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Wei Gao, James B McAlpine, Mary P Choules, José G Napolitano, David C Lankin, Charlotte Simmler, Ngoc Anh Ho, Hanki Lee, Joo-Won Suh, Ian W Burton, Sanghyun Cho, Scott G Franzblau, Shao-Nong Chen, Guido F Pauli
This report describes an approach using (1)H NMR iterative full-spin analysis (HiFSA) to extract definitive structural information on unknown peptides from 1D (1)H NMR data. By comparing the experimental data and HiFSA fingerprint of a known analogue, it is possible to isolate the characteristic (1)H subspectrum of the different amino acids and, thus, elucidate the structure of the peptide. To illustrate this methodology, a comprehensive analysis of five new anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptides (2-6), all analogues of ecumicin (1), was carried out...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
L E M Reid, A J F Crookshanks, M C Jones, Z J Morrison, N I Lone, C J Weir
The majority of medical patients presenting to hospital in the UK are cared for in acute medical units (AMUs). Such units are also increasingly present internationally. Care delivery varies across units: this review aims to examine the evidence for how best to deliver AMU care.Six electronic databases and grey literature were searched. Inclusion criteria comprised interventions applied to undifferentiated patients in AMU settings. All studies were quality assessed. A narrative approach was undertaken.Nine studies, all conducted in the UK or Ireland, evaluated 1...
August 4, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Anna E Hurtley, Elizabeth Stone, Anthony J Metrano, Scott J Miller
Diarylmethylamido bis(phenols) have been subjected to peptide-catalyzed, enantioselective bromination reactions. Desymmetrization of compounds in this class has been achieved such that enantioenriched products may be isolated with up to 97:3 er. Mechanistically, the observed enantioselectivity was shown to be primarily a function of differential functionalization of enantiotopic arenes, although additional studies unveiled a contribution from secondary kinetic resolution of the product (to afford the symmetrical dibromide) under the reaction conditions...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
R S Nannan Panday, T C Minderhoud, N Alam, P W B Nanayakkara
BACKGROUND: A wide array of early warning scores (EWS) have been developed and are used in different settings to detect which patients are at risk of deterioration. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of studies conducted on the value of EWS on predicting intensive care (ICU) admission and mortality in the emergency department (ED) and acute medical unit (AMU). METHODS: A literature search was conducted in the bibliographic databases PubMed and EMBASE, from inception to April 2017...
October 6, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Diego B Nobrega, Jeroen De Buck, S Ali Naqvi, Gang Liu, Sohail Naushad, Vineet Saini, Herman W Barkema
Assessment of antimicrobial use (AMU) is vital for interpreting the origin of changes in antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The objectives of the present study were to estimate the association between AMU determined using on-farm treatment records (TR) and inventory of empty drug containers (INV). Herds were selected to represent Canadian dairy farms. Producers were asked to record animal health events and treatments on a standard General Health Event form. For inventory data, 40-L receptacles were placed at various locations considered convenient to deposit all empty drug containers...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Maarten F Heringa, Jay Gates Slowik, Maximilian Goldmann, Ruth Signorell, Patrick Hemberger, Andras Bodi
The valence threshold photoionization of oleic acid has been studied using synchrotron VUV radiation and imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence (iPEPICO) spectroscopy. An oleic acid aerosol beam was impacted on a copper thermodesorber, heated to 130 °C, to evaporate the particles quantitatively. Upon threshold photoionization, oleic acid produces the intact parent ion first, followed by dehydration at higher energies. Starting at ca. 10 eV, a large number of fragment ions slowly rise suggesting several fragmentation coordinates with quasi-degenerate activation energies...
October 7, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
J A Álvarez, C Ávila, P Otter, R Kilian, D Istenič, M Rolletschek, P Molle, N Khalil, I Ameršek, V K Mishra, C Jorgensen, A Garfi, P Carvalho, H Brix, C A Arias
SWINGS was a cooperation project between the European Union and India, aiming at implementing state of the art low-cost technologies for the treatment and reuse of domestic wastewater in rural areas of India. The largest wastewater treatment plant consists of a high-rate anaerobic system, followed by vertical and horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands with a treatment area of around 1,900 m(2) and a final step consisting of solar-driven anodic oxidation (AO) and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection units allowing direct reuse of the treated water...
September 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Pengkun Ma, Peng Zhang, Jinian Shu, Bo Yang, Haixu Zhang
To further explore the composition and distribution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components from the photo-oxidation of light aromatic precursors (toluene, m-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (1,3,5-TMB)) and idling gasoline exhaust, a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometer (VUV-PIMS) was employed. Peaks of the molecular ions of the SOA components with minimum molecular fragmentation were clearly observed from the mass spectra of SOA, through the application of soft ionization methods in VUV-PIMS...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Qamar Zia, Asim Azhar, Shadab Ahmad, Mohammad Afsar, Ziaul Hasan, Mohammad Owais, Mahfooz Alam, Shabab Akbar, Magdah Ganash, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Swaleha Zubair, Gjumrakch Aliev
BACKGROUND: For design of a subunit vaccine for tuberculosis, identification of antigenic T-cell epitope is of utmost importance. Several MHC prediction server are available that can accurately predict antigenic peptide of variable lengths. However, peptides predicted from one server not necessarily are predicted form another server, thus creating a confusing situation for scientists to choose a best epitope. METHOD: Keeping the above problem in mind, we developed a comprehensive database of peptides of Mycobacterial proteins...
September 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Xian Cao, Matthew A Tarr
Aldehyde and ketone photoproducts were observed in the aqueous phase under oil exposed to simulated sunlight by using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatization and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Oil samples were spread over seawater in a jacketed beaker held at 27.0 °C and exposed to simulated sunlight. The aqueous phase was collected after irradiation and derivatized with DNPH, which selectively reacts with aldehydes and ketones. The derivatized hydrazones (aldehyde- and ketone-DNPH derivatives) were washed and enriched with a solid-phase extraction cartridge prior to analysis by ESI-MS/MS in negative ion mode...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Anam Kamran, Elisa Chia, Claire Tobin
BACKGROUND: Oxygen is a widely used drug in the hospital setting. However, international audits suggest that oxygen administration practices are often not compliant with prescribed standards. This can place patients at risk and cause serious adverse events. AIM: To analyse data related to recent practices of oxygen prescription and administration at Royal Perth Hospital (RPH), Western Australia. The results of this audit aim to guide further research on possible interventional studies implementing key solutions...
September 4, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
Antonio Eleuteri, Anthony C Fisher, Deborah M Broadbent, Marta García-Fiñana, Christopher P Cheyne, Amu Wang, Irene M Stratton, Mark Gabbay, Daniel Seddon, Simon P Harding
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Individualised variable-interval risk-based screening offers better targeting and improved cost-effectiveness in screening for diabetic retinopathy. We developed a generalisable risk calculation engine (RCE) to assign personalised intervals linked to local population characteristics, and explored differences in assignment compared with current practice. METHODS: Data from 5 years of photographic screening and primary care for people with diabetes, screen negative at the first of > 1 episode, were combined in a purpose-built near-real-time warehouse...
August 24, 2017: Diabetologia
V Krömker, S Leimbach
Animal-friendly, economical, resource-saving milk production provides the basis for sustained consumer acceptance. Bovine mastitis plays a decisive role in the dairy industry-disturbing animal health and welfare and causing considerable economic losses on the other hand. Currently, antimicrobial treatment is indispensable to keep bovine udder health, animal welfare and economic aspects in balance. On the contrary, emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an urgent matter of particular public interest, and as a consequence, antimicrobial usage (AMU) in production livestock is a critically discussed subject...
August 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Greta Westwood, Paul Meredith, Susan Atkins, Peter Greengross, Paul E Schmidt, Richard J Aspinall
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Many people who die from alcohol related liver disease (ARLD) have a history of recurrent admissions to hospital, representing potential missed opportunities for intervention. Universal screening for alcohol misuse has been advocated but it is not known if this is achievable or effective at detecting individuals at high risk of ARLD. METHODS: We systematically screened all admissions to the Acute Medical Unit (AMU) of a large acute hospital using an electronic data capture system in real time...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
Lou Barreau, Oscar Martinez, Kyle N Crabtree, Caroline C Womack, John F Stanton, Michael C McCarthy
Owing to questions that still persist regarding the length of the O-H and central O-O bond, and large-amplitude torsional motion of trans hydridotrioxygen HOOO, a weakly bound complex between OH and O2, new (18)O isotopic measurements of HOOO and DOOO were undertaken using Fourier transform microwave and microwave-millimeter-wave double resonance techniques. Rotational lines from three new (18)O species of DOOO (D(18)OOO, DO(18)O(18)O, and D(18)O(18)O(18)O) were detected, along with the two singly substituted (18)O isotopic species of HOOO (HO(18)OO and HOO(18)O) that were not measured in the previous isotopic investigation...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Álvaro García Ramos, Ana Pérez Antón, Miguel Del Nogal Sánchez, José Luis Pérez Pavón, Bernardo Moreno Cordero
Profile signals of urine samples corresponding to patients with lung cancer and controls were obtained using a non-separative methodology. The method is based on the coupling of a headspace sampler, a programed temperature vaporizer and a mass spectrometer (HS-PTV-MS). With only a centrifugation step as prior sample treatment, the samples were subjected to the headspace generation process and the volatiles generated were introduced into the PTV where they were trapped in the Tenax® packed liner while the solvent was purged...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
Brian R Radke
International comparisons of animal antimicrobial use (AMU) have typically been based on total national estimates of antimicrobials sales standardized by the national animal biomass calculated as the population correction unit (PCU). The objective of this paper was to compare the currently accepted PCU calculation with that of the adjusted population correction unit (APCU), which re-evaluates the standard animal weights used in the calculation and accounts for animal lifespan. The APCU calculation resulted in substantial changes to the 2009 national biomass estimates for cattle, pigs, and poultry in 8 European countries and Canada...
July 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
Basem Kanawati, Theresa Bader, Karl-Peter Wanczek, Yan Li, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin
RATIONALE: Peak picking algorithms in mass spectrometry face the challenge of picking the correct signals from a mass spectrum. In some cases signal wiggles (side lobes) are also chosen in the produced mass list as if they were real signals. Constraints which are defined in such algorithms do not always guarantee wiggle free accurate mass list generation out of raw mass spectra. This problem intensifies with acquisitions, which are accompanied with longer transients. Thus, the problem represents a contemporary issue, which propagates with modern high memory digitizers and exists in both MS and MS/MS spectra...
July 13, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Vincent M Reid, Kirsty Dunn, Robert J Young, Johnson Amu, Tim Donovan, Nadja Reissland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Mitchell S Turker, Dmytro Grygoryev, Michael Lasarev, Anna Ohlrich, Furaha A Rwatambuga, Sorrel Johnson, Cristian Dan, Bradley Eckelmann, Gwen Hryciw, Jian-Hua Mao, Antoine M Snijders, Stacey Gauny, Amy Kronenberg
Exposure to a small number of high-energy heavy charged particles (HZE ions), as found in the deep space environment, could significantly affect astronaut health following prolonged periods of space travel if these ions induce mutations and related cancers. In this study, we used an in vivo mutagenesis assay to define the mutagenic effects of accelerated 56Fe ions (1 GeV/amu, 151 keV/μm) in the mouse kidney epithelium exposed to doses ranging from 0.25 to 2.0 Gy. These doses represent fluences ranging from 1 to 8 particle traversals per cell nucleus...
2017: PloS One
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