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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786953/iatrogenic-botulism-outbreak-in-egypt-due-to-a-counterfeit-botulinum-toxin-a-preparation-a-descriptive-series-of-patient-features-and-outcome
#1
Eman Abdel Monaem Abdel Rashid, Nashwa Mohamed El-Mahdy, Huda Shehata Kharoub, Ahmed Salah Gouda, Naglaa Ahmed ElNabarawy, Bruno Mégarbane
Iatrogenic botulism resulting from the substantial increase in use of botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT-A) treatment is rarely reported. We aimed to describe a large iatrogenic botulism outbreak in Egypt in June-July 2017. Nine patients developed botulism after receiving intramuscular injections of BoNT-A (dose: 200-300 IU) to treat cerebral palsy (N=7), spastic dystonia (N=1), and hyperhidrosis (N=1). Detailed findings were available in 5/9 cases. Patients were admitted to the hospital 5-10 days after the BoNT-A injection...
May 22, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786072/mptp-driven-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-microglia-plays-a-central-role-in-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration
#2
Eunju Lee, Inhwa Hwang, Sangjun Park, Sujeong Hong, Boreum Hwang, Yoeseph Cho, Junghyun Son, Je-Wook Yu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and the reduction of dopamine levels in the striatum. Although details of the molecular mechanisms underlying dopaminergic neuronal death in PD remain unclear, neuroinflammation is also considered a potent mediator in the pathogenesis and progression of PD. In the present study, we present evidences that microglial NLRP3 inflammasome activation is critical for dopaminergic neuronal loss and the subsequent motor deficits in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD...
May 21, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783676/the-expanding-therapeutic-utility-of-botulinum-neurotoxins
#3
REVIEW
Elena Fonfria, Jacquie Maignel, Stephane Lezmi, Vincent Martin, Andrew Splevins, Saif Shubber, Mikhail Kalinichev, Keith Foster, Philippe Picaut, Johannes Krupp
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a major therapeutic agent that is licensed in neurological indications, such as dystonia and spasticity. The BoNT family, which is produced in nature by clostridial bacteria, comprises several pharmacologically distinct proteins with distinct properties. In this review, we present an overview of the current therapeutic landscape and explore the diversity of BoNT proteins as future therapeutics. In recent years, novel indications have emerged in the fields of pain, migraine, overactive bladder, osteoarthritis, and wound healing...
May 18, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778594/differetial-toxin-profiles-of-ciguatoxins-in-marine-organisms-chemistry-fate-and-global-distribution
#4
REVIEW
Lucía Soliño, Pedro Reis Costa
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are fish metabolism products and a result of biotransformation of precursor gambiertoxins produced, in the first instance, by benthic dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. Ciguatoxins are potent neurotoxins that selectively open voltage gated sodium channels in excitable cells causing the human food poisoning known as Ciguatera (CFP). Endemic from tropical areas in central Pacific and West Indian Ocean, and the Caribbean Sea, CTX may affects up to 500,000 people annually due to fish consumption...
May 17, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778227/what-are-the-main-environmental-factors-driving-the-development-of-the-neurotoxic-dinoflagellate-vulcanodinium-rugosum-in-a-mediterranean-ecosystem-ingril-lagoon-france
#5
Eric Abadie, Claude Chiantella, Anaïs Crottier, Lesley Rhodes, Estelle Masseret, Tom Berteaux, Mohamed Laabir
Vulcanodinium rugosum, a dinoflagellate developing in Ingril Lagoon (Mediterranean, France) is responsible for shellfish intoxications due to the neurotoxin pinnatoxin G. A one year survey (March 2012-April 2013) was conducted in this oligotrophic shallow lagoon and key environmental parameters were recorded (temperature, salinity and nutrients). The spatio-temporal distribution of V. rugosum in water column and on macrophytes was also determined. Planktonic cells of V. rugosum were observed at all sampling stations, but in relatively low concentrations (maximum of 1000 cell/L)...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773924/mercury-in-the-diatoms-of-various-ecological-formations
#6
Magdalena Bełdowska, Aleksandra Zgrundo, Justyna Kobos
Mercury is a neurotoxin, its main source in the human organism being fish and seafood. The first level in the marine food web is formed of planktonic and benthic photosynthetic microorganisms, which form a biofilm on the surface of the hard bottom (epilithon) or plants (epiphyton). They are carriers of nutritional as well as toxic substances and pass these on to subsequent levels of the trophic web. Their biomass is often dominated by diatoms. This was the basis for the presented study into Hg accumulation in epilithic, epiphytic and planktonic diatoms, which was carried out in 2012-2013 in the coastal zone of the Puck Lagoon and the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic)...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770921/neuronal-adenosine-a-2a-receptor-overexpression-is-neuroprotective-towards-3-nitropropionic-acid-induced-striatal-toxicity-a-rat-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#7
Maria Rosaria Domenici, Valentina Chiodi, Mirko Averna, Monica Armida, Antonella Pèzzola, Rita Pepponi, Antonella Ferrante, Michael Bader, Kjell Fuxe, Patrizia Popoli
The A2A adenosine receptor (A2A R) is widely distributed on different cellular types in the brain, where it exerts a broad spectrum of pathophysiological functions, and for which a role in different neurodegenerative diseases has been hypothesized or demonstrated. To investigate the role of neuronal A2A Rs in neurodegeneration, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo the effect of the neurotoxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) in a transgenic rat strain overexpressing A2A Rs under the control of the neural-specific enolase promoter (NSEA2A rats)...
May 16, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770866/meucin-49-a-multifunctional-scorpion-venom-peptide-with-bactericidal-synergy-with-neurotoxins
#8
Bin Gao, Julie Dalziel, Simone Tanzi, Shunyi Zhu
Besides key roles in prey capture and predator defense, scorpion venom also functions as internal immune agents protecting the venom gland from infection and external immune agents cleaning saprophytic microbes from their own body surfaces. However, antimicrobials (typically antimicrobial peptides, AMPs) in the venom often exist in low abundance that might exclude their immune role alone, leaving an open question with regard to their in vivo biological function. Here, we report the bactericidal activity of seven peptides isolated from the scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus venom, including one classical α-helical AMP and five ion channel-targeted neurotoxins...
May 16, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770111/chronic-caffeine-treatment-protects-against-%C3%AE-synucleinopathy-by-reestablishing-autophagy-activity-in-the-mouse-striatum
#9
Yanan Luan, Xiangpeng Ren, Wu Zheng, Zhenhai Zeng, Yingzi Guo, Zhidong Hou, Wei Guo, Xingjun Chen, Fei Li, Jiang-Fan Chen
Despite converging epidemiological evidence for the inverse relationship of regular caffeine consumption and risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD) with animal studies demonstrating protective effect of caffeine in various neurotoxin models of PD, whether caffeine can protect against mutant α-synuclein (α-Syn) A53T-induced neurotoxicity in intact animals has not been examined. Here, we determined the effect of chronic caffeine treatment using the α-Syn fibril model of PD by intra-striatal injection of preformed A53T α-Syn fibrils...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764285/expressions-of-eotaxin-3-interleukin-5-and-eosinophil-derived-neurotoxin-in-chronic-subdural-hematoma-fluids
#10
Reo Kawaguchi, Koji Osuka, Masahiro Aoyama, Shigeru Miyachi, Masakazu Takayasu
Eosinophils induce inflammation by releasing cytokines and cytotoxic granule proteins. Infiltration of eosinophilic granulocytes occurs in the outer membrane of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs). Eosinophils play an important role in the growth of CSDHs. However, the manner in which eosinophils accumulate within CSDH fluid remains undetermined. In the current study, we assessed the expression of eosinophil chemoattractants in CSDH fluids according to the growth stage of the CSDHs and examined the correlation between the two...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764237/neuroprotective-effect-of-clavulanic-acid-on-trimethyltin-tmt-induced-cytotoxicity-in-pc12-cells
#11
Samaneh Silakhori, Hossein Hosseinzadeh, Fatemeh Shaebani Behbahani, Soghra Mehri
Trimethyltin (TMT) is a short-chain trialkyltin with various applications in industry. In addition, it is a known neurotoxin, producing significant and selective neurodegeneration in the limbic system of both human and animals. Recently, effect of clavulanic acid (CA) in nervous system has been mentioned. Therefore, in this study, the role of CA in TMT-induced toxicity in PC12 cells was evaluated. For this study, PC12 cells were cultured and exposed to different concentrations of CA for 24 h. Then, TMT (20 µM) was added to cells...
May 15, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754819/blocking-neuronal-signaling-to-immune-cells-treats-streptococcal-invasive-infection
#12
Felipe A Pinho-Ribeiro, Buket Baddal, Rianne Haarsma, Maghnus O'Seaghdha, Nicole J Yang, Kimbria J Blake, Makayla Portley, Waldiceu A Verri, James B Dale, Michael R Wessels, Isaac M Chiu
The nervous system, the immune system, and microbial pathogens interact closely at barrier tissues. Here, we find that a bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus pyogenes, hijacks pain and neuronal regulation of the immune response to promote bacterial survival. Necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening soft tissue infection in which "pain is out of proportion" to early physical manifestations. We find that S. pyogenes, the leading cause of necrotizing fasciitis, secretes streptolysin S (SLS) to directly activate nociceptor neurons and produce pain during infection...
May 7, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751611/purification-and-characterization-of-recombinant-botulinum-neurotoxin-serotype-fa-also-known-as-serotype-h
#13
Gavin Hackett, Kevin Moore, David Burgin, Fraser Hornby, Bryony Gray, Mark Elliott, Imran Mir, Matthew Beard
We have purified and characterized recombinant botulinum neurotoxin serotype FA (BoNT/FA). This protein has also been named as a new serotype (serotype H), but the classification has been controversial. A lack of well-characterized, highly pure material has been a roadblock to study. Here we report purification and characterization of enzymatically active, and of inactive nontoxic, recombinant forms of BoNT/FA as tractable alternatives to purifying this neurotoxin from native Clostridium botulinum . BoNT/FA cleaves the same intracellular target proteins as BoNT/F1 and other F serotype BoNTs; the intracellular targets are vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMP) 1, 2 and 3...
May 11, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751308/the-influence-of-avian-biovectors-on-mercury-speciation-in-a-bog-ecosystem
#14
Jocelyn C Kickbush, Mark L Mallory, John D Murimboh, Jennie Rand, Sara J Klapstein, Amanda L Loder, Nicholas M Hill, Nelson J O'Driscoll
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxin and endocrine disruptor that bioaccumulates and biomagnifies through trophic levels, resulting in potentially hazardous concentrations. Although wetlands are known hotspots for mercury (Hg) methylation, the effects of avian biovectors on these processes are poorly understood. We examined Hg speciation and distribution in shallow groundwater and surface water from a raised-bog with over 30years of avian biovector (herring gulls Larus argentatus and great black-backed gulls Larus marinus) colonization and guano input...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748471/novel-botulinum-neurotoxins-exploring-underneath-the-iceberg-tip
#15
REVIEW
Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Marco Pirazzini
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the etiological agents of botulism, are the deadliest toxins known to humans. Yet, thanks to their biological and toxicological features, BoNTs have become sophisticated tools to study neuronal physiology and valuable therapeutics for an increasing number of human disorders. BoNTs are produced by multiple bacteria of the genus Clostridium and, on the basis of their different immunological properties, were classified as seven distinct types of toxin. BoNT classification remained stagnant for the last 50 years until, via bioinformatics and high-throughput sequencing techniques, dozens of BoNT variants, novel serotypes as well as BoNT-like toxins within non-clostridial species have been discovered...
May 10, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746979/benthic-periphyton-from-pennsylvania-usa-are-a-source-for-both-hepatotoxins-microcystins-nodularin-and-neurotoxins-anatoxin-a-homoanatoxin-a
#16
Amanda J Foss, Jeffery Butt, Mark T Aubel
In 2016, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection conducted a limited survey of streams in the Susquehanna River basin in Pennsylvania, USA, to screen for microcystins/nodularins and anatoxin-a (ATX) and homoanatoxin-a (HTX). Testing revealed the presence of HTX in samples collected from the Pine Creek basin, with ATX present at lower levels. Microcystins/nodularins (MCs/NODs) were also tested and found to be concomitant, with NOD-R confirmed present by LC-MS/MS.
May 7, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746518/an-ambient-temperature-stable-antitoxin-of-nine-co-formulated-antibodies-for-botulism-caused-by-serotypes-a-b-and-e
#17
Mingxiang Li, Dennis Lee, Chidi R Obi, Joel K Freeberg, Shauna Farr-Jones, Milan T Tomic
Safe and effective antitoxins to treat and prevent botulism are needed for biodefense. We have developed recombinant antibody-based therapeutics for botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes A, B, and E. The mechanism of action of this antitoxin requires that three mAbs bind one toxin molecule to achieve clearance. Here we present a co-formulation of an antitoxin to the three most important serotypes. Combining these antibodies obviates the need to identify the serotype causing intoxication prior to drug administration, which would facilitate administration...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746003/ige-sensitisation-to-food-allergens-and-airborne-allergens-in-relation-to-biomarkers-of-type-2-inflammation-in-asthma
#18
A Patelis, K Alving, R Middelveld, A James, J Ono, S Ohta, K Izuhara, M P Borres, B Forsberg, C Janson, A Malinovschi
BACKGROUND: We have recently reported that sensitisation to food allergens and sensitisation to airborne allergens had independent associations with increased fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and blood eosinophils in middle-aged adults and in young subjects with asthma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between IgE sensitisation and several type 2 inflammation biomarkers in adult asthmatics. METHODS: FeNO, urinary eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (U-EDN), serum eosinophil cationic protein (S-ECP) and periostin were measured in 396 asthmatics, aged 17-76 years, from the Swedish GA2LEN study...
May 10, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745566/-research-progress-of-neurobiological-function-of-1-methyl-6-7-dihydroxy-1-2-3-4-tetrahydroisoquinoline
#19
REVIEW
Xiaotong Zheng, Xuechai Chen, Zixuan Chen, Hong Qing, Yulin Deng, Rugang Zhong, Minjun Guo
1-methyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (Sal) is a kind of catechol isoquinoline compound, which mainly exists in mammalian brain and performs a variety of biological functions. Through in vivo metabolism, Sal can be transformed into endogenous neurotoxins and can participate the occurrence of Parkinson's disease (PD). This has attracted widespread concern of researchers. Recently, many research works have shown that Sal may lead to alcohol addiction and regulate hormone release of the neuroendocrine system, which indicated that it is a potential regulator of dopaminergic neurons...
June 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740311/-sophora-flavescens-aiton-decreases-mpp-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#20
Hee-Young Kim, Hyongjun Jeon, Hyungwoo Kim, Sungtae Koo, Seungtae Kim
Sophora flavescens Aiton (SF) has been used to treat various diseases including fever and inflammation in China, South Korea and Japan. Several recent reports have shown that SF has anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, indicating that it is a promising candidate for treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). We evaluated the protective effect of SF against neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+ )-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, an in vitro PD model. SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with SF for 24 h, after which they were treated with MPP+ ...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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