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Apical polarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784768/b-alleviates-al-toxicity-by-promoting-alkalization-in-root-transition-zone-via-polar-auxin-transport
#1
Xuewen Li, Ya Lin Li, Jingwen Mai, Lin Tao, Mei Qu, Jia You Liu, Ren Fang Shen, Gui Lian Xu, Ying Ming Feng, Hong Dong Xiao, Li Shu Wu, Lei Shi, Shao Xue Guo, Jian Liang, Yiyong Zhu, Yongming He, Frantisek Baluska, Sergey Shabala, Min Yu
Boron (B) supply alleviates aluminum (Al) toxicity in higher plants. The underlying mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that B promotes, while Al inhibits, surface pH gradients, leading to alkalization in the root transition zone and acidification in the elongation zone, as shown by using a bromocresol green pH indicator. B supply significantly decreased Al accumulation in the transition zone (~ 1.0-2.5 mm from the apex) of lateral pea (Pisum sativum) roots, thus alleviated Al-induced inhibition of root elongation...
May 21, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779899/signaling-dependent-control-of-apical-membrane-size-and-self-renewal-in-rosette-stage-human-neuroepithelial-stem-cells
#2
Jan-Philip Medelnik, Kathleen Roensch, Satoshi Okawa, Antonio Del Sol, Osvaldo Chara, Levan Mchedlishvili, Elly M Tanaka
In the developing nervous system, neural stem cells are polarized and maintain an apical domain facing a central lumen. The presence of apical membrane is thought to have a profound influence on maintaining the stem cell state. With the onset of neurogenesis, cells lose their polarization, and the concomitant loss of the apical domain coincides with a loss of the stem cell identity. Little is known about the molecular signals controlling apical membrane size. Here, we use two neuroepithelial cell systems, one derived from regenerating axolotl spinal cord and the other from human embryonic stem cells, to identify a molecular signaling pathway initiated by lysophosphatidic acid that controls apical membrane size and consequently controls and maintains epithelial organization and lumen size in neuroepithelial rosettes...
May 10, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779861/hopq-impacts-the-integrin-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1-independent-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-by-helicobacter-pylori-in-ceacam-expressing-cells
#3
Michael Hartmut Feige, Olga Sokolova, Anna Pickenhahn, Gunter Maubach, Michael Naumann
Helicobacter pylori infection persists in more than half of the world's population and represents a risk factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Virulent strains of H. pylori carry a cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI), which encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS) with the capability to inject the effector protein cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) into eukaryotic cells. Colonisation of the gastric epithelium by H. pylori provokes direct activation of the proinflammatory and survival factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774430/clathrin-independent-endocytosis-an-increasing-degree-of-complexity
#4
REVIEW
Kirsten Sandvig, Simona Kavaliauskiene, Tore Skotland
This article aims at providing an update on the complexity of clathrin-independent endocytosis. It is now almost 30 years since we first wrote a review about its existence; at that time many people believed that with the exception of macropinocytosis, which will only be briefly mentioned in this review, all uptake could be accounted for by clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Now it is generally accepted that there are different clathrin-independent mechanisms, some of them regulated by ligands and membrane lipid composition...
May 17, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769304/first-person-chih-wen-chu
#5
(no author information available yet)
First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Chih-Wen Chu is the first author on 'The Ajuba family protein Wtip regulates actomyosin contractility during vertebrate neural tube closure', published in Journal of Cell Science. Chih-Wen is an associate scientist in the lab of Sergei Sokol at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA, investigating apical constriction and planar cell polarity, with a focus on protein dynamics at the cell junctions...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766620/insane-in-the-apical-membrane-trafficking-events-mediating-apicobasal-epithelial-polarity-during-tube-morphogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Cayla E Jewett, Rytis Prekeris
The creation of cellular tubes is one of the most vital developmental processes, resulting in the formation of most organ types. Cells have co-opted a number of different mechanisms for tube morphogenesis that vary among tissues and organisms; however, generation and maintenance of cell polarity is fundamental for successful lumenogenesis. Polarized membrane transport has emerged as a key driver not only for establishing individual epithelial cell polarity, but also for coordination of epithelial polarization during apical lumen formation and tissue morphogenesis...
May 16, 2018: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748377/galectin-3-modulates-the-polarized-surface-delivery-of-%C3%AE-1-integrin-in-epithelial-cells
#7
Ellena Hönig, Karina Ringer, Jenny Dewes, Tobias von Mach, Natalia Kamm, Geri Kreitzer, Ralf Jacob
Epithelial cells require a precise intracellular transport and sorting machinery in order to establish and maintain their polarized architecture. This machinery includes beta-galactoside binding galectins for glycoprotein targeting to the apical membrane. Galectin-3 sorts cargo destined for the apical plasma membrane into vesicular carriers. After delivery of cargo to the apical milieu, galectin-3 recycles back into sorting organelles. We analyzed the role of galectin-3 in the polarized distribution of β1-integrin in MDCK cells...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743360/orsay-%C3%AE-protein-is-required-for-non-lytic-viral-egress
#8
Wang Yuan, Ying Zhou, Yanlin Fan, Yizhi J Tao, Weiwei Zhong
Non-enveloped gastrointestinal viruses such as human rotavirus can exit infected cells from the apical surface without cell lysis. The mechanism of such non-lytic exit is poorly understood. The non-enveloped Orsay virus is an RNA virus infecting the intestine cells of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Dye staining results suggested that Orsay exits from the intestine of infected worms in a non-lytic manner. Therefore, the Orsay- C. elegans system provides an excellent in vivo model to study viral exit. The Orsay genome encodes three proteins: RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, capsid protein (CP), and a nonstructural protein δ...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742015/genetically-induced-microtubule-disruption-in-the-mouse-intestine-impairs-intracellular-organization-and-transport
#9
Andrew Muroyama, Michael Terwilliger, Bushu Dong, Harrison Suh, Terry Lechler
In most differentiated cells, microtubules reorganize into non-centrosomal arrays that are cell-type specific. In the columnar absorptive enterocytes of the intestine, microtubules form polarized apical-basal arrays that have been proposed to play multiple roles. However, in vivo testing of these hypotheses has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools to specifically perturb microtubules. Here, we analyze mice in which microtubules are disrupted by conditional inducible expression of the microtubule-severing protein spastin...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738843/transporter-dependent-cytotoxicity-of-antiviral-drugs-in-primary-cultures-of-human-proximal-tubular-cells
#10
Lawrence H Lash, Caroline A Lee, Clynn Wilker, Vishal Shah
The role of plasma membrane transporters in the nephrotoxicity of two antiretroviral drugs, cidofovir and tenofovir, was studied in primary cultures of human proximal tubular (hPT) cells. Cells were grown on Transwell filter inserts to maintain epithelial polarity and access to either the apical or basolateral plasma membrane. The function of relevant membrane transporters, organic anion transporter 1 and 3 (OAT1/3), P-glycoprotein (multidrug resistance protein-1; P-gp or MDR1), and organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), was validated by measurements of apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical fluxes of furosemide, digoxin, and metformin, respectively...
May 5, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729199/vacuolar-protein-sorting-33b-is-a-tumor-suppressor-in-hepatocarcinogenesis
#11
Conghui Wang, Yuqiang Cheng, Xiuping Zhang, Nan Li, Lin Zhang, Shengdian Wang, Xuemei Tong, Ying Xu, Guo-Qiang Chen, Shuqun Cheng, Xuemei Fan, Junling Liu
Polarity defects are frequently involved in liver diseases, such as chronic hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and so on. It was reported that vacuolar protein sorting 33B (Vps33b) plays critical roles in maintenance of hepatocyte polarity, however the functional roles and mechanisms of Vps33b in HCC occurrence and progression remain unknown. First of all, we showed that Vps33b is down-regulated in human and mouse liver cancer samples, and the low expression levels of Vps33b correlate with the poor prognosis of many HCC patients...
May 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727454/differential-polarization-of-cortical-pyramidal-neuron-dendrites-through-weak-extracellular-fields
#12
Florian Aspart, Michiel W H Remme, Klaus Obermayer
The rise of transcranial current stimulation (tCS) techniques have sparked an increasing interest in the effects of weak extracellular electric fields on neural activity. These fields modulate ongoing neural activity through polarization of the neuronal membrane. While the somatic polarization has been investigated experimentally, the frequency-dependent polarization of the dendritic trees in the presence of alternating (AC) fields has received little attention yet. Using a biophysically detailed model with experimentally constrained active conductances, we analyze the subthreshold response of cortical pyramidal cells to weak AC fields, as induced during tCS...
May 4, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727209/perturbation-of-epithelial-apicobasal-polarity-by-rhomboid-family-1-gene-overexpression
#13
Xue-Mei Peng, Shan Gao, Hui-Ting Deng, Hong-Xing Cai, Zhuan Zhou, Rong Xiang, Qiang-Zhe Zhang, Lu-Yuan Li
The human rhomboid family (RHBDF)1 gene is highly expressed in breast cancer under clinical conditions but not in normal mammary gland tissues. Silencing the RHBDF1 gene in breast cancer xenograft tumors leads to inhibition of tumor growth. We show in this study that artificially raising RHBDF1 protein levels in the mammary epithelial cells MCF-10A results in severe perturbations of the ability of the cells to form lumen-containing acini, either in 3-dimensional cell cultures or implanted in mouse mammary fat pads...
May 4, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721928/co-expression-of-wild-type-and-mutant-s163r-c1qtnf5-in-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#14
Astra Dinculescu, Frank M Dyka, Seok-Hong Min, Rachel M Stupay, Marcus J Hooper, W Clay Smith, William W Hauswirth
The pathogenic mutation S163R in C1QTNF5 causes a disorder known as autosomal dominant late-onset retinal degeneration (L-ORD), characterized by the presence of thick extracellular sub-RPE deposits, similar histopathologically to those found in AMD patients. We have previously shown that the S163R C1QTNF5 mutant forms globular aggregates within the RPE in vivo following its AAV-mediated expression in the RPE and exhibits a reversely polarized distribution, being routed toward the basal rather than apical RPE...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719081/asynchronous-cdx2-expression-and-polarization-of-porcine-trophoblast-cells-reflects-a-species-specific-trophoderm-lineage-determination-progress-model
#15
Shichao Liu, Gerelchimeg Bou, Jianchao Zhao, Shimeng Guo, Jia Guo, Xiaogang Weng, Zhi Yin, Zhonghua Liu
Upregulation of Cdx2 expression in outer cells is a key event responsible for cell lineage segregation between inner cell mass (ICM) and trophoderm (TE) in mouse morula stage embryos. In TE cells, polarization can regulate Hippo and ROCK signaling to induce the nuclear location of YAP, which has been demonstrated to further induce the expression of Cdx2. However, we found that CDX2 expression could not be detected in the outer cells of porcine morula stage embryos and could be found in only some TE cells at the early blastocyst stage...
May 2, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717156/high-basolateral-glucose-increases-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-and-reduces-sirtuin-1-in-renal-tubules-through-glucose-transporter-2-detection
#16
Hiroyuki Umino, Kazuhiro Hasegawa, Hitoshi Minakuchi, Hirokazu Muraoka, Takahisa Kawaguchi, Takeshi Kanda, Hirobumi Tokuyama, Shu Wakino, Hiroshi Itoh
Under diabetic conditions, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) for glucose uptake in proximal tubules (PTs) increases, whereas NAD+ -dependent protein deacetylase silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Sirtuin-1; SIRT1) for PT survival decreases. Therefore, we hypothesized that increased glucose influx by SGLT2 reduces SIRT1 expression. To test this hypothesis, db/db mice with diabetes and high-glucose (HG)-cultured porcine PT LLC-PK1 cells in a two-chamber system were treated with the SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709600/characterization-of-somatic-embryogenesis-initiated-from-the-arabidopsis-shoot-apex
#17
Satoshi Kadokura, Kaoru Sugimoto, Paul Tarr, Takamasa Suzuki, Sachihiro Matsunaga
Somatic embryogenesis is one of the best examples of the remarkable developmental plasticity of plants, in which committed somatic cells can dedifferentiate and acquire the ability to form an embryo and regenerate an entire plant. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the shoot apices of young seedlings have been reported as an alternative tissue source for somatic embryos (SEs) besides the widely studied zygotic embryos taken from siliques. Although SE induction from shoots demonstrates the plasticity of plants more clearly than the embryo-to-embryo induction system, the underlying developmental and molecular mechanisms involved are unknown...
April 27, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706514/coordination-of-septate-junctions-assembly-and-completion-of-cytokinesis-in-proliferative-epithelial-tissues
#18
Emeline Daniel, Marion Daudé, Irina Kolotuev, Kristi Charish, Vanessa Auld, Roland Le Borgne
How permeability barrier function is maintained when epithelial cells divide is largely unknown. Here, we have investigated how the bicellular septate junctions (BSJs) and tricellular septate junctions (TSJs) are remodeled throughout completion of cytokinesis in Drosophila epithelia. We report that, following cytokinetic ring constriction, the midbody assembles, matures within SJs, and is displaced basally in two phases. In a first slow phase, the neighboring cells remain connected to the dividing cells by means of SJ-containing membrane protrusions pointing to the maturing midbody...
April 20, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702701/glycolysis-regulates-pollen-tube-polarity-via-rho-gtpase-signaling
#19
Wei Chen, Pingping Gong, Jingzhe Guo, Hui Li, Ruizi Li, Weiman Xing, Zhenbiao Yang, Yuefeng Guan
As a universal energy generation pathway utilizing carbon metabolism, glycolysis plays an important housekeeping role in all organisms. Pollen tubes expand rapidly via a mechanism of polarized growth, known as tip growth, to deliver sperm for fertilization. Here, we report a novel and surprising role of glycolysis in the regulation of growth polarity in Arabidopsis pollen tubes via impingement of Rho GTPase-dependent signaling. We identified a cytosolic phosphoglycerate kinase (pgkc-1) mutant with accelerated pollen germination and compromised pollen tube growth polarity...
April 27, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689235/the-road-to-auxin-dependent-growth-repression-and-promotion-in-apical-hooks
#20
REVIEW
Chloé Béziat, Jürgen Kleine-Vehn
The phytohormone auxin controls growth rates within plant tissues, but the underlying mechanisms are still largely enigmatic. The apical hook is a superb model to understand differential growth, because it displays both auxin-dependent growth repression and promotion. In this special issue on membranes, we illustrate how the distinct utilization of vesicle trafficking contributes to the spatial control of polar auxin transport, thereby pinpointing the site of growth repression in apical hooks. We moreover highlight that the transition to growth promotion is achieved by balancing inter- and intracellular auxin transport...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
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