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Wei-Hsuan Wu, Paul Thomas, Paul Hume, Jianyong Jin
Carboxylate-functionalised polymers of intrinsic microporosity (C-PIMs) are highly desirable materials for membrane separation applications. The recently reported method to afford C-PIMs was via an extensive base hydrolysis process requiring 360 h. Herein, a novel and effective method to convert PIM-CONH₂ to C-PIM using nitrous acid was studied. The chemical structure of C-PIM was characterised by ¹H NMR, 13 C NMR, FTIR, elemental analysis, UV-Vis, TGA and TGA-MS. Complete conversion from amide to carboxylic acid groups was confirmed...
April 18, 2018: Membranes
C G M Scherpenzeel, I M G A Santman-Berends, T J G M Lam
In the Netherlands, regulations have been in place since 2008 to reduce the overall use of antimicrobials to mitigate antimicrobial resistance. As part of these regulations, a ban on the preventive use of antimicrobials, such as applying blanket dry cow treatment, was introduced and alternative measures such as selective dry cow treatment (SDCT) were implemented. Both farmers and veterinarians play an important role in implementing these measures and have a shared responsibility with respect to prudent antimicrobial use (AMU)...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Qiduo Shao, Jun Zhao
RATIONALE: Focusing and transmission are important characteristics of ion transportation in mass spectrometric applications. An ion guide device is an essential component in a mass spectrometer, especially when chemical ionization is employed. We present a conical octopole ion guide and its comparison with a parallel counterpart for simulating the ion trajectories through the ion guide and the quadrupole mass analyzer. METHODS: Ion trajectory simulations using SIMION 8...
March 30, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Wasif Mohammad Ali, M M Ansari, Syed Amjad Ali Rizvi, A Z Rabb, Tariq Mansoor, Syed Hassan Harris, Mohd Sadiq Akhtar
Duodenal ulcer perforations have been known since 1600 AD. It is a common surgical emergency and every surgeon will encounter it. The perforation size of >2 cm has been used as the criteria for defining Giant duodenal ulcers. The management of giant duodenal perforations in hemodynamically unstable patient with comorbid condition is taxing because of high incidence of the postoperative leak and mortality. We have used the simple technique of Triple Tube Ostomy after the primary closure of the defect with encouraging results...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Surgery
Lauren R Cirrincione, Sujan Dilly Penchala, Kimberly K Scarsi, Anthony T Podany, Lee C Winchester, David J Back, Saye H Khoo, Courtney V Fletcher, Marco Siccardi, Laura J Else
Levonorgestrel (LNG) is a synthetic progestin that is available in oral contraceptive tablets, a subdermal implant, and an intrauterine system for contraception. LNG pharmacokinetics are a pivotal determinant of contraceptive efficacy and essential in assessing drug-drug interactions influencing LNG exposure following different routes of LNG administration. A highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to quantify levonorgestrel in human plasma. Liquid-liquid extraction was utilized with a sample volume of 500 μL to extract levonorgestrel from plasma...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Guillaume Lhermie, Loren William Tauer, Yrjo Tapio Gröhn
Antimicrobials are used in animal agriculture to cure bacterial infectious diseases. However, antimicrobial use (AMU) inevitably leads to the selection of resistant bacteria, potentially infecting humans. As a global public threat, antimicrobial resistance has led policy makers to implement regulations supervising AMU. The objective of our research was to investigate the farm impact of several potential policies aimed at decreasing AMU. We modeled a dairy herd of 1000 cows with an average level of disease prevalence for the nine most frequent bacterial dairy diseases found in western countries...
2018: PloS One
Maurizio Sansotera, Sadaf Talaeemashhadi, Cristian Gambarotti, Carlo Pirola, Mariangela Longhi, Marco A Ortenzi, Walter Navarrini, Claudia L Bianchi
The functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MW-CNTs) was obtained by generating reactive perfluoropolyether (PFPE) radicals that can covalently bond to MW-CNTs' surface. Branched and linear PFPE peroxides with equivalent molecular weights of 1275 and 1200 amu, respectively, have been thermally decomposed for the production of PFPE radicals. The functionalization with PFPE chains has changed the wettability of MW-CNTs, which switched their behavior from hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic. The low surface energy properties of PFPEs have been transferred to MW-CNTs surface and branched units with trifluoromethyl groups, CF₃, have conferred higher hydrophobicity than linear units...
March 19, 2018: Nanomaterials
Luís P Carmo, Liza R Nielsen, Lis Alban, Paulo M da Costa, Gertraud Schüpbach-Regula, Ioannis Magouras
Reducing antimicrobial use (AMU) in livestock is requested by Public Health authorities. Ideally, this should be achieved without jeopardizing production output or animal health and welfare. Thus, efficient measures must be identified and developed to target drivers of AMU. Veterinarians play a central role in the identification and implementation of such efficient interventions. Sixty-seven veterinarians with expertise in livestock production in Denmark, Portugal, and Switzerland participated in an expert opinion study aimed at investigating experiences and opinions of veterinarians about the driving forces and practices related to AMU in the main livestock sectors (broiler, dairy cattle, fattening/veal calf, and pig industry) of the aforementioned countries...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Istiyaq Ahmad, Najam Khalique, Salman Khalil, Urfi, Mohd Maroof
Context: Child undernutrition is a public health problem in a developing country like India. Dietary diversity is an important immediate determinant of undernutrition. Aims: The aim of this study is to find the prevalence of stunting among infants and young children aged 6-23 months and its association with dietary diversity. Settings and Design: This study was community-based cross-sectional study. It was carried out in the registered families of the Urban Health Training Centre and Rural Health Training Centre, Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, AMU, Aligarh...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Ibrahim Alhroub, Evguenii Kozliak, Alena Kubatova, Mark Sulkes
There has been a limited understanding of high MW polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) product chemistry in the pyrolysis of triglycerides (TGs), though the subject has important implications for both fuel production from TGs and food science. Previous TG pyrolysis studies have been able to identify only relatively low MW GC-elutable aromatics occurring in the bulk liquid phase; products occurring in the solid phase have remained inaccessible to chemical analysis. In contrast, cold gas expansion molecular beam methods, where pyrolysis products are analyzed in real time as they are entrained in gas expansions, remove product collection difficulties, thereby allowing for analysis of coke/tar PAH precursors...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Vincent M Reid, Kirsty Dunn, Robert J Young, Johnson Amu, Tim Donovan, Nadja Reissland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Liangliang Zhang, Duanwei Liang, Changmai Chen, Yuan Wang, Gubu Amu, Jiali Yang, Lijia Yu, Ivan J Dmochowski, Xinjing Tang
Circular non-coding RNAs are found to play important roles in biology but are still relatively unexplored as a structural motif for chemically regulating gene function. Here, we investigated whether small interfering RNA (siRNA) with a circular structure can circumvent off-target gene silencing, a problem often observed with standard linear duplex siRNA. In the present work, we, for the first time, synthesized a series of circular siRNAs by cyclizing two ends of a single-stranded RNA (sense or antisense strand) to construct circular siRNAs that were more resistant to enzymatic degradation...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Harriet L Mills, Andrea Turner, Lisa Morgans, Jonathan Massey, Hannah Schubert, Gwen Rees, David Barrett, Andrew Dowsey, Kristen K Reyher
The issue of antimicrobial resistance is of global concern across human and animal health. In 2016, the UK government committed to new targets for reducing antimicrobial use (AMU) in livestock. Although a number of metrics for quantifying AMU are defined in the literature, all give slightly different interpretations. This paper evaluates a selection of metrics for AMU in the dairy industry: total mg, total mg/kg, daily dose and daily course metrics. Although the focus is on their application to the dairy industry, the metrics and issues discussed are relevant across livestock sectors...
February 23, 2018: Veterinary Record
Selma Becherirat, Fatemeh Valamanesh, Mojgan Karimi, Anne-Marie Faussat, Jean-Marie Launay, Cynthia Pimpie, Amu Therwath, Marc Pocard
Antiangiogenics administration in colorectal cancer patients seemed promising therapeutic approach. Inspite of early encouraging results, it however gave only modest clinical benefits. When AAG was administered with discontinuous schedule, the disease showed acceleration in certain cases. Though resistance to AAG has been extensively studied, it is not documented for discontinuous schedules. To simulate clinical situations, we subjected a patient-derived CRC subcutaneous xenograft in mice to three different protocols: 1) AAG (bevacizumab) treatment for 30 days (group A) (group B was the control), 2) bevacizumab treatment for 50 days (group C) and bevacizumab for 30 days and 20 without treatment (group D), and 3) bevacizumab treatment for 70 days (group E) and 70 days treatment with a drug-break period between day 30 and 50 (group F)...
February 16, 2018: Translational Oncology
Amu Gubu, Long Li, Ning Yan, Xiaoyun Zheng, Seonghyun Lee, Mengke Feng, Qiang Li, Xiaoguang Lei, Kyubong Jo, Xinjing Tang
Bioorthogonal metabolic DNA labelling with fluorochromes is a powerful strategy to visualize DNA molecules and their functions. Herein, we report the development of a new DNA metabolic labelling strategy enabled by the catalyst-free bioorthogonal ligation using vinyl thioether modified thymidine and o-quinolinone quinone methide. With the newly designed vinyl thioether-modified thymidine (VTdT), we added labelling tags on cellular DNA, which could further be linked to fluorochromes in cells. Therefore, we successfully visualized the DNA localization within cells as well as single DNA molecules without other staining reagents...
February 14, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Mohd Maroof, Anees Ahmad, Najam Khalique, M Athar Ansari
Introduction: Locomotor functions decline with the age along with other physiological changes. This results in deterioration of the quality of life with decreased social and economic role in the society, as well as increased dependency, for the health care and other basic services. The demographic transition resulting in increased proportion of elderly may pose a burden to the health system. Objectives: To find the prevalence of locomotor problems among the elderly population, and related sociodemographic factors...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Richard D Ashby, Daniel K Y Solaiman, Alberto Nuñez, Gary D Strahan, David B Johnston
Burkholderia sacchari was used to produce poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate block copolymers from xylose and levulinic acid. Levulinic acid was the preferred substrate resulting in 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) contents as high as 95 mol% at 24 h. The 3HB:3HV ratios were controlled by the initial levulinic acid media concentration and fermentation length. Higher levulinic acid concentrations and longer durations, resulted in polymers with two glass transition temperatures, each approximating those associated with poly-3HB and poly-3HV...
December 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
V D Andersen, P Munk, L V de Knegt, M S Jensen, F M Aarestrup, H Vigre
Assessing the relationship between antimicrobial usage (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires the accurate and precise utilisation of register data. Therefore, validation of register-based data is essential for evaluating the quality and, subsequently, the internal validity of studies based on the data. In this study, different smoothing methods for Veterinary Medicine Statistic Program database (VetStat)-records were validated by comparing these with farm-records. Comparison between measurements included accuracy as; completeness and correctness, and precision as; a relative difference of the error, correlation with Fisher's z transformation and reliability coefficient...
February 7, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
L E M Reid, N I Lone, Z J Morrison, C J Weir, M C Jones
Background: Acute medical units (AMUs) are a central component of the admission pathway for the majority of medical patients presenting to hospital in the United Kingdom (UK) and other international settings. Detail on multidisciplinary staffing provision on weekdays and weekends is lacking. Equity of staffing across seven days is a strategic priority for national health services in the UK. Aim: To evaluate weekday compared with weekend multidisciplinary staffing in a national set of AMUs...
February 2, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Wen-Quan Liu, Dan Wu, Hugejile Chang, Ru-Xia Duan, Wen-Jie Wu, Guleng Amu, Ke-Fu Chao, Fu-Quan Bao, Ojiyed Tegus
Synthesizing phosphors with high performance is still a necessary work for phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (W-LEDs). In this paper, three series of CaAlSiN₃:Eu2+ (denoted as CASN:Eu2+) phosphors using Eu₂O₃, EuN and EuB₆ as raw materials respectively are fabricated by under the alloy precursor normal pressure nitridation synthesis condition. We demonstrate that CASN:Eu2+ using nano-EuB₆ as raw material shows higher emission intensity than others, which is ascribed to the increment of Eu2+ ionic content entering into the crystal lattice...
January 25, 2018: Nanomaterials
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