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Apical polarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923836/dna-pk-plays-a-central-role-in-transformation-of-breast-epithelial-cells-following-alkylation-damage
#1
Libi Anandi, Vaishali Chakravarty, K A Ashiq, Satish Bodakuntla, Mayurika Lahiri
DNA alkylating agents form the first line of cancer chemotherapy. They not only kill cells but also behave as potential carcinogens. MNU, a DNA methylating agent is well known to induce mammary tumours in rodents. However, the mechanism of tumorigenesis is not well understood. Our study reports a novel role played by DNA-PK in methylation damage-induced transformation using three dimensional breast acinar cultures. Here, we report that exposure of breast epithelial cells to MNU led to their inhibition to polarise at the basolateral domain, increased dispersal of Golgi at the apical domain, induction of EMT-like phenotype as well as invasion...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922746/ectopic-expression-of-winding-1-leads-to-asymmetrical-distribution-of-auxin-and-a-spiral-phenotype-in-rice
#2
Ming-Lung Cheng, Shuen-Fang Lo, An-Shan Hsiao, Ya-Fang Hong, Su-May Yu, Tuan-Hua David Ho
Ectopic expression of the rice WINDING 1 (WIN1) gene leads to a spiral phenotype only in shoots but not in roots. Rice WIN1 belongs to a specific class of proteins in cereal plants containing a Bric-a-Brac/Tramtrack/Broad (BTB) complex, a non-phototropic hypocotyl 3 (NPH3) domain and a coiled-coil motif. The WIN1 protein is predominantly localized to the plasma membrane, but is also co-localized to plasmodesmata, where it exhibits a punctate pattern. It is observed that WIN1 is normally expressed in roots and the shoot-root junction, but not in the rest of shoots...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919938/keep-it-on-the-edge-the-post-mitotic-midbody-as-a-polarity-signal-unit
#3
Pablo Lujan, Teresa Rubio, Giulia Varsano, Maja Köhn
The maintenance of the epithelial architecture during tissue proliferation is achieved by apical positioning of the midbody after cell division. Consequently, midbody mislocalization contributes to epithelial architecture disruption, a fundamental event during epithelial tumorigenesis. Studies in 3D polarized epithelial MDCK or Caco2 cell models, where midbody misplacement leads to multiple ectopic but fully polarized lumen-containing cysts, revealed that this phenotype can be caused by 2 different scenarios: the loss of mitotic spindle orientation or the loss of asymmetric abscission...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910325/src-and-fyn-dependent-apical-membrane-trafficking-events-control-endothelial-lumen-formation-during-vascular-tube-morphogenesis
#4
Dae Joong Kim, Pieter R Norden, Jocelynda Salvador, David M Barry, Stephanie L K Bowers, Ondine Cleaver, George E Davis
Here we examine the question of how endothelial cells (ECs) develop their apical membrane surface domain during lumen and tube formation. We demonstrate marked apical membrane targeting of activated Src kinases to this apical domain during early and late stages of this process. Immunostaining for phosphotyrosine or phospho-Src reveals apical membrane staining in intracellular vacuoles initially. This is then followed by vacuole to vacuole fusion events to generate an apical luminal membrane, which is similarly decorated with activated phospho-Src kinases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894023/cytokinin-auxin-crosstalk-in-the-gynoecial-primordium-ensures-correct-domain-patterning
#5
Christina Joy Müller, Emma Larsson, Lukáš Spíchal, Eva Sundberg
The Arabidopsis thaliana gynoecium consists of two congenitally fused carpels made up of two lateral valve domains and two medial domains, which retain meristematic properties and later fuse to produce the female reproductive structures vital for fertilization. Polar auxin transport (PAT) is important for setting up distinct apical auxin signaling domains in the early floral meristem remnants allowing for lateral domain identity and outgrowth. Crosstalk between auxin and cytokinin plays important roles in the development of other meristematic tissues, however hormone interaction studies to date have focused on more accessible later-stage gynoecia and the spatiotemporal interactions pivotal for patterning of early gynoecium primordia remain unknown...
September 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888686/fibroblast-derived-hgf-drives-acinar-lung-cancer-cell-polarization-through-integrin-dependent-rhoa-rock1-inhibition
#6
Anirban Datta, Emma Sandilands, Keith E Mostov, David M Bryant
The formation of lumens in epithelial tissues requires apical-basal polarization of cells, and the co-ordination of this individual polarity collectively around a contiguous lumen. Signals from the Extracellular Matrix (ECM) instruct epithelia as to the orientation of where basal, and thus consequently apical, surfaces should be formed. We report that this pathway is normally absent in Calu-3 human lung adenocarcinoma cells in 3-Dimensional culture, but that paracrine signals from MRC5 lung fibroblasts can induce correct orientation of polarity and acinar morphogenesis...
September 6, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887414/progressive-polarity-loss-and-luminal-collapse-disrupt-tissue-organization-in-carcinoma
#7
Ruba Halaoui, Carlis Rejon, Sudipa June Chatterjee, Joseph Szymborski, Sarkis Meterissian, William J Muller, Atilla Omeroglu, Luke McCaffrey
Epithelial cancers (carcinoma) account for 80%-90% of all cancers. The development of carcinoma is associated with disrupted epithelial organization and solid ductal structures. The mechanisms underlying the morphological development of carcinoma are poorly understood, but it is thought that loss of cell polarity is an early event. Here we report the characterization of the development of human breast lesions leading to carcinoma. We identified a unique mechanism that generates solid ducts in carcinoma through progressive loss of polarity and collapse of the luminal architecture...
September 8, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883443/planar-polarized-rab35-functions-as-an-oscillatory-ratchet-during-cell-intercalation-in-the-drosophila-epithelium
#8
Cayla E Jewett, Timothy E Vanderleest, Hui Miao, Yi Xie, Roopa Madhu, Dinah Loerke, J Todd Blankenship
The coordination between membrane trafficking and actomyosin networks is essential to the regulation of cell and tissue shape. Here, we examine Rab protein distributions during Drosophila epithelial tissue remodeling and show that Rab35 is dynamically planar polarized. Rab35 compartments are enriched at contractile interfaces of intercalating cells and provide the first evidence of interfacial monopolarity. When Rab35 function is disrupted, apical area oscillations still occur and contractile steps are observed...
September 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882989/apico-basal-polarity-determinants-encoded-by-crumbs%C3%A2-genes-affect-ciliary-shaft-protein-composition-ift-movement-dynamics-and-cilia-length
#9
Khodor Hazime, Jarema J Malicki
One of the most obvious manifestations of polarity in epithelia is the subdivision of the cell surface by cell junctions into apical and baso-lateral domains. crumbs genes are among key regulators of this form of polarity. Loss of crumbs function disrupts the apical cell junction belt and crumbs overexpression expands the apical membrane size. Crumbs proteins contain a single transmembrane domain and localise to cell junction area at the apical surface of epithelia. In some tissues, they are also found in cilia...
September 7, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870626/immunoreactivity-of-urate-transporters-glut9-and-urat1-is-located-in-epithelial-cells-of-the-choroid-plexus-of-human-brains
#10
Naoya Uemura, Ryuta Murakami, Yoichi Chiba, Ken Yanase, Ryuji Fujihara, Masato Mashima, Koichi Matsumoto, Machi Kawauchi, Gotaro Shirakami, Masaki Ueno
It has been suggested that urate plays a protective role in neurons, while hyperuricemia is correlated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. However, whether there is a system that directly transports urate into the brain remains to be clarified. In this study, the localization of glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9) and urate transporter 1 (URAT1), which are known to be representative reabsorptive urate transporters, was immunohistochemically examined in autopsied human brains. Immunoreactivity of GLUT9 was observed on the apical side of the cytoplasm of epithelial cells in the choroid plexus and in the cilia of ependymal cells of the human brain...
September 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861822/transient-expression-of-chimeric-fluorescent-reporter-proteins-in-pollen-tubes-to-study-protein-polar-secretion-and-dynamics
#11
Guitao Zhong, Ronghe Liu, Menglong Zhuang, Hao Wang
Transient expression of chimeric fluorescent reporter proteins by biolistic bombardment is a quick and useful procedure for studying subcellular protein localization and dynamics in plants. It is especially beneficial in specific plant cells which are not suitable for protoplast-based and Agrobacterium-mediated protein transient expression. Polar protein secretion and vesicular trafficking play essential functions for cell polarization and tip growth. The growing pollen tube is regarded as an ideal model plant cell system to study the machinery and regulation of polar protein trafficking and targeting...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860115/developing-renal-tubules-orient-cell-division-via-afadin-to-position-the-tubule-lumen
#12
Lei Gao, Zhufeng Yang, Chitkale Hiremath, Susan E Zimmerman, Blake Long, Paul R Brakeman, Keith E Mostov, David M Bryant, Katherine Luby-Phelps, Denise K Marciano
In many types of tubules, continuity of the lumen is paramount to tubular function, yet how tubules generate lumen continuity in vivo is not known. We recently found the F-actin binding protein Afadin is required for lumen continuity in developing renal tubules, though its mechanism of action remains unknown. Here we demonstrate Afadin is required for lumen continuity by orienting the mitotic spindle during cell division. Using an in vitro 3D cyst model, we find Afadin localizes to the cell cortex adjacent to the spindle poles and orients the mitotic spindle...
August 31, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855375/shear-stress-induces-non-canonical-autophagic-flux-in-intestinal-epithelial-monolayers
#13
Sun Wook Kim, Jonathan Ehrman, Mok-Ryeon Ahn, Jumpei Kondo, Andrea A Mancheno Lopez, Yun Sik Oh, Hanjune X Kim, Scott W Crawley, James R Goldenring, Matthew J Tyska, Erin C Rericha, Ken S Lau
Flow of fluids through the gut, such as milk from a neonatal diet, generates a shear stress on the unilaminar epithelium lining the lumen.  We report that exposure to physiological levels of fluid shear stress leads to the formation of large vacuoles, containing extracellular content, within polarizing intestinal epithelial cell monolayers.  These observations lead to two questions: how can cells lacking primary cilia transduce shear stress, and what molecular pathways support the formation of vacuoles that can exceed 80% of the cell volume...
August 30, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837644/prickle1-regulates-neurite-outgrowth-of-apical-spiral-ganglion-neurons-but-not-hair-cell-polarity-in-the-murine-cochlea
#14
Tian Yang, Jennifer Kersigo, Shu Wu, Bernd Fritzsch, Alexander G Bassuk
In the mammalian organ of Corti (OC), the stereocilia on the apical surface of hair cells (HCs) are uniformly organized in a neural to abneural axis (or medial-laterally). This organization is regulated by planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling. Mutations of PCP genes, such as Vangl2, Dvl1/2, Celsr1, and Fzd3/6, affect the formation of HC orientation to varying degrees. Prickle1 is a PCP signaling gene that belongs to the prickle / espinas / testin family. Prickle1 protein is shown to be asymmetrically localized in the HCs of the OC, and this asymmetric localization is associated with loss of PCP in Smurf mutants, implying that Prickle1 is involved in HC PCP development in the OC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837408/intestinal-surfactant-permeation-enhancers-and-their-interaction-with-enterocyte-cell-membranes-in-a-mucosal-explant-system
#15
E Michael Danielsen, Gert H Hansen
Intestinal permeation enhancers (PEs) are agents aimed to improve oral delivery of therapeutic drugs with poor bioavailability. The main permeability barrier for oral delivery is the intestinal epithelium, and PEs act to increase the paracellular and/or transcellular passage of drugs. Transcellular passage can be achieved by cell membrane permeabilization and/or by endocytic uptake and subsequent transcytosis. One broad class of PEs is surfactants which act by inserting into the cell membrane, thereby perturbing its integrity, but little is known about how the dynamics of the membrane are affected...
July 3, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837393/claudins-in-morphogenesis-forming-an-epithelial-tube
#16
Amanda I Baumholtz, Indra R Gupta, Aimee K Ryan
The claudin family of tetraspan transmembrane proteins is essential for tight junction formation and regulation of paracellular transport between epithelial cells. Claudins also play a role in apical-basal cell polarity, cell adhesion and link the tight junction to the actin cytoskeleton to exert effects on cell shape. The function of claudins in paracellular transport has been extensively studied through loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies in cell lines and in animal models, however, their role in morphogenesis has been less appreciated...
August 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834043/importance-of-bicarbonate-transport-in-ph-control-during-amelogenesis-need-for-functional-studies
#17
G Varga, P DenBesten, R Rácz, Á Zsembery
Dental enamel, the hardest mammalian tissue, is produced by ameloblasts. Ameloblasts show many similarities to other transporting epithelia although their secretory product, the enamel matrix, is quite different. Ameloblasts direct the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals, which liberate large quantities of protons that then need to be buffered to allow mineralization to proceed. Buffering requires a tight pH regulation and secretion of bicarbonate by ameloblasts. Many investigations have used immunohistochemical and knockout studies to determine the effects of these genes on enamel formation, but up till recently very little functional data were available for mineral ion transport...
August 18, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833131/the-core-planar-cell-polarity-gene-vangl2-maintains-apical-basal-organisation-of-the-corneal-epithelium
#18
D Alessio Panzica, Amy S Findlay, Rianne van Ladesteijn, J Martin Collinson
The role of the core planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway protein, Vangl2, was investigated in the corneal epithelium of the mammalian eye, a paradigm anatomical model of planar cell migration. The gene was conditionally knocked out in vivo and knocked down by siRNA, followed by immunohistochemical, behavioural and morphological analysis of corneal epithelial cells. The primary defects observed in vivo were of apical-basal organisation of the corneal epithelium, with abnormal stratification throughout life, mislocalisation of the cell membrane protein, Scribble, to the basal side of cells, and partial loss of the epithelial basement membrane...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825699/an-apical-mrck-driven-morphogenetic-pathway-controls-epithelial-polarity
#19
Ceniz Zihni, Evi Vlassaks, Stephen Terry, Jeremy Carlton, Thomas King Chor Leung, Michael Olson, Franck Pichaud, Maria Susana Balda, Karl Matter
Polarized epithelia develop distinct cell surface domains, with the apical membrane acquiring characteristic morphological features such as microvilli. Cell polarization is driven by polarity determinants including the evolutionarily conserved partitioning-defective (PAR) proteins that are separated into distinct cortical domains. PAR protein segregation is thought to be a consequence of asymmetric actomyosin contractions. The mechanism of activation of apically polarized actomyosin contractility is unknown...
September 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821634/lipidomic-and-proteomic-analysis-of-exosomes-from-mouse-cortical-collecting-duct-cells
#20
Viet D Dang, Kishore Kumar Jella, Ragy R T Ragheb, Nancy D Denslow, Abdel A Alli
Exosomes are endosome-derived nanovesicles that are involved in cellular communication and signaling. Exosomes are produced by epithelial cells and are found in biologic fluids including blood and urine. The packaged material within exosomes includes proteins and lipids, but the molecular comparison within exosome subtypes is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between exosomes derived from the apical plasma membrane and basolateral plasma membrane of polarized murine cortical collecting duct principal cells...
August 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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