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Apical polarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326287/the-apical-scaffold-big-bang-binds-to-spectrins-and-regulates-the-growth-of-drosophila-melanogaster-wing-discs
#1
Elodie Forest, Rémi Logeay, Charles Géminard, Diala Kantar, Florence Frayssinoux, Lisa Heron-Milhavet, Alexandre Djiane
During development, cell numbers are tightly regulated, ensuring that tissues and organs reach their correct size and shape. Recent evidence has highlighted the intricate connections between the cytoskeleton and the regulation of the key growth control Hippo pathway. Looking for apical scaffolds regulating tissue growth, we describe that Drosophila melanogaster big bang (Bbg), a poorly characterized multi-PDZ scaffold, controls epithelial tissue growth without affecting epithelial polarity and architecture...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304557/abnormal-golgi-ph-homeostasis-in-cancer-cells-impairs-apical-targeting-of-carcinoembryonic-antigen-ceacam5-by-inhibiting-its-gpi-anchor-mediated-association-with-lipid-rafts
#2
Nina Kokkonen, Elham Khosrowabadi, Antti Hassinen, Deborah Harrus, Tuomo Glumoff, Thomas Kietzmann, Sakari Kellokumpu
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEACAM5, CEA) is a known tumor marker for colorectal cancer that localizes in a polarized manner to the apical surface in normal colon epithelial cells while in cancer cells it is present at both the apical and basolateral surfaces of the cells. Since the Golgi apparatus sorts and transports most proteins to these cell surface domains, we set out here to investigate whether any of the factors commonly associated with tumorigenesis including hypoxia, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), altered redox homeostasis or an altered Golgi pH, are responsible for mistargeting of CEA to the basolateral surface in cancer cells...
January 5, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298841/galectin-8-induces-partial-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-with-invasive-tumorigenic-capabilities-involving-a-fak-egfr-proteasome-pathway-in-mdck-cells
#3
Claudia Oyanadel, Christopher Holmes, Evelyn Pardo, Claudio Retamal, Ronan Shaughnessy, Patricio Smith, Priscilla Cortes, Marcela Bravo-Zehnder, Claudia Metz, Teo Feuerhake, Diego Romero, Juan Carlos Roa, Viviana Montecinos, Andrea Soza, Alfonso González
Epithelial cells can acquire invasive and tumorigenic capabilities through epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT). The glycan-binding protein Galectin-8 (Gal-8) is over-expressed by certain carcinomas and activates selective β1-integrins involved in EMT. Here we show that Gal-8 over-expression or exogenous addition promotes proliferation, migration and invasion in non-tumoral MDCK cells, involving focal-adhesion kinase (FAK)-mediated transactivation of the EGFR, likely triggered by α5β1integrin binding...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297835/microsporidiosis-in-peppermint-shrimp-decapoda-hippolytidae-lysmata-spp
#4
Elise E B LaDouceur, Brian G Murphy
Microsporidia are a diverse, parasitic phylum closely related to fungi. They infect a broad range of host species and tissues. This report describes microsporidiosis infection in a captive, wild-caught peppermint shrimp ( Lysmata spp.). The animal was found dead in its enclosure approximately 5 days after molting. Grossly, the skeletal musculature was diffusely swollen, opaque, and pale tan to white. Histologically, skeletal myofibers were replaced by large aggregates of sporophorous vesicles containing up to eight spores and earlier stages of sporogony...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282284/moesin-is-involved-in-polarity-maintenance-and-cortical-remodelling-during-asymmetric-cell-division
#5
Namal Abeysundara, Andrew J Simmonds, Sarah C Hughes
An intact actomyosin network is essential for anchoring polarity proteins to the cell cortex and maintaining cell size asymmetry during asymmetric cell division of Drosophila neuroblasts. However, the mechanisms that control changes in actomyosin dynamics during asymmetric cell division remain unclear. We find that the actin-binding protein, Moesin, is essential for neuroblast proliferation and mitotic progression in the developing brain. During metaphase, phosphorylated Moesin (p-Moesin) is enriched at the apical cortex and loss of Moesin leads to defects in apical polarity maintenance and cortical stability...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281629/loss-of-function-of-the-ciliopathy-protein-cc2d2a-disorganizes-the-vesicle-fusion-machinery-at-the-periciliary-membrane-and-indirectly-affects-rab8-trafficking-in-zebrafish-photoreceptors
#6
Irene Ojeda Naharros, Matthias Gesemann, José M Mateos, Gery Barmettler, Austin Forbes, Urs Ziegler, Stephan C F Neuhauss, Ruxandra Bachmann-Gagescu
Ciliopathies are human disorders caused by dysfunction of primary cilia, ubiquitous organelles involved in transduction of environmental signals such as light sensation in photoreceptors. Concentration of signal detection proteins such as opsins in the ciliary membrane is achieved by RabGTPase-regulated polarized vesicle trafficking and by a selective barrier at the ciliary base, the transition zone (TZ). Dysfunction of the TZ protein CC2D2A causes Joubert/Meckel syndromes in humans and loss of ciliary protein localization in animal models, including opsins in retinal photoreceptors...
December 27, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277006/hiv-internalization-into-oral-and-genital-epithelial-cells-by-endocytosis-and-macropinocytosis-leads-to-viral-sequestration-in-the-vesicles
#7
Aizezi Yasen, Rossana Herrera, Kristina Rosbe, Kathy Lien, Sharof M Tugizov
Recently, we showed that HIV-1 is sequestered, i.e., trapped, in the intracellular vesicles of oral and genital epithelial cells. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of HIV-1 sequestration in vesicles of polarized tonsil, foreskin and cervical epithelial cells. HIV-1 internalization into epithelial cells is initiated by multiple entry pathways, including clathrin-, caveolin/lipid raft-associated endocytosis and macropinocytosis. Inhibition of HIV-1 attachment to galactosylceramide and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, and virus endocytosis and macropinocytosis reduced HIV-1 sequestration by 30-40%...
December 22, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276491/distribution-of-glycan-motifs-at-the-surface-of-midgut-cells-in-the-cotton-leafworm-spodoptera-littoralis-demonstrated-by-lectin-binding
#8
Tomasz Walski, Kristof De Schutter, Kaat Cappelle, Els J M Van Damme, Guy Smagghe
Glycans are involved in many biological phenomena, including signal transduction, cell adhesion, immune response or differentiation. Although a few papers have reported on the role of glycans in the development and proper functioning of the insect midgut, no data are available regarding the localization of the glycan structures on the surface of the cells in the gut of insects. In this paper, we analyzed the spatial distribution of glycans present on the surface of the midgut cells in larvae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, an important agricultural pest insect worldwide...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259543/neural-progenitor-cell-polarity-and-cortical-development
#9
Yoko Arai, Elena Taverna
Neurons populating the cerebral cortex are generated during embryonic development from neural stem and progenitor cells in a process called neurogenesis. Neural stem and progenitor cells are classified into several classes based on the different location of mitosis (apical or basal) and polarity features (bipolar, monopolar and non-polar). The polarized architecture of stem cells is linked to the asymmetric localization of proteins, mRNAs and organelles, such as the centrosome and the Golgi apparatus (GA). Polarity affects stem cell function and allows stem cells to integrate environmental cues from distinct niches in the developing cerebral cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246944/efa6-regulates-lumen-formation-through-alpha-actinin-1
#10
Julie Milanini, Racha Fayad, Mariagrazia Partisani, Patrick Lecine, Jean-Paul Borg, Michel Franco, Frédéric Luton
A key step of epithelial morphogenesis is the creation of the lumen. Luminogenesis by hollowing proceeds through the fusion of apical vesicles at cell-cell contact. The small nascent lumens grow through extension, coalescence and enlargement coordinated with cell division to give rise to a single central lumen. Here, using MDCK cells grown in 3D-culture, we show that EFA6A participates in luminogenesis. EFA6A recruits α-actinin 1 (ACTN1) through direct binding. In polarized cells, ACTN1 was found to be enriched at the tight junction where it acts as a primary effector of EFA6A for normal luminogenesis...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229865/daple-coordinates-organ-wide-and-cell-intrinsic-polarity-to-pattern-inner-ear-hair-bundles
#11
Kimberly Siletti, Basile Tarchini, A J Hudspeth
The establishment of planar polarization by mammalian cells necessitates the integration of diverse signaling pathways. In the inner ear, at least two systems regulate the planar polarity of sensory hair bundles. The core planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins coordinate the orientations of hair cells across the epithelial plane. The cell-intrinsic patterning of hair bundles is implemented independently by the G protein complex classically known for orienting the mitotic spindle. Although the primary cilium also participates in each of these pathways, its role and the integration of the two systems are poorly understood...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223862/wave-regulates-cadherin-junction-assembly-and-turnover-during-epithelial-polarization
#12
Shashikala Sasidharan, Sofya Borinskaya, Falshruti Patel, Yelena Bernadskaya, Sailaja Mandalapu, Maria Agapito, Martha Soto
Actin is an integral component of epithelial apical junctions, yet the interactions of branched actin regulators with apical junction components are still not clear. Biochemical data have shown that α-catenin inhibits Arp2/3-dependent branched actin. These results suggested that branched actin is only needed at earliest stages of apical junction development. We use live imaging in developing C. elegans embryos to test models for how WAVE-induced branched actin collaborates with other apical junction proteins during the essential process of junction formation and maturation...
December 6, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220632/immunohistochemical-localization-of-fibrinogen-c-domain-containing-1-on-epithelial-and-mucosal-surfaces-in-human-tissues
#13
Sebastian von Huth, Jesper B Moeller, Anders Schlosser, Niels Marcussen, Ole Nielsen, Vicki Nielsen, Grith L Sorensen, Uffe Holmskov
Fibrinogen C domain containing 1 (FIBCD1) is a transmembrane receptor that binds chitin and other acetylated compounds with high affinity. FIBCD1 has previously been shown to be present in the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we performed a detailed analysis of normally structured human tissues for the expression of FIBCD1 by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. We find that FIBCD1 is expressed in epithelial cells derived from all three germ layers. Endodermal-derived epithelial cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract and the respiratory system showed high expression of FIBCD1 and also mesodermal-derived cells in the genitourinary system and ectodermal-derived epidermis and sebaceous glands cells expressed FIBCD1...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218485/apical-membrane-alterations-in-non-intestinal-organs-in-microvillus-inclusion-disease
#14
Cameron Schlegel, Victoria G Weis, Byron C Knowles, Lynne A Lapierre, Martin G Martin, Paul Dickman, James R Goldenring, Mitchell D Shub
OBJECTIVES: Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a severe form of neonatal diarrhea, caused mainly by mutations in MYO5B. Inactivating mutations in MYO5B causes depolarization of enterocytes in the small intestine, which gives rise to chronic, unremitting secretory diarrhea. While the pathology of the small intestine in MVID patients is well described, little is known about extraintestinal effects of MYO5B mutation. METHODS: We examined stomach, liver, pancreas, colon, and kidney in Navajo MVID patients, who share a single homozygous MYO5B-P660L (1979C>T p...
December 7, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211732/the-mouse-jhy-gene-regulates-ependymal-cell-differentiation-and-ciliogenesis
#15
Hilmarie Muniz-Talavera, Jennifer V Schmidt
During the first postnatal week of mouse development, radial glial cells lining the ventricles of the brain differentiate into ependymal cells, undergoing a morphological change from pseudostratified cuboidal cells to a flattened monolayer. Concomitant with this change, multiple motile cilia are generated and aligned on each nascent ependymal cell. Proper ependymal cell development is crucial to forming the brain tissue:CSF barrier, and to the establishment of ciliary CSF flow, but the mechanisms that regulate this differentiation event are poorly understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206870/loss-of-polarity-alters-proliferation-and-differentiation-in-low-grade-endometrial-cancers-by-disrupting-notch-signaling
#16
Erin Williams, Alejandro Villar-Prados, Jessica Bowser, Russell Broaddus, Andrew B Gladden
Cell adhesion and apicobasal polarity together maintain epithelial tissue organization and homeostasis. Loss of adhesion has been described as a prerequisite for the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. However, what role misregulation of apicobasal polarity promotes tumor initiation and/or early progression remains unclear. We find that human low-grade endometrial cancers are associated with disrupted localization of the apical polarity protein Par3 and Ezrin while, the adhesion molecule E-cadherin remains unchanged, accompanied by decreased Notch signaling, and altered Notch receptor localization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203884/a-homeostatic-apical-microtubule-network-shortens-cells-for-epithelial-folding-via-a-basal-polarity-shift
#17
Michiko Takeda, Mustafa M Sami, Yu-Chiun Wang
Epithelial folding is typically driven by localized actomyosin contractility. However, it remains unclear how epithelia deform when myosin levels are low and uniform. In the Drosophila gastrula, dorsal fold formation occurs despite a lack of localized myosin changes, while the fold-initiating cells reduce cell height following basal shifts of polarity via an unknown mechanism. We show that cell shortening depends on an apical microtubule network organized by the CAMSAP protein Patronin. Prior to gastrulation, microtubule forces generated by the minus-end motor dynein scaffold the apical cell cortex into a dome-like shape, while the severing enzyme Katanin facilitates network remodelling to ensure tissue-wide cell size homeostasis...
December 4, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203545/bordetella-pertussis-adenylate-cyclase-toxin-disrupts-functional-integrity-of-bronchial-epithelial-layers
#18
Shakir Hasan, Nikhil Nitin Kulkarni, Arni Asbjarnarson, Irena Linhartova, Radim Osicka, Peter Sebo, Gudmundur H Gudmundsson
Airway epithelium restricts penetration of inhaled pathogens into the underlying tissue and plays a crucial role in innate immune defense against respiratory infections. The whooping cough agent, Bordetella pertussis, adheres to ciliated cells of human airway epithelium and subverts its defense functions through the action of secreted toxins and other virulence factors. We have examined the impact of B. pertussis infection and of adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) action on the functional integrity of air-liquid interface (ALI)-cultured human bronchial epithelial cells...
December 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192251/access-to-a-main-alphaherpesvirus-receptor-located-basolaterally-in-the-respiratory-epithelium-is-masked-by-intercellular-junctions
#19
Jolien Van Cleemput, Katrien C K Poelaert, Kathlyn Laval, Roger Maes, Gisela S Hussey, Wim Van den Broeck, Hans J Nauwynck
The respiratory epithelium of humans and animals is frequently exposed to alphaherpesviruses, originating from either external exposure or reactivation from latency. To date, the polarity of alphaherpesvirus infection in the respiratory epithelium and the role of respiratory epithelial integrity herein has not been studied. Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV1), a well-known member of the alphaherpesvirus family, was used to infect equine respiratory mucosal explants and primary equine respiratory epithelial cells (EREC), grown at the air-liquid interface...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189094/fijiwingspolarity-an-open-source-toolkit-for-semi-automated-detection-of-cell-polarity
#20
Leonard L Dobens, Anna Shipman, Jeffrey D Axelrod
Epithelial cells are defined by apical-basal and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, the latter of which establishes an orthogonal plane of polarity in the epithelial sheet. PCP signaling is required for normal cell migration, differentiation, stem cell generation and tissue repair, and defects in PCP have been associated with developmental abnormalities, neuropathologies and cancers. While the molecular mechanism of PCP is incompletely understood, the deepest insights have come from Drosophila, where PCP is manifest in hairs and bristles across the adult cuticle and organization of the ommatidia in the eye...
November 30, 2017: Fly
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