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Apical microvilli

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882813/dietary-zinc-modifies-diabetic-induced-renal-pathology-in-rats
#1
Wael M Elsaed, Hazem Abdelhamid Mohamed
This study was conducted to investigate how far dietary zinc (Zn) modifies the histomorphological alterations induced by diabetes in rat kidneys. The animals were divided into negative control group (10 rats). Diabetes was induced in thirty animals by streptozotocin. After confirming diabetes, the animals were divided into three groups (n = 10). Group II served as the positive control group (fed on standard diet), group III was fed on Zn deficient diet, and group IV was fed on Zn supplemented diet. Caspase-3 immune staining was used to estimate the caspase activity...
November 24, 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859898/structural-and-ultrastructural-features-of-the-malpighian-tubules-of-dolycoris-baccarum-linnaeus-1758-heteroptera-pentatomidae
#2
Nurcan Özyurt, Damla Amutkan, Irmak Polat, Tenay Kocamaz, Selami Candan, Zekiye Suludere
The morphology and ultrastructure of the Malpighian tubules of Dolycoris baccarum were analyzed by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy in order to determine their functional organization. The Malpighian tubules are compared with similar structures of other insects based on cell structure and functional organization. The Malpighian tubules of D. baccarum extend from the midgut-hindgut region of the digestive tract. The Malpighian tubules are divided into two regions: the proximal segment is short and flattened and the distal segment is long, stringy in shape and free in hemolymph...
November 11, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856525/microvilli-morphology-can-affect-efflux-active-p-glycoprotein-in-confluent-mdckii-nki_hmdr1-and-caco-2-cell-monolayers
#3
Zhou Meng, Sylvain Le Marchand, Deep Agnani, Matt Szapacs, Harma Ellens, Joe Bentz
From fits of drug transport kinetics across confluent MDCKII-hMDR1-NKI and Caco-2 cell monolayers we estimated the levels of efflux active P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in these two cell lines (companion paper, Meng at el., 2016a). In the present work, we compared the efflux active P-gp number to the total P-gp level, using LC/MSMS, and showed that in Caco-2 cells total P-gp is about 10-fold greater than efflux active P-gp, while in MDCKII-hMDR1-NKI cells these values are within 2-fold. We further visualized the microvilli in MDCKII-hMDR1-NKI and Caco-2 cells using three-dimensional structured illumination super-resolution microscopy and found that the microvilli in Caco-2 cells are taller and more densely packed than those in MDCK-NKI-hMDR1 cells...
November 16, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846033/brush-cells-the-newly-identified-gatekeepers-of-the-urinary-tract
#4
Wolfgang Kummer, Klaus Deckmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A specialized epithelial cell with chemosensory properties of taste cells known from the mouth has been newly identified in the urethra and linked to pathogen recognition. We here describe its properties and its link to defence mechanisms, showing parallels to similar sentinel cells in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. RECENT FINDINGS: In the urethra, slender epithelial cells with apical microvilli ('brush cells') express bitter and umami taste receptors and the downstream signalling cascade known from oropharyngeal gustation, utilizing it to monitor for bacterial products and bacterial growth facilitating conditions...
November 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825102/microvillar-injury-in-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-induced-by-calcium-oxalate-crystal-and-the-protective-role-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate
#5
Kedsarin Fong-Ngern, Arada Vinaiphat, Visith Thongboonkerd
Pathogenic mechanisms of kidney stone disease remained unclear. This study investigated its initial cellular/molecular mechanisms when calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystal adhered to renal tubular cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed decreased length and density of microvilli, whereas Western blot analysis showed that whole-cell ezrin (a microvilli-stabilizing protein), not β-actin, was decreased in COM-treated cells. Immunofluorescence staining, followed by laser-scanning confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionations, revealed decreases in both ezrin and F-/β-actin at apical membrane...
October 7, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823775/similar-expression-pattern-of-nherf1-and-ezrin-in-papillary-but-not-in-solid-areas-of-human-serous-ovarian-carcinomas
#6
Brenda Demacopulo, Baltazar Eduardo Lema, Rómulo Luis Cabrini, Erica Lorena Kreimann
NHERF1 is an adaptor protein expressed in the apical membrane of polarized epithelia, which interacts with the EZRIN-Radixin-Moesin (ERM) family of proteins connecting signaling pathways to the cell cytoskeleton. NHERF1 and EZRIN cooperate in the maintenance of the apical microvilli in polarized epithelial cells. In several types of cancers, NHERF1 and EZRIN are displaced from the apical compartment to the cytoplasm and nuclei of cancer cells. At the present, the distribution of NHERF1 in ovarian tumors is not well known...
November 4, 2016: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797725/morphology-and-distribution-of-taste-papillae-and-oral-denticles-in-the-developing-oropharyngeal-cavity-of-the-bamboo-shark-chiloscyllium-punctatum
#7
Carla J L Atkinson, Kyle J Martin, Gareth J Fraser, Shaun P Collin
Gustation in sharks is not well understood, especially within species that ingest food items using suction. This study examines the morphological and immunohistochemical characterisation of taste papillae and oral denticles in the oropharynx of the brown-banded bamboo shark Chiloscyllium punctatum and compares their distribution during development. Taste papillae of the brown-banded bamboo shark Chiloscyllium punctatum are located throughout the oropharyngeal region and are most concentrated on the oral valves (2,125-3,483 per cm(2) in embryos; 89-111 per cm(2) in mature adults) close to the tooth territories...
October 26, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776163/potential-use-of-autologous-renal-cells-from-diseased-kidneys-for-the-treatment-of-renal-failure
#8
Sunil K George, Mehran Abolbashari, John D Jackson, Tamer Aboushwareb, Anthony Atala, James J Yoo
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs when certain conditions cause the kidneys to gradually lose function. For patients with CKD, renal transplantation is the only treatment option that restores kidney function. In this study, we evaluated primary renal cells obtained from diseased kidneys to determine whether their normal phenotypic and functional characteristics are retained, and could be used for cell therapy. Primary renal cells isolated from both normal kidneys (NK) and diseased kidneys (CKD) showed similar phenotypic characteristics and growth kinetics...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680547/chemosensory-epithelial-cells-in-the-urethra-sentinels-of-the-urinary-tract
#9
Klaus Deckmann, Wolfgang Kummer
A peculiar cell type of the respiratory and gastrointestinal epithelia, originally termed "brush cell" or "tuft cell" by electron microscopists because of its apical tuft of microvilli, utilizes the canonical bitter taste transduction cascade known from oropharyngeal taste buds to detect potential hazardous compounds, e.g. bacterial products. Upon stimulation, this cell initiates protective reflexes and local inflammatory responses through release of acetylcholine and chemokines. Guided by the understanding of these cells as sentinels, they have been newly discovered at previously unrecognized anatomical locations, including the urethra...
September 29, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677532/doublecortin-like-kinase-1-positive-enterocyte-a-new-cell-type-in-human-intestine
#10
Joni Leppänen, Olli Helminen, Heikki Huhta, Joonas H Kauppila, Ilkka Miinalainen, Veli-Pekka Ronkainen, Juha Saarnio, Petri P Lehenkari, Tuomo J Karttunen
Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) is a microtubule-associated kinase. In murine intestine, DCLK1 marks tuft cells with characteristic microvilli, features of neuroendocrine cells and also quiescent stem cell-like properties. The occurrence and pathological role of DCLK1-positive cells in human intestinal mucosa is unknown. We analysed DCLK1 expression in healthy duodenal, jejunal and colorectal mucosa samples (n = 35), and in duodenal specimens from patients with coeliac disease (n = 20). The samples were immunohistochemically double-stained with DCLK1, and synaptophysin, chromogranin A and Ki-67...
November 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666969/myosin-7b-promotes-distal-tip-localization-of-the-intermicrovillar-adhesion-complex
#11
Meredith L Weck, Scott W Crawley, Colin R Stone, Matthew J Tyska
Transporting epithelial cells interact with the luminal environment using a tightly packed array of microvilli known as the brush border. During intestinal epithelial differentiation, microvillar packing and organization are driven by cadherin-dependent adhesion complexes that localize to the distal tips of microvilli, where they drive physical interactions between neighboring protrusions. Although enrichment of the "intermicrovillar adhesion complex" (IMAC) at distal tips is required for proper function, the mechanism driving tip accumulation of these factors remains unclear...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660326/a-link-between-planar-polarity-and-staircase-like-bundle-architecture-in-hair-cells
#12
Basile Tarchini, Abigail L D Tadenev, Nicholas Devanney, Michel Cayouette
Sensory perception in the inner ear relies on the hair bundle, the highly polarized brush of movement detectors crowning hair cells. We previously showed that, in the mouse cochlea, the edge of the forming bundle is defined by the 'bare zone', a microvilli-free sub-region of apical membrane specified by the mInsc-LGN-Gαi protein complex. We now report that LGN and Gαi also occupy the very tip of stereocilia that directly abut the bare zone. We demonstrate that LGN and Gαi are both essential to promote the elongation and differential identity of stereocilia across rows...
September 22, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628629/the-renal-sodium-bicarbonate-cotransporter-nbce2-is-it-a-major-contributor-to-sodium-and-ph-homeostasis
#13
REVIEW
Robin A Felder, Pedro A Jose, Peng Xu, John J Gildea
The sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2, aka NBC4) was originally isolated from the human testis and heart (Pushkin et al. IUBMB Life 50:13-19, 2000). Subsequently, NBCe2 was found in diverse locations where it plays a role in regulating sodium and bicarbonate transport, influencing intracellular, extracellular, interstitial, and ultimately plasma pH (Boron et al. J Exp Biol. 212:1697-1706, 2009; Parker and Boron, Physiol Rev. 93:803-959, 2013; Romero et al. Mol Asp Med. 34:159-182, 2013). NBCe2 is located in human and rodent renal-collecting duct and proximal tubule...
September 2016: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589738/exposure-to-zinc-sulfate-results-in-differential-effects-on-olfactory-sensory-neuron-subtypes-in-adult-zebrafish
#14
James T Hentig, Christine A Byrd-Jacobs
Zinc sulfate is a known olfactory toxicant, although its specific effects on the olfactory epithelium of zebrafish are unknown. Olfactory organs of adult zebrafish were exposed to zinc sulfate and, after 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 or 14 days, fish were processed for histological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and behavioral analyses. Severe morphological disruption of the olfactory organ was observed two days following zinc sulfate exposure, including fusion of lamellae, epithelial inflammation, and significant loss of anti-calretinin labeling...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557990/the-expression-of-vill-protein-is-hypoosmotic-dependent-in-the-lamellar-gill-ionocytes-of-otocephala-teleost-fish-chanos-chanos
#15
Chao-Kai Kang, Chia-Shian Lin, Yao-Chung Hu, Shu-Chuan Tsai, Tsung-Han Lee
Milkfish, a species within the primitive teleost lineage Otocephala, can survive in water conditions ranging from hypo- to hyper-saline. This study explored the effects of environmental salinity on apical morphologies of ionocytes and the expression of villin homologs in the gills of milkfish acclimated to either seawater (SW) or fresh water (FW). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the ionocytes in the gill filaments of SW and FW milkfish, respectively, cellular apical morphologies were hole-type and squint-type...
August 21, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510428/acid-and-alkaline-phosphatase-localization-in-the-digestive-tract-mucosa-of-the-hemisorubim-platyrhynchos
#16
Claudemir Kuhn Faccioli, Renata Alari Chedid, Ricardo Hideo Mori, Antônio Carlos do Amaral, Irene Bastos Franceschini-Vicentini, Carlos Alberto Vicentini
This cytochemical study investigated the acid and alkaline phosphatase of the digestive tract of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos. Acid phosphatase was detected in the lining epithelium throughout the digestive tract, whereas alkaline phosphatase was only observed in the intestine. In the esophagus, an acid phosphatase reaction occurred in the apical cytoplasm of the epithelial cells and was related to epithelial protection and freeing of superficial cells for sloughing. Similar results were also observed in epithelial cells of gastric epithelium...
August 7, 2016: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482049/midbody-remnant-licenses-primary-cilia-formation-in-epithelial-cells
#17
Carolyn M Ott
Tethered midbody remnants dancing across apical microvilli, encountering the centrosome, and beckoning forth a cilium-who would have guessed this is how polarized epithelial cells coordinate the end of mitosis and the beginning of ciliogenesis? New evidence from Bernabé-Rubio et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201601020) supports this emerging model.
August 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409460/light-induced-thickening-of-photoreceptor-outer-segment-layer-detected-by-ultra-high-resolution-oct-imaging
#18
Yichao Li, Robert N Fariss, Jennifer W Qian, Ethan D Cohen, Haohua Qian
PURPOSE: We examined if light induces changes in the retinal structure that can be observed using optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: Normal C57BL/6J mice (age 3-6 months) adapted to either room light (15 minutes to ∼5 hours, 50-500 lux) or darkness (overnight) were imaged using a Bioptigen UHR-OCT system. Confocal histologic images were obtained from mice killed under light- or dark-adapted conditions. RESULTS: The OCT image of eyes adapted to room light exhibited significant increases (6...
July 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396550/liver-kinase-b1-regulates-hepatocellular-tight-junction-distribution-and-function-in-vivo
#19
Natalie Porat-Shliom, Amber J Tietgens, Christina M Van Itallie, Lynn Vitale-Cross, Michal Jarnik, Olivia J Harding, James M Anderson, J Silvio Gutkind, Roberto Weigert, Irwin M Arias
UNLABELLED: Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and its downstream effector AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) play critical roles in polarity establishment by regulating membrane trafficking and energy metabolism. In collagen sandwich-cultured hepatocytes, loss of LKB1 or AMPK impaired apical ABCB11 (Bsep) trafficking and bile canalicular formation. In the present study, we used liver-specific (albumin-Cre) LKB1 knockout mice (LKB1(-/-) ) to investigate the role of LKB1 in the maintenance of functional tight junction (TJ) in vivo...
October 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377750/elevated-cytosolic-cl-concentrations-in-dendritic-knobs-of-mouse-vomeronasal-sensory-neurons
#20
Verena Untiet, Lisa M Moeller, Ximena Ibarra-Soria, Gabriela Sánchez-Andrade, Miriam Stricker, Eva M Neuhaus, Darren W Logan, Thomas Gensch, Marc Spehr
In rodents, the vomeronasal system controls social and sexual behavior. However, several mechanistic aspects of sensory signaling in the vomeronasal organ remain unclear. Here, we investigate the biophysical basis of a recently proposed vomeronasal signal transduction component-a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current. As the physiological role of such a current is a direct function of the Cl(-) equilibrium potential, we determined the intracellular Cl(-) concentration in dendritic knobs of vomeronasal neurons. Quantitative fluorescence lifetime imaging of a Cl(-)-sensitive dye at the apical surface of the intact vomeronasal neuroepithelium revealed increased cytosolic Cl(-) levels in dendritic knobs, a substantially lower Cl(-) concentration in vomeronasal sustentacular cells, and an apparent Cl(-) gradient in vomeronasal neurons along their dendritic apicobasal axis...
October 2016: Chemical Senses
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