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Apical polarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911812/cytoskeleton-dynamics-control-the-first-asymmetric-cell-division-in-arabidopsis-zygote
#1
Yusuke Kimata, Takumi Higaki, Tomokazu Kawashima, Daisuke Kurihara, Yoshikatsu Sato, Tomomi Yamada, Seiichiro Hasezawa, Frederic Berger, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Minako Ueda
The asymmetric cell division of the zygote is the initial and crucial developmental step in most multicellular organisms. In flowering plants, whether zygote polarity is inherited from the preexisting organization in the egg cell or reestablished after fertilization has remained elusive. How dynamically the intracellular organization is generated during zygote polarization is also unknown. Here, we used a live-cell imaging system with Arabidopsis zygotes to visualize the dynamics of the major elements of the cytoskeleton, microtubules (MTs), and actin filaments (F-actins), during the entire process of zygote polarization...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907005/intraluminal-flagellin-differentially-contributes-to-gut-dysbiosis-and-systemic-inflammation-following-burn-injury
#2
Logan Grimes, Allie Doyle, Aaron L Miller, Richard B Pyles, Gabor Olah, Csaba Szabo, Sarah Hoskins, Tonyia Eaves-Pyles
Burn injury is associated with a loss of gut barrier function, resulting in systemic dissemination of gut-derived bacteria and their products. The bacterial protein and TLR5 agonist, flagellin, induces non-specific innate immune responses. Because we detected flagellin in the serum of burn patients, we investigated whether gut-derived flagellin was a primary or secondary contributor to intestinal dysfunction and systemic inflammation following burn injury. The apical surface of polarized human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), Caco-2BBe, were exposed to 50 or 500 ng of purified flagellin and 1 x 105 of an intestinal E...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901125/rab14-specifies-the-apical-membrane-through-arf6-mediated-regulation-of-lipid-domains-and-cdc42
#3
Ruifeng Lu, Jean M Wilson
The generation of cell polarity is essential for the development of multi-cellular organisms as well as for the function of epithelial organs in the mature animal. Small GTPases regulate the establishment and maintenance of polarity through effects on cytoskeleton, membrane trafficking, and signaling. Using short-term 3-dimensional culture of MDCK cells, we find that the small GTPase Rab14 is required for apical membrane specification. Rab14 knockdown results in disruption of polarized lipid domains and failure of the Par/aPKC/Cdc42 polarity complex to localize to the apical membrane...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899511/drosophila-crumbs-prevents-ectopic-notch-activation-in-developing-wings-by-inhibiting-ligand-independent-endocytosis
#4
Linda Nemetschke, Elisabeth Knust
Many signalling components are apically restricted in epithelial cells, and receptor localisation and abundance is key for morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Hence, controlling apicobasal epithelial polarity is crucial for proper signalling. Notch is a ubiquitously expressed, apically localised receptor, which performs a plethora of functions; therefore, its activity has to be tightly regulated. Here, we show that Drosophila Crumbs, an evolutionarily conserved polarity determinant, prevents Notch endocytosis in developing wings through direct interaction between the two proteins...
December 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890644/epithelial-membrane-protein-2-and-%C3%AE-1-integrin-signaling-regulate-apc-mediated-processes
#5
Alyssa C Lesko, Jenifer R Prosperi
Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) plays a critical role in cell motility, maintenance of apical-basal polarity, and epithelial morphogenesis. We previously demonstrated that APC loss in Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells increases cyst size and inverts polarity independent of Wnt signaling, and upregulates the tetraspan protein, Epithelial Membrane Protein 2 (EMP2). Herein, we show that APC loss increases β1 integrin expression and migration of MDCK cells. Through 3D in vitro model systems and 2D migration analysis, we have depicted the molecular mechanism(s) by which APC influences polarity and cell motility...
November 24, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881661/par3-integrates-tiam1-and-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-signaling-to-change-apical-membrane-identity
#6
Travis R Ruch, David M Bryant, Keith E Mostov, Joanne N Engel
Pathogens can alter epithelial polarity by recruiting polarity proteins to the apical membrane, but how a change in protein localization is linked to polarity disruption is not clear. In this study we used chemically induced dimerization to rapidly relocalize proteins from the cytosol to the apical surface. We demonstrate that forced apical localization of Par3, which is normally restricted to tight junctions, is sufficient to alter apical membrane identity through its interactions with phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) and the Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor Tiam1...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863470/transcript-profiling-for-early-stages-during-embryo-development-in-scots-pine
#7
Irene Merino, Malin Abrahamsson, Lieven Sterck, Blanca Craven-Bartle, Francisco Canovas, Sara von Arnold
BACKGROUND: Characterization of the expression and function of genes regulating embryo development in conifers is interesting from an evolutionary point of view. However, our knowledge about the regulation of embryo development in conifers is limited. During early embryo development in Pinus species the proembyo goes through a cleavage process, named cleavage polyembryony, giving rise to four embryos. One of these embryos develops to a dominant embryo, which will develop further into a mature, cotyledonary embryo, while the other embryos, the subordinate embryos, are degraded...
November 18, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861854/lectins-selectively-label-cartilage-condensations-and-the-otic-neuroepithelium-within-the-embryonic-chicken-head
#8
Poulomi Ray, Ami J Hughes, Misha Sharif, Susan C Chapman
Cartilage morphogenesis during endochondral ossification follows a progression of conserved developmental events. Cells are specified towards a prechondrogenic fate and subsequently undergo condensation followed by overt differentiation. Currently available molecular markers of prechondrogenic and condensing mesenchyme rely on common regulators of the chondrogenic program that are not specific to the tissue type or location. Therefore tissue-specific condensations cannot be distinguished based on known molecular markers...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855669/expression-of-par3-polarity-protein-correlates-with-poor-prognosis-in-ovarian-cancer
#9
Hiroe Nakamura, Kazunori Nagasaka, Kei Kawana, Ayumi Taguchi, Yuriko Uehara, Mitsuyo Yoshida, Masakazu Sato, Haruka Nishida, Asaha Fujimoto, Tomoko Inoue, Katsuyuki Adachi, Takeshi Nagamatsu, Takahide Arimoto, Katsutoshi Oda, Yutaka Osuga, Tomoyuki Fujii
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the cell polarity protein partitioning defective 3 (Par3) plays an essential role in the formation of tight junctions and definition of apical-basal polarity. Aberrant function of this protein has been reported to be involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer invasion. The aim of this study was to examine the functional mechanism of Par3 in ovarian cancer. METHODS: First, we investigated the association between Par3 expression level and survival of 50 ovarian cancer patients...
November 17, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832964/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-the-calcineurin-target-crza
#10
Patricia Hernández-Ortiz, Eduardo A Espeso
The response of Aspergilli to elevated concentrations of extracellular calcium and manganese, or environmental alkalinization is mediated by CrzA, a calcineurin-responsive transcription factor (TF). CrzA is the effector of a signaling pathway which includes the apical protein's calmodulin and calcineurin, and the protein kinases GskA and CkiA. Preferentially located in the cytoplasm, CrzA is the only element of the pathway modifying its localization under those stress conditions, being imported into nuclei...
November 8, 2016: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825436/a-radial-actin-network-in-apical-constriction
#11
Zhiyi Lv, Jörg Großhans
Contractile actomyosin networks are central to cell shape change, rearrangements, and migration during animal tissue morphogenesis. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Coravos and Martin (2016) report that the actin network is radially polarized in apically constricting cells, suggesting a constriction model similar to the contraction mechanism in muscle sarcomeres.
November 7, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823775/similar-expression-pattern-of-nherf1-and-ezrin-in-papillary-but-not-in-solid-areas-of-human-serous-ovarian-carcinomas
#12
Brenda Demacopulo, Baltazar Eduardo Lema, Rómulo Luis Cabrini, Erica Lorena Kreimann
NHERF1 is an adaptor protein expressed in the apical membrane of polarized epithelia, which interacts with the EZRIN-Radixin-Moesin (ERM) family of proteins connecting signaling pathways to the cell cytoskeleton. NHERF1 and EZRIN cooperate in the maintenance of the apical microvilli in polarized epithelial cells. In several types of cancers, NHERF1 and EZRIN are displaced from the apical compartment to the cytoplasm and nuclei of cancer cells. At the present, the distribution of NHERF1 in ovarian tumors is not well known...
November 4, 2016: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818343/immunohistochemical-characterization-of-toll-like-receptor-2-in-gut-epithelial-cells-and-macrophages-of-goldfish-carassius-auratus-fed-with-a-high-cholesterol-diet
#13
E R Lauriano, S Pergolizzi, G Capillo, M Kuciel, A Alesci, C Faggio
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a group of pattern recognition molecules that play a crucial role in innate immunity. The structural conservation of the archaic TLR system suggests that the regulation of the immune response might be similar in fish and mammals. Several TLRs (TLR-1, -2, and -4) are expressed by activated macrophages, "foam cells" in human atherosclerotic lesions. To date, 20 different TLRs were identified in more than a dozen different fish species. In this study we found that feeding goldfish, Carrassius auratus, a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) resulted macrophage foam cell formation in the intestinal tissues...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816555/study-on-the-uptake-and-deglycosylation-of-the-masked-forms-of-zearalenone-in-human-intestinal-caco-2-cells
#14
Martina Cirlini, Amelia Barilli, Gianni Galaverna, Herbert Michlmayr, Gerhard Adam, Franz Berthiller, Chiara Dall'Asta
This study investigated for the first time the intestinal transfer of two modified forms of zearalenone (ZEN), zearalenone-14-glucoside (ZEN14Glc) and zearalenone-16-glucoside (ZEN16Glc), using polarized monolayers of Caco-2 cells. The cells were apically exposed to 40 μM of ZEN14Glc, ZEN16Glc and ZEN, separately. Results showed that, after apical administration, ZEN14Glc and ZEN16Glc can be detected in cellular extracts indicating uptake by intestinal cells. Moreover, the glucosylated forms were cleaved to release ZEN, with a different cleavage ability for the two conjugated isomers...
November 2, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814354/scribbled-optimizes-bmp-signaling-through-its-receptor-internalization-to-the-rab5-endosome-and-promote-robust-epithelial-morphogenesis
#15
Jinghua Gui, Yunxian Huang, Osamu Shimmi
Epithelial cells are characterized by apical-basal polarity. Intrinsic factors underlying apical-basal polarity are crucial for tissue homeostasis and have often been identified to be tumor suppressors. Patterning and differentiation of epithelia are key processes of epithelial morphogenesis and are frequently regulated by highly conserved extrinsic factors. However, due to the complexity of morphogenesis, the mechanisms of precise interpretation of signal transduction as well as spatiotemporal control of extrinsic cues during dynamic morphogenesis remain poorly understood...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809788/the-founder-cell-transcriptome-in-the-arabidopsis-apetala1-cauliflower-inflorescence-meristem
#16
Anneke Frerichs, Rahere Thoma, Ali Taleb Abdallah, Peter Frommolt, Wolfgang Werr, John William Chandler
BACKGROUND: Although the pattern of lateral organ formation from apical meristems establishes species-specific plant architecture, the positional information that confers cell fate to cells as they transit to the meristem flanks where they differentiate, remains largely unknown. We have combined fluorescence-activated cell sorting and RNA-seq to characterise the cell-type-specific transcriptome at the earliest developmental time-point of lateral organ formation using DORNRÖSCHEN-LIKE::GFP to mark founder-cell populations at the periphery of the inflorescence meristem (IM) in apetala1 cauliflower double mutants, which overproliferate IMs...
November 3, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807694/multiscale-view-of-cytoskeletal-mechanoregulation-of-cell-and-tissue-polarity
#17
Chen Luxenburg, Benjamin Geiger
The ability of cells to generate, maintain, and repair tissues with complex architecture, in which distinct cells function as coherent units, relies on polarity cues. Polarity can be described as an asymmetry along a defined axis, manifested at the molecular, structural, and functional levels. Several types of cell and tissue polarities were described in the literature, including front-back, apical-basal, anterior-posterior, and left-right polarity. Extensive research provided insights into the specific regulators of each polarization process, as well as into generic elements that affect all types of polarities...
November 3, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807130/daam1-stabilizes-epithelial-junctions-by-restraining-wave-complex-dependent-lateral-membrane-motility
#18
Tamako Nishimura, Shoko Ito, Hiroko Saito, Sylvain Hiver, Kenta Shigetomi, Junichi Ikenouchi, Masatoshi Takeichi
Epithelial junctions comprise two subdomains, the apical junctional complex (AJC) and the adjacent lateral membrane contacts (LCs), that span the majority of the junction. The AJC is lined with circumferential actin cables, whereas the LCs are associated with less-organized actin filaments whose roles are elusive. We found that DAAM1, a formin family actin regulator, accumulated at the LCs, and its depletion caused dispersion of actin filaments at these sites while hardly affecting circumferential actin cables...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802168/control-of-apico-basal-epithelial-polarity-by-the-microtubule-minus-end-binding-protein-camsap3-and-spectraplakin-acf7
#19
Ivar Noordstra, Qingyang Liu, Wilco Nijenhuis, Shasha Hua, Kai Jiang, Matthijs Baars, Sanne Remmelzwaal, Maud Martin, Lukas C Kapitein, Anna Akhmanova
The microtubule cytoskeleton regulates cell polarity by spatially organizing membrane trafficking and signaling processes. In epithelial cells, microtubules form parallel arrays aligned along the apico-basal axis, and recent work has demonstrated that the members of CAMSAP/Patronin family control apical tethering of microtubule minus ends. Here, we show that in mammalian intestinal epithelial cells, the spectraplakin ACF7 (also known as MACF1) specifically binds to CAMSAP3 and is required for the apical localization of CAMSAP3-decorated microtubule minus ends...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799072/fluid-and-ion-transfer-across-the-blood-brain-and-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barriers-a-comparative-account-of-mechanisms-and-roles
#20
REVIEW
Stephen B Hladky, Margery A Barrand
The two major interfaces separating brain and blood have different primary roles. The choroid plexuses secrete cerebrospinal fluid into the ventricles, accounting for most net fluid entry to the brain. Aquaporin, AQP1, allows water transfer across the apical surface of the choroid epithelium; another protein, perhaps GLUT1, is important on the basolateral surface. Fluid secretion is driven by apical Na(+)-pumps. K(+) secretion occurs via net paracellular influx through relatively leaky tight junctions partially offset by transcellular efflux...
October 31, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
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