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Apical polarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196803/neural-tube-closure-cellular-molecular-and-biomechanical-mechanisms
#1
REVIEW
Evanthia Nikolopoulou, Gabriel L Galea, Ana Rolo, Nicholas D E Greene, Andrew J Copp
Neural tube closure has been studied for many decades, across a range of vertebrates, as a paradigm of embryonic morphogenesis. Neurulation is of particular interest in view of the severe congenital malformations - 'neural tube defects' - that result when closure fails. The process of neural tube closure is complex and involves cellular events such as convergent extension, apical constriction and interkinetic nuclear migration, as well as precise molecular control via the non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway, Shh/BMP signalling, and the transcription factors Grhl2/3, Pax3, Cdx2 and Zic2...
February 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194645/expression-of-a-novel-ciliary-protein-iiig9-during-the-differentiation-and-maturation-of-ependymal-cells
#2
M Cifuentes, V Baeza, P M Arrabal, R Visser, J M Grondona, N Saldivia, F Martínez, F Nualart, K Salazar
IIIG9 is the regulatory subunit 32 of protein phosphatase 1 (PPP1R32), a key phosphatase in the regulation of ciliary movement. IIIG9 localization is restricted to cilia in the trachea, fallopian tube, and testicle, suggesting its involvement in the polarization of ciliary epithelium. In the adult brain, IIIG9 mRNA has only been detected in ciliated ependymal cells that cover the ventricular walls. In this work, we prepared a polyclonal antibody against rat IIIG9 and used this antibody to show for the first time the ciliary localization of this protein in adult ependymal cells...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193781/real-time-imaging-of-sodium-glucose-transporter-sglt1-trafficking-and-activity-in-single-cells
#3
Chiara Ghezzi, Guillaume Calmettes, Pauline Morand, Bernard Ribalet, Scott John
The processes controlling targeting of glucose transporters to apical and basolateral membranes of polarized cells are complex and not-well understood. We have engineered SGLT1 and GLUT4 constructs linked to fluorescent proteins to highlight the differences in transporter expression and trafficking, in real time, in different cell types. Activity was assessed in parallel using a FRET glucose sensor. In COS cells and HEK cells, SGLT1 was distributed between the plasma membrane and intracellular compartments, but there was little expression in CHO cells...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193722/targeting-the-mucosal-barrier-how-pathogens-modulate-the-cellular-polarity-network
#4
Travis R Ruch, Joanne N Engel
The mucosal barrier is composed of polarized epithelial cells with distinct apical and basolateral surfaces separated by tight junctions and serves as both a physical and immunological barrier to incoming pathogens. Specialized polarity proteins are critical for establishment and maintenance of polarity. Many human pathogens have evolved virulence mechanisms that target the polarity network to enhance binding, create replication niches, move through the barrier by transcytosis, or bypass the barrier by disrupting cell-cell junctions...
February 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193687/rainbow-enhancers-regulate-restrictive-transcription-in-teleost-green-red-and-blue-cones
#5
Wei Fang, Chuanyu Guo, Xiangyun Wei
Photoreceptor-specific transcription of individual genes collectively constitutes the transcriptional profile that orchestrates the structural and functional characteristics of each photoreceptor type. It is challenging, however, to study the transcriptional specificity of individual photoreceptor genes because each gene's distinct spatiotemporal transcription patterns are determined by the unique interactions between a specific set of transcription factors and the gene's own cis-regulatory elements (CREs), which remain unknown for most of the genes...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185378/ric-8a-an-activator-protein-of-g%C3%AE-i-controls-mammalian-epithelial-cell-polarity-for-tight-junction-assembly-and-cystogenesis
#6
Kanako Chishiki, Sachiko Kamakura, Junya Hayase, Hideki Sumimoto
Correct cyst morphogenesis of epithelial cells requires apical-basal polarization, which is partly regulated by mitotic spindle orientation, a process dependent on the heterotrimeric G protein subunit Gαi and its binding protein LGN. Here, we show that in three-dimensional culture of mammalian epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, the Gαi-activating protein Ric-8A is crucial for orientation of the mitotic spindle and formation of normal cysts that comprise a single layer of polarized cells with their apical surfaces lining an inner lumen...
February 10, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171747/the-apical-domain-is-required-and-sufficient-for-the-first-lineage-segregation-in-the-mouse-embryo
#7
Ekaterina Korotkevich, Ritsuya Niwayama, Aurélien Courtois, Stefanie Friese, Nicolas Berger, Frank Buchholz, Takashi Hiiragi
Mammalian development begins with segregation of the extra-embryonic trophectoderm from the embryonic lineage in the blastocyst. While cell polarity and adhesion play key roles, the decisive cue driving this lineage segregation remains elusive. Here, to study symmetry breaking, we use a reduced system in which isolated blastomeres recapitulate the first lineage segregation. We find that in the 8-cell stage embryo, the apical domain recruits a spindle pole to ensure its differential distribution upon division...
February 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167032/mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-participate-in-determination-of-apical-basal-symmetry-in-pisum-sativum
#8
Konrad Winnicki, Justyna Teresa Polit, Aneta Żabka, Janusz Maszewski
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are implicated in various processes in plants. Apart from response to biotic and abiotic stresses they are involved in regulation of embryo development. Although MAPKs were found to be indispensable during embryo development it has never been established at which stages of embryogenesis and in which regions of a plant embryo activated MAPKs can be observed. Here, we show that apical and basal regions display activation of the same types of MAPKs and the only difference concerns the level of their phosphorylation and cellular localization...
March 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165500/flavonol-induced-changes-in-pin2-polarity-and-auxin-transport-in-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-rol1-2-mutant-require-phosphatase-activity
#9
Benjamin M Kuhn, Tomasz Nodzyński, Sanae Errafi, Rahel Bucher, Shibu Gupta, Bibek Aryal, Petre Dobrev, Laurent Bigler, Markus Geisler, Eva Zažímalová, Jiří Friml, Christoph Ringli
The phytohormone auxin is a major determinant and regulatory component important for plant development. Auxin transport between cells is mediated by a complex system of transporters such as AUX1/LAX, PIN, and ABCB proteins, and their localization and activity is thought to be influenced by phosphatases and kinases. Flavonols have been shown to alter auxin transport activity and changes in flavonol accumulation in the Arabidopsis thaliana rol1-2 mutant cause defects in auxin transport and seedling development...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161666/cellular-internalization-and-transport-of-biodegradable-polyester-dendrimers-on-a-model-of-the-pulmonary-epithelium-and-their-formulation-in-pressurized-metered-dose-inhalers
#10
Rodrigo S Heyder, Qian Zhong, Reinaldo C Bazito, Sandro R P da Rocha
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of generation and surface PEGylation of degradable polyester-based dendrimers nanocarriers on their interactions with an in vitro model of the pulmonary epithelium as well as to assess the ability to formulate such carriers in propellant-based, portable oral-inhalation devices to determine their potential for local and systemic delivery of drugs to and through the lungs. Hydroxyl (-OH) terminated polyester dendrimers of generation 3 and 4 (G3, and G4) were synthesized using a divergent approach...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161477/sequential-transmigration-of-polymorphonuclear-cells-and-naive-cd3-t-lymphocytes-across-the-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barrier-in-vitro-following-infection-with-echovirus-30
#11
Tobias Dahm, Franziska Frank, Ortwin Adams, Holger A Lindner, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Christel Weiss, Christian Schwerk, Horst Schroten, Tobias Tenenbaum, Henriette Rudolph
Viral meningitis by non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV) is a major public health burden causing fatal outcomes especially in the younger population. Strong evidence exists that the blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB) serves as an entry point for enterovirus and leucocytes into the central nervous system (CNS). Moreover, analysis of clinical CSF specimens of patients with a NPEV infection revealed a predominance of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) in the early phase and mononuclear cells in the later course of meningitis...
February 1, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159525/celsr1-coordinates-the-planar-polarity-of-vestibular-hair-cells-during-inner-ear-development
#12
Jeremy S Duncan, Michelle L Stoller, Andrew F Francl, Fadel Tissir, Danelle Devenport, Michael R Deans
Vestibular hair cells of the inner ear are specialized receptors that detect mechanical stimuli from gravity and motion via the deflection of a polarized bundle of stereocilia located on their apical cell surfaces. The orientation of stereociliary bundles is coordinated between neighboring cells by core PCP proteins including the large adhesive G-protein coupled receptor Celsr1. We show that mice lacking Celsr1 have vestibular behavioral phenotypes including circling. In addition, we show that Celsr1 is asymmetrically distributed at cell boundaries between hair cells and neighboring supporting cells in the developing vestibular and auditory sensory epithelia...
February 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158182/the-arabidopsis-bzip11-transcription-factor-links-low-energy-signalling-to-auxin-mediated-control-of-primary-root-growth
#13
Christoph Weiste, Lorenzo Pedrotti, Jebasingh Selvanayagam, Prathibha Muralidhara, Christian Fröschel, Ondřej Novák, Karin Ljung, Johannes Hanson, Wolfgang Dröge-Laser
Plants have to tightly control their energy homeostasis to ensure survival and fitness under constantly changing environmental conditions. Thus, it is stringently required that energy-consuming stress-adaptation and growth-related processes are dynamically tuned according to the prevailing energy availability. The evolutionary conserved SUCROSE NON-FERMENTING1 RELATED KINASES1 (SnRK1) and the downstream group C/S1 basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors (TFs) are well-characterised central players in plants' low-energy management...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154200/pals1-haploinsufficiency-results-in-proteinuria-and-cyst-formation
#14
Thomas Weide, Beate Vollenbröker, Ulf Schulze, Ivona Djuric, Maria Edeling, Jakob Bonse, Florian Hochapfel, Olga Panichkina, Dirk-Oliver Wennmann, Britta George, Seonhee Kim, Christoph Daniel, Jochen Seggewiß, Kerstin Amann, Wilhelm Kriz, Michael P Krahn, Hermann Pavenstädt
The nephron is the basic physiologic subunit of the mammalian kidney and is made up of several apicobasally polarized epithelial cell types. The process of apicobasal polarization in animal cells is controlled by the evolutionarily conserved Crumbs (CRB), Partitioning-defective, and Scribble protein complexes. Here, we investigated the role of protein associated with LIN-7 1 (Pals1, also known as Mpp5), a core component of the apical membrane-determining CRB complex in the nephron. Pals1 interacting proteins, including Crb3 and Wwtr1/Taz, have been linked to renal cyst formation in mice before...
February 2, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148906/myxobolus-taibaiensis-sp-n-myxozoa-myxosporea-infecting-the-intestinal-wall-of-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-linnaeus-in-china
#15
Xinhua Liu, Congjie Hua, Qianqian Zhang, Yuanli Zhao, Dong Zhang, Jinyong Zhang
Myxobolus taibaiensis sp. n. was found in the inner intestinal wall of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, during the investigation of fish parasite fauna in Lake Taibai, located in the middle reach of the Yangtze River, China. The whitish ellipsoidal plasmodia, up to 2.9 mm long and 1.7 mm wide, developed in the circular muscle layer of the intestinal wall and produced significant compression into adjacent tissues, but no significant inflammatory responses were observed against this infection. Mature spores are oval in frontal view and lemon-like in lateral and apical view, averaging 10...
January 10, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146569/human-gut-on-a-chip-supports-polarized-infection-of-coxsackie-b1-virus-in-vitro
#16
Remi Villenave, Samantha Q Wales, Tiama Hamkins-Indik, Efstathia Papafragkou, James C Weaver, Thomas C Ferrante, Anthony Bahinski, Christopher A Elkins, Michael Kulka, Donald E Ingber
Analysis of enterovirus infection is difficult in animals because they express different virus receptors than humans, and static cell culture systems do not reproduce the physical complexity of the human intestinal epithelium. Here, using coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1) as a prototype enterovirus strain, we demonstrate that human enterovirus infection, replication and infectious virus production can be analyzed in vitro in a human Gut-on-a-Chip microfluidic device that supports culture of highly differentiated human villus intestinal epithelium under conditions of fluid flow and peristalsis-like motions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146426/ex-vivo-2d-and-3d-hsv-2-infection-model-using-human-normal-vaginal-epithelial-cells
#17
Yaqi Zhu, Yan Yang, Juanjuan Guo, Ying Dai, Lina Ye, Jianbin Qiu, Zhihong Zeng, Xiaoting Wu, Yanmei Xing, Xiang Long, Xufeng Wu, Lin Ye, Shubin Wang, Hui Li
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infects human genital mucosa and establishes life-long latent infection. It is unmet need to establish a human cell-based microphysiological system for virus biology and anti-viral drug discovery. One of barriers is lacking of culture system of normal epithelial cells in vitro over decades. In this study, we established human normal vaginal epithelial cell (HNVEC) culture using co-culture system. HNVEC cells were then propagated rapidly and stably in a defined culture condition...
January 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130106/cellular-internalization-transcellular-transport-and-cellular-effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-in-polarized-caco-2-cells-following-apical-or-basolateral-exposure
#18
Shunji Imai, Yuki Morishita, Tomoyuki Hata, Masuo Kondoh, Kiyohito Yagi, Jian-Qing Gao, Kazuya Nagano, Kazuma Higashisaka, Yasuo Yoshioka, Yasuo Tsutsumi
When considering the safety of ingested nanomaterials, it is important to quantitate their transfer across intestinal cells; however, little information exists about the effects of nanomaterial size or exposure side (apical versus basolateral epithelial surface) on nanomaterial transfer. Here, we examined cellular internalization and transcellular transport, and the effects of nanomaterials on Caco-2 monolayers after apical or basolateral exposure to Ag or Au nanoparticles with various sizes. After apical treatment, both internalization and transfer to the basolateral side of the monolayers were greater for smaller Ag nanoparticles than for larger Ag nanoparticles...
January 24, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115485/ick-ciliary-kinase-is-essential-for-planar-cell-polarity-formation-in-inner-ear-hair-cells-and-hearing-function
#19
Shio Okamoto, Taro Chaya, Yoshihiro Omori, Ryusuke Kuwahara, Shun Kubo, Hirofumi Sakaguchi, Takahisa Furukawa
: Cellular asymmetries play crucial roles in development and organ function. The planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway is involved in the establishment of cellular asymmetry within the plane of a cell sheet. Inner ear sensory hair cells, which have several rows of staircase-like stereocilia and one kinocilium located at the vertex of the stereocilia protruding from the apical surface of each hair cell, exhibit a typical form of PCP. While connections between cilia and PCP signaling in vertebrate development have been reported, their precise nature is not well understood...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115303/functional-conservation-study-of-polarity-protein-crumbs-intracellular-domain
#20
Shi Qiping, Cao Haowei, Xu Rui, Zhang Dandan, Huang Juan
The transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb) plays key roles in the establishing and maintaining cell apical-basal polarity in epithelial cells by determining the apical plasma membrane identity. Although its intracellular domain contains only 37 amino acids, it is absolutely essential for its function. In Drosophila, mutations in this intracellular domain result in severe defects in epithelial polarity and abnormal embryonic development. The intracellular domain of Crb shows high homology across species from Drosophila to Mus musculus and Homo sapiens...
January 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
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