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Apical polarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430827/dual-role-of-the-toxoplasma-gondii-clathrin-adaptor-ap1-in-the-sorting-of-rhoptry-and-microneme-proteins-and-in-parasite-division
#1
Kannan Venugopal, Elisabeth Werkmeister, Nicolas Barois, Jean-Michel Saliou, Anais Poncet, Ludovic Huot, Fabien Sindikubwabo, Mohamed Ali Hakimi, Gordon Langsley, Frank Lafont, Sabrina Marion
Toxoplasma gondii possesses a highly polarized secretory system, which efficiently assembles de novo micronemes and rhoptries during parasite replication. These apical secretory organelles release their contents into host cells promoting parasite invasion and survival. Using a CreLox-based inducible knock-out strategy and the ddFKBP over-expression system, we unraveled novel functions of the clathrin adaptor complex TgAP1. First, our data indicate that AP1 in T. gondii likely functions as a conserved heterotetrameric complex composed of the four subunits γ, β, μ1, σ1 and interacts with known regulators of clathrin-mediated vesicular budding such as the unique ENTH-domain containing protein, which we named Epsin-like protein (TgEpsL)...
April 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416478/stardust-the-janus-faced-partner-of-crumbs
#2
Shradha Das, Elisabeth Knust
The Drosophila melanogaster scaffolding protein Stardust (Sdt) stabilizes the transmembrane protein Crumbs, a conserved regulator of apical-basal epithelial polarity. In this issue, Perez-Mockus et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201611196) report that a subset of Sdt isoforms are targeted by the ubiquitin ligase Neuralized, thus fine tuning the endocytosis and activity of this apical determinant.
April 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415207/model-of-polar-auxin-transport-coupled-to-mechanical-forces-retrieves-robust-morphogenesis-along-the-arabidopsis-root
#3
J Roberto Romero-Arias, Valeria Hernández-Hernández, Mariana Benítez, Elena R Alvarez-Buylla, Rafael A Barrio
Stem cells are identical in many scales, they share the same molecular composition, DNA, genes, and genetic networks, yet they should acquire different properties to form a functional tissue. Therefore, they must interact and get some external information from their environment, either spatial (dynamical fields) or temporal (lineage). In this paper we test to what extent coupled chemical and physical fields can underlie the cell's positional information during development. We choose the root apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana to model the emergence of cellular patterns...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412244/a-central-role-for-cadherin-signaling-in-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Antonis Kourtidis, Ruifeng Lu, Lindy J Pence, Panos Z Anastasiadis
Cadherins are homophilic adhesion molecules with important functions in cell-cell adhesion, tissue morphogenesis, and cancer. In epithelial cells, E-cadherin accumulates at areas of cell-cell contact, coalesces into macromolecular complexes to form the adherens junctions (AJs), and associates via accessory partners with a subcortical ring of actin to form the apical zonula adherens (ZA). As a master regulator of the epithelial phenotype, E-cadherin is essential for the overall maintenance and homeostasis of polarized epithelial monolayers...
April 12, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407986/intravenous-bisphosphonate-therapy-does-not-thicken-cementum-or-change-periodontal-ligaments-of-cancer-patients
#5
Mariana de Pauli Paglioni, Wagner Gomes Silva, Juliana Pereira, César Augusto Migliorati, Marcio Ajudarte Lopes, Oslei Paes de Almeida, Mario Fernando Goes, Ana Carolina Prado Ribeiro, Thais Bianca Brandão, Alan Roger Santos-Silva
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that intravenous (IV) bisphosphonate (BP) therapy thickens or alters the micromorphology of cementum and periodontal ligament (PDL) in cancer patients. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-two teeth extracted from 24 cancer patients and separated into test (patients who have undergone IV BP therapy, n = 16) and control (patients naive to BP therapy, n = 16) groups were studied. Cementum thickness was measured in 3 different areas of the dental root with polarized light microscopy...
May 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407399/abnormal-rab11-rab8-vesicles-cluster-in-enterocytes-of-patients-with-microvillus-inclusion-disease
#6
Georg F Vogel, Andreas R Janecke, Iris M Krainer, Karin Gutleben, Barbara Witting, Sally G Mitton, Sahar Mansour, Antje Ballauff, Joseph T Roland, Amy C Engevik, Ernest Cutz, Thomas Müller, James R Goldenring, Lukas A Huber, Michael W Hess
Microvillus Inclusion Disease (MVID) is a congenital enteropathy characterized by accumulation of vesiculo-tubular endomembranes in the subapical cytoplasm of enterocytes, historically termed "secretory granules". However, neither their identity nor pathophysiological significance is well defined. Using immunoelectron microscopy and tomography we studied biopsies from MVID patients (3x Myosin 5b mutations, 1x Syntaxin3 mutation) and compared them to controls and genome-edited CaCo2 cell models, harboring relevant mutations...
April 13, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396819/rab11-fip1-phosphorylation-by-mark2-regulates-polarity-in-mdck-cells
#7
Rebecca McRae, Lynne A Lapierre, Elizabeth H Manning, James R Goldenring
MARK2/Par1b/EMK1, a serine/threonine kinase, is required for correct apical/basolateral membrane polarization in epithelial cells. However, the specific substrates mediating MARK2 action are less well understood. We have now found that MARK2 phosphorylates Rab11-FIP1B/C at serine 234 in a consensus site similar to that previously identified in Rab11-FIP2. In MDCK cells undergoing repolarization after a calcium switch, antibodies specific for pS234-Rab11-FIP1 or pS227-Rab11-FIP2 demonstrate that the spatial and temporal activation of Rab11-FIP1 phosphorylation is distinct from that for Rab11-FIP2...
2017: Cellular Logistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395731/a-nanobody-based-toolset-to-investigate-the-role-of-protein-localization-and-dispersal-in-drosophila
#8
Stefan Harmansa, Ilaria Alborelli, Dimitri Bieli, Emmanuel Caussinus, Markus Affolter
The role of protein localization along the apical-basal axis of polarized cells is difficult to investigate in vivo, partially due to lack of suitable tools. Here, we present the GrabFP system, a collection of four nanobody-based GFP-traps that localize to defined positions along the apical-basal axis. We show that the localization preference of the GrabFP traps can impose a novel localization on GFP-tagged target proteins and results in their controlled mislocalization. These new tools were used to mislocalize transmembrane and cytoplasmic GFP fusion proteins in the Drosophila wing disc epithelium and to investigate the effect of protein mislocalization...
April 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386212/characterizing-electrocochleography-in-cochlear-implant-recipients-with-residual-low-frequency-hearing
#9
Christofer W Bester, Luke Campbell, Adrian Dragovic, Aaron Collins, Stephen J O'Leary
Objective: Lay the groundwork for using electrocochleography (ECochG) as a measure of cochlear health, by characterizing typical patterns of the ECochG response observed across the electrode array in cochlear implant recipients with residual hearing. Methods: ECochG was measured immediately after electrode insertion in 45 cochlear implant recipients with residual hearing. The Cochlear Response Telemetry system was used to record ECochG across the electrode array, in response to 100- or 110-dB SPL pure tones at 0...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384031/polarized-secretion-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-and-their-inhibitors-by-retinal-pigment-epithelium-derived-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-during-wound-healing
#10
Whitney A Greene, Teresa A Burke, Ramesh R Kaini, Elaine D Por, Heuy-Ching Wang
PURPOSE: To characterize the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) by induced pluripotent stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium (iPS-RPE) during wound healing. We hypothesize that iPS-RPE secretes mediators of tissue remodeling such as MMPs and TIMPs to promote migration and proliferation of cells during wound healing. METHODS: iPS-RPE was grown on transwells until fully confluent and pigmented...
April 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370666/%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1-integrin-mediates-pulmonary-epithelial-cyst-formation
#11
Susan K Legan, Daniel D Lee, Margaret A Schwarz
BACKGROUND: Formation of the epithelial cyst involves the establishment of apical - basolateral polarity through a series of cellular interactions that are in part mediated by the extracellular matrix (ECM). We report that in a three-dimensional multi-cellular self-assembly model of lung development, α5 integrin regulates epithelial cyst formation through organization of soluble fibronectin matrix into insoluble fibrils through a process called fibrillogenesis. RESULTS: Dissociated murine embryonic lung cells self-assemble into three-dimensional pulmonary bodies that are dependent on α5β1 integrin mediated fibrillogenesis for cell-cell mediated self-assembly - compaction and epithelial cyst formation...
March 31, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369449/scribble1-plays-an-important-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-neural-tube-defects-through-its-mediating-effect-of-par-3-and-vangl1-2-localization
#12
Fares Kharfallah, Marie Claude Guyot, Abdul Rahman El Hassan, Redouane Allache, Elisa Merello, Patrizia De Marco, Graziella Di Cristo, Valeria Capra, Zoha Kibar
Scribble1 (Scrib1) is a tumor suppressor gene that has long been established as an essential component of apicobasal polarity (ABP). In mouse models, mutations in Scrib1 cause a severe form of neural tube defects (NTDs) as a result of a defective planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling. In this study, we dissected the role of Scrib1 in the pathogenesis of NTDs in its mouse mutant Circletail (Crc), in cell lines and in a human NTD cohort. While there were no obvious defects in ABP in the Scrib1Crc/Crc neuroepihelial cells, we identified an abnormal localization of the apical protein Par-3 and of the PCP protein Vangl2...
March 28, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365593/development-and-dynamics-of-cell-polarity-at-a-glance
#13
REVIEW
Joseph P Campanale, Thomas Y Sun, Denise J Montell
Cells exhibit morphological and molecular asymmetries that are broadly categorized as cell polarity. The cell polarity established in early embryos prefigures the macroscopic anatomical asymmetries characteristic of adult animals. For example, eggs and early embryos have polarized distributions of RNAs and proteins that generate global anterior/posterior and dorsal/ventral axes. The molecular programs that polarize embryos are subsequently reused in multiple contexts. Epithelial cells require apical/basal polarity to establish their barrier function...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364663/tissue-growth-and-tumorigenesis-in-drosophila-cell-polarity-and-the-hippo-pathway
#14
REVIEW
Helena E Richardson, Marta Portela
Cell polarity regulation is critical for defining membrane domains required for the establishment and maintenance of the apical-basal axis in epithelial cells (apico-basal polarity), asymmetric cell divisions, planar organization of tissues (planar cell polarity), and the formation of the front-rear axis in cell migration (front-rear polarity). In the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, cell polarity regulators also interact with the Hippo tissue growth control signaling pathway. In this review we survey the recent Drosophila literature linking cell polarity regulators with the Hippo pathway in epithelial tissue growth, neural stem cell asymmetric divisions and in cell migration in physiological and tumorigenic settings...
March 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363972/myosin-ii-promotes-the-anisotropic-loss-of-the-apical-domain-during-drosophila-neuroblast-ingression
#15
Sérgio Simões, Youjin Oh, Michael F Z Wang, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez, Ulrich Tepass
Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions play key roles in development and cancer and entail the loss of epithelial polarity and cell adhesion. In this study, we use quantitative live imaging of ingressing neuroblasts (NBs) in Drosophila melanogaster embryos to assess apical domain loss and junctional disassembly. Ingression is independent of the Snail family of transcriptional repressors and down-regulation of Drosophila E-cadherin (DEcad) transcription. Instead, the posttranscriptionally regulated decrease in DEcad coincides with the reduction of cell contact length and depends on tension anisotropy between NBs and their neighbors...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359322/mutation-of-kinesin-6-kif20b-causes-defects-in-cortical-neuron-polarization-and-morphogenesis
#16
Katrina C McNeely, Timothy D Cupp, Jessica Neville Little, Kerstin M Janisch, Ayushma Shrestha, Noelle D Dwyer
BACKGROUND: How neurons change their cytoskeleton to adopt their complex polarized morphology is still not understood. Growing evidence suggests that proteins that help build microtubule structures during cell division are also involved in building and remodeling the complex cytoskeletons of neurons. Kif20b (previously called MPP1 or Mphosph1) is the most divergent member of the Kinesin-6 family of "mitotic" kinesins that also includes Kif23/MKLP1 and Kif20a/MKLP2. We previously isolated a loss-of-function mouse mutant of Kif20b and showed that it had a thalamocortical axon guidance defect and microcephaly...
March 31, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353213/development-and-validation-of-an-automatic-method-to-detect-the-latest-contracting-viable-left-ventricular-segments-to-assist-guide-crt-therapy-from-gated-spect-myocardial-perfusion-imaging
#17
Weihua Zhou, Ningchao Tao, Xiaofeng Hou, Yao Wang, Russell D Folks, David C Cooke, Valeria M Moncayo, Ernest V Garcia, Jiangang Zou
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to use ECG-gated SPECT MPI to detect the latest contracting viable left ventricular (LV) segments to help guide the LV probe placement used in CRT therapy and to validate segment selection against the visual integration method by experts. METHODS: For each patient, the resting ECG-gated SPECT MPI short-axis images were sampled in 3D to generate a polar map of the perfusion distribution used to determine LV myocardial viability, and to measure LV synchronicity using our phase analysis tool...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350047/expression-and-prognostic-value-of-the-cell-polarity-par-complex-members-in-thyroid-cancer
#18
Chiara Tuccilli, Enke Baldini, Yannick Arlot-Bonnemains, Frank Chesnel, Salvatore Sorrenti, Corrado De Vito, Eleonora D'Armiento, Alessandro Antonelli, Poupak Fallahi, Sara Watutantrige, Francesco Tartaglia, Susi Barollo, Caterina Mian, Stefano Arcieri, Domenico Mascagni, Daniele Pironi, Marco Bononi, Massimo Vergine, Massimo Monti, Angelo Filippini, Salvatore Ulisse
Establishment and maintenance of the apical-basal cell polarity, required for proper replication, migration, specialized functions and tissue morphogenesis, relies on three evolutionary conserved complexes: PAR, CRUMBS and SCRIBBLE. Loss of cell polarity/cohesiveness (LOP/C) is implicated in cancer progression, and members of the polarity complex have been described as either oncogenes or oncosuppressors. However, no information on their role in thyroid cancer (TC) progression is available. In the present study, we evaluated the gene expression of the PAR complex members aPKCι, PARD3α/β and PARD6α/β/γ in 95 papillary TC (PTC), compared to their normal matched tissues and in 12 anaplastic TC (ATC)...
March 8, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346477/disruption-of-sorcs2-reveals-differences-in-the-regulation-of-stereociliary-bundle-formation-between-hair-cell-types-in-the-inner-ear
#19
Andrew Forge, Ruth R Taylor, Sally J Dawson, Michael Lovett, Daniel J Jagger
Behavioural anomalies suggesting an inner ear disorder were observed in a colony of transgenic mice. Affected animals were profoundly deaf. Severe hair bundle defects were identified in all outer and inner hair cells (OHC, IHC) in the cochlea and in hair cells of vestibular macular organs, but hair cells in cristae were essentially unaffected. Evidence suggested the disorder was likely due to gene disruption by a randomly inserted transgene construct. Whole-genome sequencing identified interruption of the SorCS2 (Sortilin-related VPS-10 domain containing protein) locus...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346438/basolateral-protrusion-and-apical-contraction-cooperatively-drive-drosophila-germ-band-extension
#20
Zijun Sun, Christopher Amourda, Murat Shagirov, Yusuke Hara, Timothy E Saunders, Yusuke Toyama
Throughout development, tissues undergo complex morphological changes, resulting from cellular mechanics that evolve over time and in three-dimensional space. During Drosophila germ-band extension (GBE), cell intercalation is the key mechanism for tissue extension, and the associated apical junction remodelling is driven by polarized myosin-II-dependent contraction. However, the contribution of the basolateral cellular mechanics to GBE remains poorly understood. Here, we characterize how cells coordinate their shape from the apical to the basal side during rosette formation, a hallmark of cell intercalation...
March 27, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
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