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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506325/a-proposed-analytic-framework-for-determining-the-impact-of-an-antimicrobial-resistance-intervention
#1
Yrjo T Grohn, Carolee Carson, Cristina Lanzas, Laura Pullum, Michael Stanhope, Victoriya Volkova
Antimicrobial use (AMU) is increasingly threatened by antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The FDA is implementing risk mitigation measures promoting prudent AMU in food animals. Their evaluation is crucial: the AMU/AMR relationship is complex; a suitable framework to analyze interventions is unavailable. Systems science analysis, depicting variables and their associations, would help integrate mathematics/epidemiology to evaluate the relationship. This would identify informative data and models to evaluate interventions...
May 16, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505889/vegetation-dynamics-and-responses-to-climate-change-and-human-activities-in-central-asia
#2
Liangliang Jiang, Guli Jiapaer, Anming Bao, Hao Guo, Felix Ndayisaba
Knowledge of the current changes and dynamics of different types of vegetation in relation to climatic changes and anthropogenic activities is critical for developing adaptation strategies to address the challenges posed by climate change and human activities for ecosystems. Based on a regression analysis and the Hurst exponent index method, this research investigated the spatial and temporal characteristics and relationships between vegetation greenness and climatic factors in Central Asia using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and gridded high-resolution station (land) data for the period 1984-2013...
May 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496204/a-photochemical-avenue-to-photoluminescent-n-dots-and-their-upconversion-cell-imaging
#3
Qingqing Jin, Amu Gubu, Xiuxian Chen, Xinjing Tang
A photochemical avenue to synthesize nitrogen-rich quantum dots (N-dots) using 2-azido imidazole as the starting material was established for the first time. A production yield of up to 92.7% was obtained. The N-dots were then fully characterized by elemental analysis, IR, XPS, XRD, AFM and TEM. On the basis of the N2 production and in situ IR results, the underlying mechanism for the photochemical formation of N-dots was proposed. These N-dots showed promising optical properties including wavelength-dependent upconversion photoluminescence, and were successfully used in upconversion cell imaging...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493314/use-of-lc-hrms-in-full-scan-xic-mode-for-multi-analyte-urine-drug-testing-a-step-towards-a-black-box-solution
#4
Niclas Nikolai Stephanson, Patrick Signell, Anders Helander, Olof Beck
The influx of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has created a need for improved methods for drug testing in toxicology laboratories. The aim of this work was to design, validate and apply a multi-analyte liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method for screening of 148 target analytes belonging to the NPS class, plant alkaloids and new psychoactive therapeutic drugs. The analytical method used a five-fold dilution of urine with 9 deuterated internal standards and injection of 2 μL...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492280/male-dispersal-pattern-in-golden-snub-nosed-monkey-rhinopithecus-roxellana-in-qinling-mountains-and-its-conservation-implication
#5
Zhi-Pang Huang, Kun Bian, Yi Liu, Ru-Liang Pan, Xiao-Guang Qi, Bao-Guo Li
Golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) is one of the most endangered primate species found in China, exhibiting multilevel society consisting of several one-male-females together with their offspring units (OMU), and all-male units (AMU). Female dispersal patterns of the species within herd have been well documented, whereas those of the males within or between herds are still poorly understood. Our results based a long-term observation indicate that more than half of sub-adult males, and half of the deposed males that stayed a short period in OMU disperse between herds, three of them established their own OMU in new herd after the dispersal...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475790/prevalence-of-healthcare-associated-infections-and-antimicrobial-use-among-adult-inpatients-in-singapore-acute-care-hospitals-results-from-the-first-national-point-prevalence-survey
#6
Yiying Cai, Indumathi Venkatachalam, Nancy W Tee, Thean Yen Tan, Asok Kurup, Sin Yew Wong, Chian Yong Low, Yang Wang, Winnie Lee, Yi Xin Liew, Brenda Ang, David C Lye, Angela Chow, Moi Lin Ling, Helen M Oh, Cassandra A Cuvin, Say Tat Ooi, Surinder K Pada, Chong Hee Lim, Jack Wei Chieh Tan, Kean Lee Chew, Van Hai Nguyen, Dale A Fisher, Herman Goossens, Andrea L Kwa, Paul A Tambyah, Li Yang Hsu, Kalisvar Marimuthu
Background: We conducted a national point prevalence survey (PPS) to determine the prevalence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial use (AMU) in Singapore acute-care hospitals. Methods: Trained personnel collected HAI, AMU, and baseline hospital- and patient-level data of adult inpatients from 13 private and public acute-care hospitals between July 2015 and February 2016, using the PPS methodology developed by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control...
May 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424801/problem-based-review-immune-mediated-complications-of-checkpoint-inhibitors-for-the-acute-physician
#7
Philip Webb, Terry W Rice, Tim Cooksley
Immunotherapy with 'checkpoint-inhibitors' has significantly improved outcomes for patients with a range of malignancies. However, significant immune-mediated toxicities of these therapies are well-described. These immune-mediated toxicities can affect virtually all organ systems and are potentially fatal. The timing of onset of the adverse effects is dependent on the organ system affected and can occur after completion of the treatment. The increasing utilisation of 'checkpoint-inhibitors' means that Acute Physicians are likely to see a number of immune-mediated complications presenting to the AMU...
2017: Acute Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402733/effect-of-surface-treatment-silane-and-universal-adhesive-on-microshear-bond-strength-of-nanofilled-composite-repairs
#8
I A Fornazari, I Wille, E M Meda, R T Brum, E M Souza
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of surface treatment and universal adhesive on the microshear bond strength of nanoparticle composite repairs. METHODS: One hundred and forty-four specimens were built with a nanofilled composite (Filtek Supreme Ultra, 3M ESPE). The surfaces of all the specimens were polished with SiC paper and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 14 days. Half of the specimens were then air abraded with Al2O3 particles and cleaned with phosphoric acid...
April 12, 2017: Operative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368400/interferon-%C3%AE-is-a-stat1-dependent-direct-inducer-of-bcl6-expression-in-imatinib-treated-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-cells
#9
H S Madapura, N Nagy, D Ujvari, T Kallas, M C L Kröhnke, S Amu, M Björkholm, L Stenke, P K Mandal, J S McMurray, M Keszei, L S Westerberg, H Cheng, F Xue, G Klein, E Klein, D Salamon
B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (BCL6) exerts oncogenic effects in several human hematopoietic malignancies including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), where BCL6 expression was shown to be essential for CML stem cell survival and self-renewal during imatinib mesylate (IM) treatment. As several lines of evidence suggest that interferon γ (IFNγ) production in CML patients might have a central role in the response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy, we analyzed if IFNγ modulates BCL6 expression in CML cells. Although separate IFNγ or IM treatment only slightly upregulated BCL6 expression, combined treatment induced remarkable BCL6 upregulation in CML lines and primary human CD34+ CML stem cells...
April 3, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348557/dendritic-cell-response-to-hiv-1-is-controlled-by-differentiation-programs-in-the-cells-and-strain-specific-properties-of-the-virus
#10
Aikaterini Nasi, Sylvie Amu, Mårten Göthlin, Marianne Jansson, Noemi Nagy, Francesca Chiodi, Bence Réthi
Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that might play contradictory roles during HIV-1 infection, contributing not only to antiviral immunity but also to viral dissemination and immune evasion. Although DCs are characterized by enormous functional diversity, it has not been analyzed how differentially programmed DCs interact with HIV-1. We have previously described the reprogramming of DC development by endogenously produced lactic acid that accumulated in a cell culture density-dependent manner and provided a long-lasting anti-inflammatory signal to the cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348157/exploring-the-landscape-of-diazabicyclooctane-dbo-inhibition-avibactam-avi-inactivation-of-per-2-%C3%AE-lactamase
#11
Melina Ruggiero, Krisztina M Papp-Wallace, Magdalena A Taracila, Maria F Mojica, Christopher R Bethel, Susan D Rudin, Elise T Zeiser, Gabriel Gutkind, Robert A Bonomo, Pablo Power
PER β-lactamases are an emerging family of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) found in Gram negative bacteria. PER β-lactamases are unique among class A enzymes as they possess an inverted Ω loop and extended B3 β-strand. These singular structural differences are hypothesized to contribute to their hydrolytic profile against oxyimino-cephalosporins (e.g., cefotaxime and ceftazidime). Here, we tested the ability of avibactam (AVI), a novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor to inactivate PER-2. Interestingly, the PER-2 inhibition constants (i...
March 27, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333646/recurrent-neural-networks-with-auxiliary-memory-units
#12
Jianyong Wang, Lei Zhang, Quan Guo, Zhang Yi
Memory is one of the most important mechanisms in recurrent neural networks (RNNs) learning. It plays a crucial role in practical applications, such as sequence learning. With a good memory mechanism, long term history can be fused with current information, and can thus improve RNNs learning. Developing a suitable memory mechanism is always desirable in the field of RNNs. This paper proposes a novel memory mechanism for RNNs. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) an auxiliary memory unit (AMU) is proposed, which results in a new special RNN model (AMU-RNN), separating the memory and output explicitly and 2) an efficient learning algorithm is developed by employing the technique of error flow truncation...
March 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323856/risk-factors-for-esbl-producing-escherichia-coli-on-pig-farms-a-longitudinal-study-in-the-context-of-reduced-use-of-antimicrobials
#13
Wietske Dohmen, Alejandro Dorado-García, Marc J M Bonten, Jaap A Wagenaar, Dik Mevius, Dick J J Heederik
The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-E. coli) in food animals is a public health concern. This study aimed to determine prevalence of ESBL-E. coli on pig farms and to assess the effect of reducing veterinary antimicrobial use (AMU) and farm management practices on ESBL-E. coli occurrence on pig farms. During 2011-2013, 36 Dutch conventional pig farms participated in a longitudinal study (4 sampling times in 18 months). Rectal swabs were taken from 60 pigs per farm and pooled per 6 pigs within the same age category...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320352/a-comparison-of-intrapartum-interventions-and-adverse-outcomes-by-parity-in-planned-freestanding-midwifery-unit-and-alongside-midwifery-unit-births-secondary-analysis-of-low-risk-births-in-the-birthplace-in-england-cohort
#14
Jennifer Hollowell, Yangmei Li, Kathryn Bunch, Peter Brocklehurst
BACKGROUND: For low risk women, there is good evidence that planned birth in a midwifery unit is associated with a reduced risk of maternal interventions compared with planned birth in an obstetric unit. Findings from the Birthplace cohort study have been interpreted by some as suggesting a reduced risk of interventions in planned births in freestanding midwifery units (FMUs) compared with planned births in alongside midwifery units (AMUs). However, possible differences have not been robustly investigated using individual-level Birthplace data...
March 21, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293768/the-utility-of-a-medical-admissions-pharmacist-in-a-hospital-in-australia
#15
Sally B Marotti, Rachael May Theng Cheh, Anne Ponniah, Helen Phuong
Background Medication-related hospital admissions in Australia have previously been estimated to account for approximately 3% of all hospital admissions, with hospital entry points being a point of vulnerability. The timely medication review and reconciliation by a pharmacist at the early stage of an admission for patients admitted to the Acute Medical Unit (AMU) would be beneficial. Setting The Emergency Department (ED) and AMU in a 300 bed tertiary teaching hospital, in South Australia. Objective To investigate the impact of a Medical Admissions (MA) pharmacist on the proportion of AMU patients who receive a complete and accurate medication history by a pharmacist prior to admission and within 4 h of presentation...
April 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276533/immunogenicity-is-preferentially-induced-in-sparse-dendritic-cell-cultures
#16
Aikaterini Nasi, Vishnu Priya Bollampalli, Meng Sun, Yang Chen, Sylvie Amu, Susanne Nylén, Liv Eidsmo, Antonio Gigliotti Rothfuchs, Bence Réthi
We have previously shown that human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) acquired different characteristics in dense or sparse cell cultures. Sparsity promoted the development of IL-12 producing migratory DCs, whereas dense cultures increased IL-10 production. Here we analysed whether the density-dependent endogenous breaks could modulate DC-based vaccines. Using murine bone marrow-derived DC models we show that sparse cultures were essential to achieve several key functions required for immunogenic DC vaccines, including mobility to draining lymph nodes, recruitment and massive proliferation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells, in addition to their TH1 polarization...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103402/do-same-sex-mounts-function-as-dominance-assertion-in-male-golden-snub-nosed-monkeys-rhinopithecus-roxellana
#17
Pengzhen Huang, Xin He, Endi Zhang, Min Chen
It has been hypothesized that same-sex mounts can reflect the hierarchical relationship in a mounting dyad and it is widely deemed that mounting and being mounted are demonstrations of dominant and subordinate status, respectively. In this research, we aimed to test whether same-sex mounts function as dominance assertion in male golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). We investigated this behavior in eight-individuals, captive all-male unit (AMU) in Shanghai wild animal park, China. Behavioral observations were conducted with a total of 1,855 mounts recorded from November, 2014 to June, 2015, during which the alpha male was replaced in the beginning of April...
May 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077570/ktcnlncdb-a-first-platform-to-investigate-lncrnas-expressed-in-human-keratoconus-and-non-keratoconus-corneas
#18
Michal W Szczesniak, Michal Kabza, Justyna A Karolak, Malgorzata Rydzanicz, Dorota M Nowak, Barbara Ginter-Matuszewska, Piotr Polakowski, Rafal Ploski, Jacek P Szaflik, Marzena Gajecka
Keratoconus (KTCN, OMIM 148300) is a degenerative eye disorder characterized by progressive stromal thinning that leads to a conical shape of the cornea, resulting in optical aberrations and even loss of visual function. The biochemical background of the disease is poorly understood, which motivated us to perform RNA-Seq experiment, aimed at better characterizing the KTCN transcriptome and identification of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that might be involved in KTCN etiology. The in silico functional studies based on predicted lncRNA:RNA base-pairings led us to recognition of a number of lncRNAs possibly regulating genes with known or plausible links to KTCN...
2017: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057683/orcan-a-web-based-meta-server-for-real-time-detection-and-functional-annotation-of-orthologs
#19
Andrzej Zielezinski, Michal Dziubek, Jan Sliski, Wojciech M Karlowski
ORCAN (ORtholog sCANner) is a web-based meta-server for one-click evolutionary and functional annotation of protein sequences. The server combines information from the most popular orthology-prediction resources, including four tools and four online databases. Functional annotation utilizes five additional comparisons between the query and identified homologs, including: sequence similarity, protein domain architectures, functional motifs, Gene Ontology term assignments and a list of associated articles. Furthermore, the server uses a plurality-based rating system to evaluate the orthology relationships and to rank the reference proteins by their evolutionary and functional relevance to the query...
January 5, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896160/neonatal-intestinal-obstruction-when-to-suspect-duplication-cyst-of-bowel-as-the-cause
#20
Rizwan Ahmad Khan, Shagufta Wahab, Imran Ghani
BACKGROUND: Duplication cyst is a rare cause of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Their most common location is the small intestine. The clinical presentation is extremely variable depending upon its size, location and type and the age of the patient and are mainly encountered during infancy or early childhood. The diagnosis is very difficult in neonates. This study was undertaken to study their presentation, diagnostic modality of choice and further management in neonatal age group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study performed at the Department of Paediatric Surgery, J ...
October 2016: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
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