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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730971/apoptosis-and-anti-cancer-drug-discovery-the-power-of-medicinal-fungi-and-plants
#1
Jack Ho Wong, Stephen Cho Wing Sze, Tzi Bun Ng, Randy Chi Fai Cheung, Chit Tam, Kalin Yanbo Zhang, Xiuli Dan, Yau Sang Chan, William Chi Shing Cho, Charlene Cheuk Wing Ng, Mary Miu Yee Waye, Weicheng Liang, Jinfang Zhang, Jie Yang, Xiuyun Ye, Juan Lin, Xiujuan Ye, Hexiang Wang, Fang Liu, David Wai Chan, Hextan Yuen Sheung Ngan, Ou Sha, Guohui Li, Ryan Tse, Tak Fu Tse, Helen Chan
The purpose of this account is to review the compounds capable of eliciting mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells produced by medicinal fungi and plants. The medicinal fungi discussed encompass Cordyceps, Ganoderma species, Coriolus versicolor and Hypsizygus marmoreus. The medicinal plants discussed comprise Astragalus complanatus , Dendrobium spp,Dioscorea spp, Glycyrrhiza spp, Panax notoginseng, Panax ginseng, and Momordica charantia. These compounds have the potential of development into anticancer drugs...
July 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722764/12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-and-ezh2-inhibition-a-novel-approach-for-promoting-myogenic-differentiation-in-embryonal-rhabdomyosarcoma-cells
#2
Irene Marchesi, Luca Sanna, Milena Fais, Paolo Fiorentino Francesco, Antonio Giordano, Luigi Bagella
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a soft tissue sarcoma that arises from muscle precursors affecting predominately children and young adults. It can be divided into two main classes: embryonal (eRMS) and alveolar rhabodomyosarcomas (aRMS). Despite the expression of early muscle specific genes, RMS cells fail to complete myogenesis even in differentiation conditions. We previously demonstrated that Enhancer Zeste of Homolog 2 (EZH2), the catalytic subunits of PRC2 complex, contributes to inhibit muscle differentiation in eRMS and its down-regulation causes a partial recovery of myogenesis...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722290/development-of-a-cardiovascular-diseases-risk-prediction-model-and-tools-for-chinese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Eric Yuk Fai Wan, Daniel Yee Tak Fong, Colman Siu Cheung Fung, Esther Yee Tak Yu, Weng Yee Chin, Anca Ka Chun Chan, Cindy Lo Kuen Lam
AIMS: Evidence-based cardiovascular diseases(CVD) risk prediction models and tools specific for Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) are currently unavailable. This study aimed to develop and validate a CVD risk prediction model for Chinese T2DM patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 137 935 Chinese patients aged 18-79 years with T2DM and without prior history of CVD, who had received public primary care services between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2010...
July 19, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721081/insulin-glargine-300-u-ml-for-basal-insulin-therapy-in-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#4
REVIEW
Ip Tim Lau, Ka Fai Lee, Wing Yee So, Kathryn Tan, Vincent Tok Fai Yeung
OBJECTIVE: To review published clinical studies on the efficacy and safety of new insulin glargine 300 units/mL (Gla-300), a new long-acting insulin analog, for the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data sources comprised primary research articles on Gla-300, including pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and clinical studies. RESULTS: In pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies, Gla-300 showed a flatter time-action profile and longer duration of action than Gla-100...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719969/dmf-as-an-additive-in-two-step-spin-coating-method-for-20-conversion-efficiency-perovskite-solar-cells
#5
Jionghua Wu, Xin Xu, Yanhong Zhao, Jiangjian Shi, Yuzhuan Xu, Yanhong Luo, Dongmei Li, Huijue Wu, Qingbo Meng
DMF as additive has been employed in FAI/MAI/IPA (FA= CH2 (NH2)2, MA=CH3NH3, IPA is isopropanol) solution for two-step multi-cycle spin coating method in order to prepare high quality FAxMA1-xPbI2.55Br0.45 perovskite films. Further investigation reveals that the existence of DMF in the FAI/MAI/IPA solution can facilitate perovskite conversion, improve the film morphology and reduce crystal defects, thus enhance charge transfer efficiency. By optimization toward the DMF amount and spin coating cycles, compact, pinhole-free perovskite films are obtained...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718351/exosomal-hsp60-a-potentially-useful-biomarker-for-diagnosis-assessing-prognosis-and-monitoring-response-to-treatment
#6
Caruso Bavisotto, F Cappello, Ajl Macario, E Conway de Macario, M Logozzi, S Fais, C Campanella
Cell-to-cell communication is imperative for life and it is mediated by sending and receiving information via the secretion and subsequent receptor-mediated detection of biological molecules. Exosomes (EXs) secreted from cells to the extracellular environment play an important role in intercellular communication in normal and pathological conditions. Areas covered: New evidence indicates that tumor cells-derived EXs contribute to cancer progression through the modulation of tumor microenvironment. The exosomal heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) is very likely a key player in intercellular cross-talk, particularly during the progress of diseases, such as cancer...
July 18, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717646/genetic-variation-and-its-reflection-on-posttranslational-modifications-in-frequency-clock-and-mating-type-a-1-proteins-in-sordaria-fimicola
#7
Rabia Arif, Faiza Akram, Tazeen Jamil, Hamid Mukhtar, Siu Fai Lee, Muhammad Saleem
Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) occur in all essential proteins taking command of their functions. There are many domains inside proteins where modifications take place on side-chains of amino acids through various enzymes to generate different species of proteins. In this manuscript we have, for the first time, predicted posttranslational modifications of frequency clock and mating type a-1 proteins in Sordaria fimicola collected from different sites to see the effect of environment on proteins or various amino acids pickings and their ultimate impact on consensus sequences present in mating type proteins using bioinformatics tools...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709400/broad-range-potential-of-asphodelus-microcarpus-leaves-extract-for-drug-development
#8
Amalia Di Petrillo, Antonella Fais, Francesca Pintus, Celestino Santos-Buelga, Ana M González-Paramás, Vincenzo Piras, Germano Orrù, Antonello Mameli, Enzo Tramontano, Aldo Frau
BACKGROUND: Many plants have been used in traditional medicine for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In order to find novel antimicrobial and antiviral agents, the aim of the present study was the evaluation of the antibacterial and antibiofilm susceptibility of Asphodelus microcarpus leaves extract. Moreover, the antiviral activity and the phytochemical composition of the active extract were also determined...
July 14, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709152/squatting-biomechanics-in-individuals-with-symptomatic-femoroacetabular-impingement
#9
Laura E Diamond, Kim L Bennell, Tim V Wrigley, Rana S Hinman, John Oʼdonnell, Paul W Hodges
PURPOSE: Identification of the biomechanical alterations in individuals with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is critical to understand the pathology and inform treatments. Yet hip function in this condition is poorly defined. Squatting requires large hip flexion range and involves motion toward the position of hip impingement; thus, it is likely to expose modified biomechanics in these individuals. This study aimed to determine whether hip and pelvis biomechanics differ between individuals with and without symptomatic FAI during an unconstrained deep squat and a constrained squat designed to limit compensation by the pelvis and trunk...
August 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708430/natural-extracellular-nanovesicles-and-photodynamic-molecules-is-there-a-future-for-drug-delivery
#10
Katsuyuki Kusuzaki, Takao Matsubara, Hiroaki Murata, Mariantonia Logozzi, Elisabetta Iessi, Rossella Di Raimo, Fabrizio Carta, Claudiu T Supuran, Stefano Fais
Photodynamic molecules represent an alternative approach for cancer therapy for their property (i) to be photo-reactive; (ii) to be not-toxic for target cells in absence of light; (iii) to accumulate specifically into tumour tissues; (iv) to be activable by a light beam only at the tumour site and (v) to exert cytotoxic activity against tumour cells. However, to date their clinical use is limited by the side effects elicited by systemic administration. Extracellular vesicles are endogenous nanosized-carriers that have been recently introduced as a natural delivery system for therapeutic molecules...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701590/new-perspectives-of-cobalt-tris-bipyridine-system-anti-cancer-effect-and-its-collateral-sensitivity-towards-multidrug-resistant-mdr-cancers
#11
Betty Yuen Kwan Law, Yuan Q Qu, Simon Wing Fai Mok, Hauwei Liu, Zeng Wu, Yu Han, Flora Gordillo-Martinez, Wai-Kit Chan, Keith M Wong, Vincent Kam Wai Wong
Platinating compounds including cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin are common chemotherapeutic agents, however, patients developed resistance to these clinical agents after initial therapeutic treatments. Therefore, different approaches have been applied to identify novel therapeutic agents, molecular mechanisms, and targets for overcoming drug resistance. In this study, we have identified a panel of cobalt complexes that were able to specifically induce collateral sensitivity in taxol-resistant and p53-deficient cancer cells...
July 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701474/detecting-human-coronary-inflammation-by-imaging-perivascular-fat
#12
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Fabio Sanna, Nikant Sabharwal, Sheena Thomas, Evangelos K Oikonomou, Laura Herdman, Marios Margaritis, Cheerag Shirodaria, Anna-Maria Kampoli, Ioannis Akoumianakis, Mario Petrou, Rana Sayeed, George Krasopoulos, Constantinos Psarros, Patricia Ciccone, Carl M Brophy, Janet Digby, Andrew Kelion, Raman Uberoi, Suzan Anthony, Nikolaos Alexopoulos, Dimitris Tousoulis, Stephan Achenbach, Stefan Neubauer, Keith M Channon, Charalambos Antoniades
Early detection of vascular inflammation would allow deployment of targeted strategies for the prevention or treatment of multiple disease states. Because vascular inflammation is not detectable with commonly used imaging modalities, we hypothesized that phenotypic changes in perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) induced by vascular inflammation could be quantified using a new computerized tomography (CT) angiography methodology. We show that inflamed human vessels release cytokines that prevent lipid accumulation in PVAT-derived preadipocytes in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo...
July 12, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701206/physical-activity-level-in-people-with-age-related-white-matter-changes-correlates-to-better-motor-performance-lower-comorbidity-and-higher-cognitive-level
#13
Anna F Pettersson, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Lena Bronge, Elisabeth Olsson, Kaarina Amberla, Hansjoerg Baezner, Milita Crisby
BACKGROUND: Physical activity plays a pivotal role in the development of disability and may modify the negative effect of vascular risk factors on progression of both cardio and cerebrovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity level in people with age-related white matter changes as identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to motor performance, cognition and perceived health. METHODS: Data came from the first year follow up of one participating centers of the LADIS study...
July 12, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698144/inhibiting-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-to-promote-epithelial-transition-of-human-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Melina Setiawan, Xiao-Wei Tan, Tze-Wei Goh, Gary Hin-Fai Yam, Jodhbir S Mehta
BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to investigate the epithelial differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. METHODS AND RESULTS: STEMPRO human ADSCs at passage 2 were treated with CHIR99021 (GSK3 inhibitor), E-616452 (TGFβ1 receptor kinase inhibitor), A-83-01 (TGFβ type 1 receptor inhibitor), valproic acid (histone deacetylase inhibitor), tranylcypromine (monoamine oxidase inhibitor) and all-trans retinoic acid for 72 h...
July 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695462/transgenic-mice-overexpressing-the-divalent-metal-transporter-1-exhibit-iron-accumulation-and-enhanced-parkin-expression-in-the-brain
#15
Cheng-Wu Zhang, Yee Kit Tai, Bing-Han Chai, Katherine C M Chew, Eng-Tat Ang, Fai Tsang, Bryce W Q Tan, Eugenia T E Hong, Abu Bakar Ali Asad, Kai-Hsiang Chuang, Kah-Leong Lim, Tuck Wah Soong
Exposure to divalent metals such as iron and manganese is thought to increase the risk for Parkinson's disease (PD). Under normal circumstances, cellular iron and manganese uptake is regulated by the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). Accordingly, alterations in DMT1 levels may underlie the abnormal accumulation of metal ions and thereby disease pathogenesis. Here, we have generated transgenic mice overexpressing DMT1 under the direction of a mouse prion promoter and demonstrated its robust expression in several regions of the brain...
July 10, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694142/increased-psa-expression-on-prostate-cancer-exosomes-in-in%C3%A2-vitro-condition-and-in-cancer-patients
#16
Mariantonia Logozzi, Daniela F Angelini, Elisabetta Iessi, Davide Mizzoni, Rossella Di Raimo, Cristina Federici, Luana Lugini, Giovanna Borsellino, Alessandro Gentilucci, Federico Pierella, Vittorio Marzio, Alessandro Sciarra, Luca Battistini, Stefano Fais
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) test is the most common, clinically validated test for the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). While neoplastic lesions of the prostate may cause aberrant levels of PSA in the blood, the quantitation of free or complexed PSA poorly discriminates cancer patients from those developing benign lesions, often leading to invasive and unnecessary surgical procedures. Microenvironmental acidity increases exosome release by cancer cells. In this study we evaluated whether acidity, a critical phenotype of malignancy, could influence exosome release and increase the PSA expression in nanovesicles released by PCa cells...
July 8, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692793/rare-x-chromosome-abnormalities-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#17
Rohan Sharma, Valerie M Harris, Joshua Cavett, Biji T Kurien, Ke Liu, Kristi A Koelsch, Anum Fayaaz, Kaustubh S Chaudhari, Lida Radfar, David Lewis, Donald U Stone, C Erick Kaufman, Shibo Li, Barbara Segal, Daniel J Wallace, Michael H Weisman, Swamy Venuturupalli, Jennifer A Kelly, Bernardo Pons-Estel, Roland Jonsson, Xianglan Lu, Jacques-Eric Gottenberg, Juan-Manuel Anaya, Deborah S Cunninghame-Graham, Andrew J W Huang, Michael T Brennan, Pamela Hughes, Ilias Alevizos, Corinne Miceli-Richard, Edward C Keystone, Vivian P Bykerk, Gideon Hirschfield, Gang Xie, Gunnel Nordmark, Sara Magnusson Bucher, Per Eriksson, Roald Omdal, Nelson L Rhodus, Maureen Rischmueller, Michael Rohrer, Marie Wahren-Herlenius, Torsten Witte, Marta Alarcon-Riquelme, Xavier Mariette, Christopher J Lessard, John B Harley, Wan-Fai Ng, Astrid Rasmussen, Kathy L Sivils, R Hal Scofield
BACKGROUND: Sjögren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are related by clinical and serological manifestations as well as genetic risks. Both diseases are more commonly found in women compared to men at a ratio of about 10 to 1. Common X chromosome aneuploidies, 47,XXY and 47,XXX, are enriched among men and women, respectively, in either disease suggesting a dose effect on the X chromosome. METHODS: We examined cohorts of Sjögren's syndrome or SLE patients with intensity plots of X chromosome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles along with karyotype of selected subjects...
July 10, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692040/valley-magnetoelectricity-in-single-layer-mos2
#18
Jieun Lee, Zefang Wang, Hongchao Xie, Kin Fai Mak, Jie Shan
The magnetoelectric (ME) effect, the phenomenon of inducing magnetization by application of an electric field or vice versa, holds great promise for magnetic sensing and switching applications. Studies of the ME effect have so far focused on the control of the electron spin degree of freedom (DOF) in materials such as multiferroics and conventional semiconductors. Here, we report a new form of the ME effect based on the valley DOF in two-dimensional Dirac materials. By breaking the three-fold rotational symmetry in single-layer MoS 2 via a uniaxial stress, we have demonstrated the pure electrical generation of valley magnetization in this material, and its direct imaging by Kerr rotation microscopy...
July 10, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685053/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-attenuates-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induced-apoptosis-in-endothelial-colony-forming-cells
#19
Ning Bian, Gang Du, Man Fai Ip, Juan Ding, Qing Chang, Zicheng Li
Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are important in angiogenesis and vascular proliferation. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is a significant risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis and a key proinflammatory cytokine known to induce apoptosis in endothelial cells. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is one of the members of the vasoactive intestinal peptide/secretin/growth hormone-releasing hormone/glucagon superfamily and exists in two biological active forms, PACAP 38 and PACAP 27...
July 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684895/comparative-study-of-the-methods-of-extracting-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-cryopreserved-wharton-s-jelly
#20
Peng Yew Kenny Boey, Say Liang Daniel Lim, Kin Fai Tang, Ming Ming Li, Andrew Krishna Ekaputra, Prosanto Kumar Chowdhury, Rajat Anand Gopal Mukherjee, Jennifer Teo, Arvin C Faundo, Yoke Fong Chiew
The Wharton's Jelly (WJ) is an established source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). We compared 3 methods of extracting WJ-MSC from cryopreserved tissue and determined that enzymatic digestion of the WJ yielded the most viable MSC, compared to the explant and mechanical digestion methods. The enzymatically-released WJ-MSC conformed to the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) criteria: displayed plastic-adherence, co-expressed CD73, CD90, CD105 and were negative for hematopoietic lineage cell markers...
2017: Journal of Stem Cells & Regenerative Medicine
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