary-free ultrathin single crystals and completely dry-processed transfer technique without chemical contaminant...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925686/a-naphthalimide-based-fluorophore-for-soft-anionic-interface-monitoring
#19
Li Wang, Gang Wang, Congdi Shang, Rui Kang, Yu Fang
A naphthalimide-based low-molecular mass fluorophore (NA) was designed and synthesized by introducing an azetidine unit onto the aromatic ring of the compound as an electron-donating structure, and a hydrophilic (2-(2-aminoethylamino)ethanol) moiety into the 'N-imide site' of the core structure. UV-vis absorption and fluorescence measurements revealed that the fluorophore is soluble in water, and shows a fluorescent quantum yield of ~20% and lifetime of ~3.7 ns in the solvent within a wide pH range. Moreover, the fluorescence emission and anisotropy of the fluorophore as produced are both dependent upon the viscosity and polarity of the medium...
September 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925551/clade-ii-nitrous-oxide-respiration-of-wolinella-succinogenes-depends-on-the-nosg-c1-c2-h-electron-transport-module-nosb-and-a-rieske-cytochrome-bc-complex
#20
Sascha Hein, Samantha Witt, Jörg Simon
Microbial reduction of nitrous oxide (N2 O) is an environmentally significant process in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. However, it has been recognized only recently that the gene encoding N2 O reductase (nosZ) is organized in varying genetic contexts, thereby defining clade I (or "typical") and clade II (or "atypical") N2 O reductases and nos gene clusters. This study addresses the enzymology of the clade II Nos system from Wolinella succinogenes, a nitrate-ammonifying and N2 O-respiring Epsilonproteobacterium that contains a cytochrome c N2 O reductase (cNosZ)...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
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