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Apical polarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542149/jak-stat-signaling-is-necessary-for-cell-monosis-prior-to-epithelial-cell-apoptotic-extrusion
#1
Alba Y Torres, Marianne Malartre, Anne-Marie Pret, François Agnès
Epithelial cell extrusion is crucial for proper development and tissue homeostasis. High-resolution 3D reconstruction and 4D imaging, combined with genetic analyis, have allowed us to reveal the highly-sterotyped morphogenetic events controlled by JAK/STAT signaling in a developmentally-programmed case of epithelial cell extrusion. Specialized somatic cells, Polar Cells (PCs), are produced in excess and then undergo apoptotic elimination from the follicular epithelium in the Drosophila ovary. We show that supernumerary PCs are first systematically enveloped by PC neighbors on all sides, first laterally, then apically in conjunction with highly-reinforced adherens junctions, and finally basally...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539408/temporal-regulation-of-epithelium-formation-mediated-by-foxa-mklp1-mgcracgap-and-par-6
#2
Stephen E Von Stetina, Jennifer Liang, Georgios Marnellos, Susan E Mango
To establish the animal body plan, embryos link the external epidermis to the internal digestive tract. In Caenorhabditis elegans, this linkage is achieved by the Arcade Cells, which form an epithelial bridge between the foregut and epidermis, but little is known about how development of these three epithelia is coordinated temporally. The Arcade Cell epithelium is generated after the epidermis and digestive tract epithelia have matured, ensuring that both organs can withstand the mechanical stress of embryo elongation; mis-timing of epithelium formation leads to defects in morphogenesis...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532671/ochratoxin-a-transport-by-the-human-breast-cancer-resistance-protein-bcrp-multidrug-resistance-protein-2-mrp2-and-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptides-1a2-1b1-and-2b1
#3
Xiaozhe Qi, Els Wagenaar, Wentao Xu, Kunlun Huang, Alfred H Schinkel
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a fungal secondary metabolite that can contaminate various foods. OTA has several toxic effects like nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and neurotoxicity in different animal species, but its mechanisms of toxicity are still unclear. How OTA accumulates in kidney, liver, and brain is as yet unknown, but transmembrane transport proteins are likely involved. We studied transport of OTA in vitro, using polarized MDCKII cells transduced with cDNAs of the efflux transporters mouse (m)Bcrp, human (h)BCRP, mMrp2, or hMRP2, and HEK293 cells overexpressing cDNAs of the human uptake transporters OATP1A2, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, or OATP2B1 at pH7...
May 19, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515229/unique-cell-biological-profiles-of-retinal-disease-causing-missense-mutations-in-the-polarity-protein-crumbs
#4
Milena Pellikka, Ulrich Tepass
Mutations in human CRB1 are a major cause of retinal disease that lead to blindness. CRB1 is a transmembrane protein found in the inner segment of photoreceptor cells (PRCs) and the apical membrane of Müller glia. The function of the extracellular region of CRB1 is poorly understood although more than 80 disease-causing missense mutations have been mapped to it. We have recreated four mutations in Drosophila Crumbs (Crb) that affect different extracellular domains. Crb regulates epithelial polarity and growth, and contributes to PRC differentiation and survival...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515174/functional-assessment-of-sodium-chloride-co-transporter-ncc-mutants-in-polarized-mammalian-epithelial-cells
#5
Lena Lindtoft Rosenbaek, Federica Rizzo, Nanna MacAulay, Olivier Staub, Robert A Fenton
The thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride co-transporter, NCC, is important for maintaining serum sodium (Na+) and, indirectly, serum potassium (K+) levels. Functional studies on NCC have used cell lines with native NCC expression, transiently transfected non-polarized cell lines or Xenopus laevis oocytes. Here, we developed polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney type I (MDCKI) mammalian epithelial cell lines with tetracycline-inducible human NCC expression to study NCC activity and membrane abundance in the same system...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510420/non-target-analysis-reveals-a-bacterial-metabolite-of-pyrene-implicated-in-the-genotoxicity-of-contaminated-soil-after-bioremediation
#6
Zhenyu Tian, Avram Gold, Jun Nakamura, Zhenfa Zhang, Joaquim Vila, David R Singleton, Leonard Bruce Collins, Michael D Aitken
Bioremediation is an accepted technology for cleanup of soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but it can increase the genotoxicity of the soil despite removal of the regulated PAHs. Although polar biotransformation products have been implicated as causative genotoxic agents, no specific product has been identified. We pursued a non-target analytical approach combining effect-directed analysis (EDA) and metabolite profiling to compare extracts of PAH-contaminated soil from a former manufactured-gas plant site before and after treatment in a laboratory-scale aerobic bioreactor...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508057/low-energy-structural-dynamics-of-ferroelectric-domain-walls-in-hexagonal-rare-earth-manganites
#7
Xiaoyu Wu, Urko Petralanda, Lu Zheng, Yuan Ren, Rongwei Hu, Sang-Wook Cheong, Sergey Artyukhin, Keji Lai
Domain walls (DWs) in ferroic materials, across which the order parameter abruptly changes its orientation, can host emergent properties that are absent in the bulk domains. Using a broadband (10(6) to 10(10) Hz) scanning impedance microscope, we show that the electrical response of the interlocked antiphase boundaries and ferroelectric DWs in hexagonal rare-earth manganites (h-RMnO3) is dominated by the bound-charge oscillation rather than free-carrier conduction at the DWs. As a measure of the rate of energy dissipation, the effective conductivity of DWs on the (001) surfaces of h-RMnO3 at gigahertz frequencies is drastically higher than that at dc, whereas the effect is absent on surfaces with in-plane polarized domains...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502709/organizational-innovation-of-apical-actin-filaments-drives-rapid-pollen-tube-growth-and-turning
#8
Xiaolu Qu, Ruihui Zhang, Meng Zhang, Min Diao, Yongbiao Xue, Shanjin Huang
Polarized tip growth is a fundamental cellular process in many eukaryotes. In this study, we examined the dynamic restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton and its relationship to vesicle transport during pollen tip growth in Arabidopsis. We found that actin filaments originating from the apical membrane form a specialized structure consisting of longitudinally aligned actin bundles at the cortex and inner cytoplasmic filaments with a distinct distribution. Using actin-based pharmacological treatments and genetic mutants in combination with FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) technology to visualize the transport of vesicles within the growth domain of pollen tubes, we demonstrate that cortical actin filaments facilitate tip-ward vesicle transport...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501945/macrophage-polarization-differs-between-apical-granulomas-radicular-cysts-and-dentigerous-cysts
#9
Manuel Weber, Tilo Schlittenbauer, Patrick Moebius, Maike Büttner-Herold, Jutta Ries, Raimund Preidl, Carol-Immanuel Geppert, Friedrich W Neukam, Falk Wehrhan
OBJECTIVES: Apical periodontitis can appear clinically as apical granulomas or radicular cysts. There is evidence that immunologic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of both pathologies. In contrast to radicular cysts, the dentigerous cysts have a developmental origin. Macrophage polarization (M1 vs M2) is a main regulator of tissue homeostasis and differentiation. There are no studies comparing macrophage polarization in apical granulomas, radicular cysts, and dentigerous cysts...
May 13, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493925/a-novel-filamentous-flower-mutant-suppresses-brevipedicellus-developmental-defects-and-modulates-glucosinolate-and-auxin-levels
#10
Scott J Douglas, Baohua Li, Daniel J Kliebenstein, Eiji Nambara, C Daniel Riggs
BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP) encodes a class-I KNOTTED1-like homeobox (KNOX) transcription factor that plays a critical role in conditioning a replication competent state in the apical meristem, and it also governs growth and cellular differentiation in internodes and pedicels. To search for factors that modify BP signaling, we conducted a suppressor screen on bp er (erecta) plants and identified a mutant that ameliorates many of the pleiotropic defects of the parent line. Map based cloning and complementation studies revealed that the defect lies in the FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL) gene, a member of the YABBY family of transcriptional regulators that contribute to meristem organization and function, phyllotaxy, leaf and floral organ growth and polarity, and are also known to repress KNOX gene expression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490200/human-bocavirus-type-1-capsid-facilitates-the-transduction-of-ferret-airways-by-adeno-associated-virus-genomes
#11
Ziying Yan, Zehua Feng, Xingshen Sun, Yulong Zhang, Wei Zou, Zekun Wang, Chandler Jensen-Cody, Bo Liang, Soo-Yeun Park, Jianming Qiu, John F Engelhardt
Human bocavirus type-1 (HBoV1) has a high tropism for the apical membrane of human airway epithelia. The packaging of a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (rAAV2) genome into HBoV1 capsid produces a chimeric vector (rAAV2/HBoV1) that also efficiently transduces human airway epithelia. As such, this vector is attractive for use in gene therapies to treat lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis. However, preclinical development of rAAV2/HBoV1 vectors has been hindered by the fact that humans are the only known host for HBoV1 infection...
May 10, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488934/the-zebrafish-curly-fry-is-required-for-proper-centrosome-and-mitotic-spindle-assembly
#12
Mi Hye Song, Jeffrey C Medley, John Y Kuwada
The zebrafish curly fry (cfy) mutation leads to a dramatic increase in mitotic index and cell death starting during neural tube formation. The mutant phenotype is cell autonomous and does not result from defects in apical/basal polarity within the neuroepithelium. The increase in mitotic index could be due to increased proliferation or cell cycle arrest in mitosis. cfy embryos were analyzed to examine these two possibilities. By labeling embryos with a pulse of BrdU and anti-phospho-histone 3 and examining the DNA content by fluorescence activated cell sorting, we show that cfy mutants exhibit no increase in proliferation, but a significant increase in the number of cells arrested in mitosis...
May 10, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487135/estrogen-enhanced-apical-and-basolateral-secretion-of-apolipoprotein-b-100-by-polarized-trophoblast-derived-bewo-cells
#13
Miriam Kamper, Florian Mittermayer, Rosalinda Cabuk, Katharina Gelles, Isabella Ellinger, Marcela Hermann
Cholesterol is an important nutrient for fetal development and transplacental transport occurs at all stages of human pregnancy. Furthermore, cholesterol is required for membrane building as well as steroid hormone synthesis. Therefore, all placental cell types require cholesterol for proper function. In human term placenta, the syncytiotrophoblast (STB) faces the maternal circulation. Uptake of maternal-derived cholesterol at the apical membrane of the STB is well understood, but the route by which cholesterol exits at the basal side for subsequent transfer across the fetal endothelial cells (FEC) or to other placental cell types remains not well characterized...
May 6, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482867/afadin-controls-cell-polarization-and-mitotic-spindle-orientation-in-developing-cortical-radial-glia
#14
Jennifer Rakotomamonjy, Molly Brunner, Christoph Jüschke, Keling Zang, Eric J Huang, Louis F Reichardt, Anjen Chenn
BACKGROUND: In developing tissues, cell polarity and tissue architecture play essential roles in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation. During cerebral cortical development, adherens junctions link highly polarized radial glial cells in a neurogenic niche that controls their behavior. How adherens junctions regulate radial glial cell polarity and/or differentiation in mammalian cortical development is poorly understood. RESULTS: Conditional deletion of Afadin, a protein required for formation and maintenance of epithelial tissues, leads to abnormalities in radial glial cell polarity and subsequent loss of adherens junctions...
May 8, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482176/exosomes-ultrastructural-evidence-in-epithelial-cells-of-malpighian-tubules
#15
Anita Giglio, Ida Daniela Perrotta, Pietro Brandmayr
Exosomes in Malpighian tubules of Calathus fuscipes (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were investigated under transmission electron microscopy. Ultrastructural analyses showed a wide number of multivesicular bodies localized in the apical portion of epithelial cells. Each multivesicular body encloses from 15 to 80 intraluminal vesicles (about 50nm in diameter), originating through inward budding of late endosomes that package molecules into luminal membrane-bound structures. Subsequently they are released as exosomes through exocytosis of multivesicular bodies into the extracellular space after fusion with plasma membrane...
April 29, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470523/assays-for-analyzing-the-role-of-transport-proteins-in-the-uptake-and-the-vectorial-transport-of-substances-affecting-cell-viability
#16
Emir Taghikhani, Martin F Fromm, Jörg König
Endogenous compounds, drugs, or other xenobiotics may affect cell viability. A prerequisite for intracellular cell damage is the uptake of such substances across the plasma membrane into cells. Furthermore, the subsequent transporter-mediated export out of cells may influence cell viability. Therefore, transport proteins mediating the uptake (uptake transporter) or export (export pumps) of substances in and out of cells are important determinants of cell viability. Uptake transporters mostly belong to the superfamily of solute carriers (SLC transporters), whereas export pumps are members of the ABC-transporter superfamily (ATP-binding cassette)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468833/dental-enamel-formation-and-implications-for-oral-health-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Rodrigo S Lacruz, Stefan Habelitz, J Timothy Wright, Michael L Paine
Dental enamel is the hardest and most mineralized tissue in extinct and extant vertebrate species and provides maximum durability that allows teeth to function as weapons and/or tools as well as for food processing. Enamel development and mineralization is an intricate process tightly regulated by cells of the enamel organ called ameloblasts. These heavily polarized cells form a monolayer around the developing enamel tissue and move as a single forming front in specified directions as they lay down a proteinaceous matrix that serves as a template for crystal growth...
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460446/the-cell-polarity-protein-scrib-functions-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-liver-cancer
#18
Shweta Kapil, Bal Krishan Sharma, Mallikarjun Patil, Sawsan Elattar, Jinling Yuan, Steven X Hou, Ravindra Kolhe, Ande Satyanarayana
Scrib is a membrane protein that is involved in the maintenance of apical-basal cell polarity of the epithelial tissues. However, Scrib has also been shown to be mislocalized to the cytoplasm in breast and prostate cancer. Here, for the first time, we report that Scrib not only translocates to the cytoplasm but also to the nucleus in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and in mouse and human liver tumor samples. We demonstrate that Scrib overexpression suppresses the growth of HCC cells in vitro, and Scrib deficiency enhances liver tumor growth in vivo...
April 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457868/cell-cycle-coupled-oscillations-in-apical-polarity-and-intercellular-contact-maintain-order-in-embryonic-epithelia
#19
Katerina Ragkousi, Kendra Marr, Sean McKinney, Lacey Ellington, Matthew C Gibson
Throughout animals, embryonic cells must ultimately organize into polarized epithelial layers that provide the structural basis for gastrulation or subsequent developmental events [1]. Precisely how this primary epithelium maintains continuous integrity during rapid and repeated cell divisions has never been directly addressed, particularly in cases where early cleavages are driven in synchrony. Representing the early-branching non-bilaterian phylum Cnidaria, embryos of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis undergo rapid synchronous cell divisions and ultimately give rise to a diploblastic epithelial body plan after gastrulation [2, 3]...
May 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455413/pseudostratified-epithelia-cell-biology-diversity-and-roles-in-organ-formation-at-a-glance
#20
REVIEW
Caren Norden
Pseudostratified epithelia (PSE) are widespread and diverse tissue arrangements, and many PSE are organ precursors in a variety of organisms. While cells in PSE, like other epithelial cells, feature apico-basal polarity, they generally are more elongated and their nuclei are more densely packed within the tissue. In addition, nuclei in PSE undergo interkinetic nuclear migration (IKNM, also referred to as INM), whereby all mitotic events occur at the apical surface of the elongated epithelium. Previous reviews have focused on the links between IKNM and the cell cycle, as well as the relationship between IKNM and neurogenesis, which will not be elaborated on here...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
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