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Apical polarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747404/galectin-8-regulates-targeting-of-gp135-podocalyxin-and-lumen-formation-at-the-apical-surface-of-renal-epithelial-cells
#1
HooiCheng Lim, Chun-Ying Yu, Tzuu-Shuh Jou
Establishment of apical-basal polarity, through correct targeting of polarity determinants to distinct domains of the plasma membrane, is a fundamental process for the development of functioning epithelial tubules. Here we report that galectin (Gal)-8 regulates apical-basal polarity of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells via apical targeting of 135-kDa glycoprotein (Gp135). Gal-8 interacts with newly synthesized Gp135 in a glycan-dependent manner. Gal-8 knockdown induces aberrant lumens at the lateral domain and mistargeting of Gp135 to this structure, thus disrupting the kidney epithelial polarity of MDCK cells, which organize lumens at the apical surface...
July 26, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746879/daple-coordinates-planar-polarized-microtubule-dynamics-in-ependymal-cells-and-contributes-to-hydrocephalus
#2
Maki Takagishi, Masato Sawada, Shinya Ohata, Naoya Asai, Atsushi Enomoto, Kunihiko Takahashi, Liang Weng, Kaori Ushida, Hosne Ara, Shigeyuki Matsui, Kozo Kaibuchi, Kazunobu Sawamoto, Masahide Takahashi
Motile cilia in ependymal cells, which line the cerebral ventricles, exhibit a coordinated beating motion that drives directional cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and guides neuroblast migration. At the apical cortex of these multi-ciliated cells, asymmetric localization of planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins is required for the planar polarization of microtubule dynamics, which coordinates cilia orientation. Daple is a disheveled-associating protein that controls the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway and cell motility...
July 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734309/universal-two-dimensional-characteristics-in-perovskite-type-oxyhydrides-atio2h-a-li-na-k-rb-cs
#3
Nobuya Sato, Ryosuke Akashi, Shinji Tsuneyuki
A series of unsynthesized perovskite-type oxyhydrides ATiO2H (A = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) are investigated by the density functional calculations. These oxyhydrides are stable in the sense of the formation energies for some possible synthesis reactions. They are crystallized into quite similar crystal structures with the long c-axis, and the corner-sharing TiO4H2 octahedra of the ideal perovskite-type structure are deformed into the 5-fold coordinated titanium atoms with the OH plane and the apical oxygen atoms...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724787/disrupted-apical-exocytosis-of-cargo-vesicles-causes-enteropathy-in-fhl5-patients-with-munc18-2-mutations
#4
Georg F Vogel, Jorik M van Rijn, Iris M Krainer, Andreas R Janecke, Carsten Posovzsky, Marta Cohen, Claire Searle, Prevost Jantchou, Johanna C Escher, Natalie Patey, Ernest Cutz, Thomas Müller, Sabine Middendorp, Michael W Hess, Lukas A Huber
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 5 (FHL5) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in STXBP2, coding for Munc18-2, which is required for SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. FHL5 causes hematologic and gastrointestinal symptoms characterized by chronic enteropathy that is reminiscent of microvillus inclusion disease (MVID). However, the molecular pathophysiology of FHL5-associated diarrhea is poorly understood. Five FHL5 patients, including four previously unreported patients, were studied...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717874/distinct-functions-of-crumbs-regulating-slit-diaphragms-and-endocytosis-in-drosophila-nephrocytes
#5
Florian Hochapfel, Lucia Denk, Gudrun Mendl, Ulf Schulze, Christine Maaßen, Yulia Zaytseva, Hermann Pavenstädt, Thomas Weide, Reinhard Rachel, Ralph Witzgall, Michael P Krahn
Mammalian podocytes, the key determinants of the kidney's filtration barrier, differentiate from columnar epithelial cells and several key determinants of apical-basal polarity in the conventional epithelia have been shown to regulate podocyte morphogenesis and function. However, little is known about the role of Crumbs, a conserved polarity regulator in many epithelia, for slit-diaphragm formation and podocyte function. In this study, we used Drosophila nephrocytes as model system for mammalian podocytes and identified a conserved function of Crumbs proteins for cellular morphogenesis, nephrocyte diaphragm assembly/maintenance, and endocytosis...
July 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717030/intestinal-epithelial-ecto-5-nucleotidase-cd73-regulates-intestinal-colonization-and-infection-by-nontyphoidal-salmonella
#6
Daniel J Kao, Bejan J Saeedi, David Kitzenberg, Krista M Burney, Evgenia Dobrinskikh, Kayla D Battista, Andrés Vázquez-Torres, Sean P Colgan, Douglas J Kominsky
Ecto-5' -nucleotidase (CD73) is expressed abundantly on the apical surface of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and functions as the terminal enzyme in the generation of extracellular adenosine. Previous work has demonstrated that adenosine signaling in IECs results in a number of tissue-protective effects during inflammation; however, a rationale for its apical expression has been lacking. We hypothesized that the highly polarized expression of CD73 is indicative of an important role for extracellular adenosine as a mediator of host-microbe interactions...
July 17, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712722/cell-polarity-regulates-biased-myosin-activity-and-dynamics-during-asymmetric-cell-division-via-drosophila-rho-kinase-and-protein-kinase-n
#7
Anna Tsankova, Tri Thanh Pham, David Salvador Garcia, Fabian Otte, Clemens Cabernard
Cell and tissue morphogenesis depends on the correct regulation of non-muscle Myosin II, but how this motor protein is spatiotemporally controlled is incompletely understood. Here, we show that in asymmetrically dividing Drosophila neural stem cells, cell intrinsic polarity cues provide spatial and temporal information to regulate biased Myosin activity. Using live cell imaging and a genetically encoded Myosin activity sensor, we found that Drosophila Rho kinase (Rok) enriches for activated Myosin on the neuroblast cortex prior to nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB)...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707028/involvement-of-aurantiactinomyxon-in-the-life-cycle-of-thelohanellus-testudineus-cnidaria-myxosporea-from-allogynogenetic-gibel-carp-carassius-auratus-gibelio-with-morphological-ultrastructural-and-molecular-analysis
#8
Dan Dan Zhao, Yan Hua Zhai, Yang Liu, Si Jia Wang, Ze Mao Gu
During the investigation of actinosporean fauna diversity from commercial fish ponds in Hubei Province, China, a novel aurantiactinomyxon type was found from Branchiura sowerbyi. Spore body of the aurantiactinomyxon was ellipsoidal in side view and triangular in apical view, 15.5 ± 0.5 (14.5-16.4) μm in diameter; three leaf-like caudal processes were approximately equal, measuring 13.2 ± 0.9 (11.5-16.2) μm long and 7.4 ± 0.4 (6.7-8.0) μm wide at the base; three polar capsules were located at the apex of spore body, globular in apical view, 2...
July 13, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698357/ropgef1-plays-a-critical-role-in-polar-auxin-transport-in-early-development
#9
Yuting Liu, Qingkun Dong, Daniel Kita, Jia-Bao Huang, Guolan Liu, Xiaowei Wu, Xiaoyue Zhu, Alice Y Cheung, Hen-Ming Wu, Li-Zhen Tao
Polar auxin transport, facilitated by the combined activities of auxin influx and efflux carriers to maintain asymmetric auxin distribution, is essential for plant growth and development. Here, we show that Arabidopsis RopGEF1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor and activator of ROPs (Rho GTPases of plants), is critically involved in polar distribution of auxin influx carrier AUX1 and differential accumulation of efflux carriers PIN7 and PIN2, and is important for embryo and early seedling development when RopGEF1 is prevalently expressed...
July 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687758/directional-exosome-proteomes-reflect-polarity-specific-functions-in-retinal-pigmented-epithelium-monolayers
#10
Mikael Klingeborn, W Michael Dismuke, Nikolai P Skiba, Una Kelly, W Daniel Stamer, Catherine Bowes Rickman
The retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) forms the outer blood-retinal barrier in the eye and its polarity is responsible for directional secretion and uptake of proteins, lipoprotein particles and extracellular vesicles (EVs). Such a secretional division dictates directed interactions between the systemic circulation (basolateral) and the retina (apical). Our goal is to define the polarized proteomes and physical characteristics of EVs released from the RPE. Primary cultures of porcine RPE cells were differentiated into polarized RPE monolayers on permeable supports...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687624/patellins-are-regulators-of-auxin-mediated-pin1-relocation-and-plant-development-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#11
Ricardo Tejos, Cecilia Rodriguez-Furlan, Maciej Adamowski, Michael Sauer, Lorena Norambuena, Jiří Friml
Coordinated cell polarization in developing tissues is a recurrent theme in multicellular organisms. In plants, a directional distribution of the plant hormone auxin is at the core of many developmental programs. A feedback regulation of auxin on the polarized localization of PIN auxin transporters in individual cells has been proposed as a self-organizing mechanism for coordinated tissue polarization, but the molecular mechanisms linking auxin signalling to PIN-dependent auxin transport remain unknown. We performed a microarray-based approach to find regulators of the auxin-induced PIN relocation in the Arabidopsis thaliana root...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684865/dynamic-relocalization-of-nherf1-mediates-chemotactic-migration-of-ovarian-cancer-cells-toward-lysophosphatidic-acid-stimulation
#12
Yong-Seok Oh, Kyun Heo, Eung-Kyun Kim, Jin-Hyeok Jang, Sun Sik Bae, Jong Bae Park, Yun Hee Kim, Minseok Song, Sang Ryong Kim, Sung Ho Ryu, In-Hoo Kim, Pann-Ghill Suh
NHERF1/EBP50 (Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulating factor 1; Ezrin-binding phosphoprotein of 50 kDa) organizes stable protein complexes beneath the apical membrane of polar epithelial cells. By contrast, in cancer cells without any fixed polarity, NHERF1 often localizes in the cytoplasm. The regulation of cytoplasmic NHERF1 and its role in cancer progression remain unclear. In this study, we found that, upon lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) stimulation, cytoplasmic NHERF1 rapidly translocated to the plasma membrane, and subsequently to cortical protrusion structures, of ovarian cancer cells...
July 7, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679080/renal-cystic-adenocarcinoma-in-a-flowerhorn-fish-with-metastatic-involvement-of-the-spleen
#13
Hooman Rahmati-Holasoo, Sara Shokrpoor, Majid Masoudifard, HosseinAli Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi, Ali Haddadi, Amir Tavakkoli
A 480 g flowerhorn fish hybrid cichlid with severe bilateral abdominal swelling, bulla-like structures on the skin, bilateral exophthalmia and prolapsed intestine was presented. Radiographs showed a compression of the posterior part of swim bladder and abdominal distention. Ultrasonography of visceral organs showed a heterogenous mass with hypo to anechoic polycystic parenchyma and free fluid in abdominal cavity. At necropsy free fluid in the abdominal cavity and a large polycystic mass, originating from the posterior kidney, was observed...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671744/the-autonomous-cell-fate-specification-of-basal-cell-lineage-the-initial-round-of-cell-fate-specification-occurs-at-the-two-celled-proembryo-stage
#14
Liang-Huan Qu, Xuemei Zhou, Xinbo Li, Shi-Sheng Li, Jing Zhao, Peng Zhao, Yuan Liu, Meng-Xiang Sun
In angiosperms, the first zygotic division usually gives rise to two daughter cells with distinct morphologies and developmental fates, which is critical for embryo pattern formation. However, it is still unclear when and how these distinct cell fates are specified and whether the cell specification is related to cytoplasmic localization or polarity. Here, we demonstrated that, when isolated from both maternal tissues and the apical cell, a single basal cell could only develop into a typical suspensor, but never an embryo in vitro...
July 3, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670188/an-uncommon-variant-of-an-uncommon-disease-a-caucasian-adolescent-with-apical-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-diagnosed-with-myocardial-perfusion-imaging
#15
Rami Kassem Zein, Zaid Al-Faham, Jason A Mouabbi, Edouard R Daher
Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (ApHCM) is a subtype of HCM. This variant is more common in the Asian population when compared to North American patients. Patients may present with arrhythmias, heart failure, myocardial infarction, chest discomfort, fatigue, and presyncope or syncope. Initial evaluation requires electrocardiogram and two-dimensional echocardiogram. T-wave inversion in the precordial leads as well as hypertrophy of the left ventricle is hallmarks of the disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is the most specific and sensitive imaging modality...
July 2017: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665270/meru-couples-planar-cell-polarity-with-apical-basal-polarity-during-asymmetric-cell-division
#16
Jennifer J Banerjee, Birgit L Aerne, Maxine V Holder, Simon Hauri, Matthias Gstaiger, Nicolas Tapon
Polarity is a shared feature of most cells. In epithelia, apical-basal polarity often coexists, and sometimes intersects with planar cell polarity (PCP), which orients cells in the epithelial plane. From a limited set of core building blocks (e.g. the Par complexes for apical-basal polarity and the Frizzled/Dishevelled complex for PCP), a diverse array of polarized cells and tissues are generated. This suggests the existence of little-studied tissue-specific factors that rewire the core polarity modules to the appropriate conformation...
June 30, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659476/entry-and-release-of-hepatitis-c-virus-in-polarized-human-hepatocytes
#17
Sandrine Belouzard, Adeline Danneels, Lucie Fénéant, Karin Séron, Yves Rouillé, Jean Dubuisson
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects primarily hepatocytes that are highly polarized cells. The relevance of cell polarity in the HCV life cycle has only been addressed in distant models and remains poorly understood. Although polarized epithelial cells have a rather simple morphology with a basolateral and an apical domain, hepatocytes exhibit complex polarization structures. However, it has been reported that some selected polarized HepG2 cell clones can exhibit a honeycomb pattern of distribution of the tight-junction proteins, typical of columnar polarized epithelia which can be used as a simple model to study the role of cell polarization in viral infection of hepatocytes...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649632/three-dimensional-organotypic-co-culture-model-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-macrophages-to-study-salmonella-enterica-colonization-patterns
#18
Jennifer Barrila, Jiseon Yang, Aurélie Crabbé, Shameema F Sarker, Yulong Liu, C Mark Ott, Mayra A Nelman-Gonzalez, Simon J Clemett, Seth D Nydam, Rebecca J Forsyth, Richard R Davis, Brian E Crucian, Heather Quiriarte, Kenneth L Roland, Karen Brenneman, Clarence Sams, Christine Loscher, Cheryl A Nickerson
Three-dimensional models of human intestinal epithelium mimic the differentiated form and function of parental tissues often not exhibited by two-dimensional monolayers and respond to Salmonella in key ways that reflect in vivo infections. To further enhance the physiological relevance of three-dimensional models to more closely approximate in vivo intestinal microenvironments encountered by Salmonella, we developed and validated a novel three-dimensional co-culture infection model of colonic epithelial cells and macrophages using the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel bioreactor...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646092/deletion-analysis-of-agd1-reveals-domains-crucial-for-its-plasma-membrane-recruitment-and-function-in-root-hair-polarity
#19
Cheol-Min Yoo, Satoshi Naramoto, J Alan Sparks, Bibi Rafeiza Khan, Jin Nakashima, Hiroo Fukuda, Elison B Blancaflor
AGD1, a plant ACAP-type ADP-ribosylation factor-GTPase activating protein (ARF-GAP), functions in specifying root hair polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana To better understand how AGD1 modulates root hair growth, we generated full length and domain-deleted AGD1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) constructs, and followed their localization during root hair development. AGD1-GFP localized to the cytoplasm and was recruited to specific regions of the root hair plasma membrane (PM). Distinct PM AGD1-GFP signal was first detected along the site of root hair bulge formation...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637675/structure-functional-aspects-of-the-human-riboflavin-transporter-3-slc52a3-role-of-the-predicted-glycosylation-and-substrate-interacting-sites
#20
Veedamali S Subramanian, Subrata Subai, Trevor Teafatiller, Jennifer A Bohl, Hamid M Said
The human riboflavin (RF) transporter-3 (hRFVT-3; product of the SLC52A3 gene) plays an essential role in the intestinal RF absorption process and is expressed exclusively at the apical membrane domain of polarized enterocytes. Previous studies have characterized different physiological/biological aspects of this transporter, but nothing is known about the glycosylation status of the hRFVT-3 protein and role of this modification in its physiology/biology. Additionally, little is known about the residues in the hRFVT-3 protein that interact with the ligand, RF...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
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