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Sabrina L Roberti, Romina Higa, Verónica White, Theresa L Powell, Thomas Jansson, Alicia Jawerbaum
STUDY QUESTION: What are the consequences of inhibiting mTOR, the mechanistic target of rapamycin, and the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and PPARδ pathways in the early post-implantation period on decidual function, embryo viability and feto-placental growth in the rat? SUMMARY ANSWER: mTOR inhibition from day 7 to day 9 of pregnancy in rats caused decidual PPARγ and PPARδ upregulation on day 9 of pregnancy and resulted in embryo resorption by day 14 of pregnancy...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Sara Filoche, Beverley Lawton, Angela Beard, Anthony Dowell, Peter Stone
Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is a new screen for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. It is a screening test based on technology that involves the analysis of feto-placental DNA that is present in maternal blood. This DNA is then analysed for abnormalities of specific chromosomes (eg 13, 18, 21, X, Y). NIPT has a much higher screening capability for chromosomal abnormalities than current combined first trimester screening, with ~99% sensitivity for trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) and at least a 10-fold higher positive predictive value...
December 2017: Journal of Primary Health Care
Yan-Ran Sheng, Wen-Ting Hu, Chun-Yan Wei, Ling-Li Tang, Yu-Kai Liu, Yu-Yin Liu, Jian-Ping Qiu, Da-Jin Li, Xiao-Yong Zhu
PROBLEM: To explore whether IL-33/ST2 axis modulates the polarization and efferocytosis of decidual macrophages (dMφs). METHOD OF STUDY: The phenotype characteristics of dMφs from both normal pregnant women and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) patients were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry (FCM). Then, the efferocytosis and expression of IL-33 and its receptor (ST2) in dMφs were analyzed by FCM. Finally, the effects of sST2, a decoy receptor for IL-33 that inhibits the IL-33/ST2 signaling pathway, on the polarization and efferocytosis of dMφs and human macrophage cell line U937 were investigated...
March 3, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Dominique Mannaerts, Ellen Faes, Jan Gielis, Emeline Van Craenenbroeck, Paul Cos, Marc Spaanderman, Wilfried Gyselaers, Jerome Cornette, Yves Jacquemyn
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is related to an impaired endothelial function. Endothelial dysfunction accounts for altered vascular reactivity, activation of the coagulation cascade and loss of vascular integrity. Impaired endothelial function originates from production of inflammatory and cytotoxic factors by the ischemic placenta and results in systemic oxidative stress (OS) and an altered bioavailability of nitric oxide (•NO). The free radical •NO, is an endogenous endothelium-derived relaxing factor influencing endothelial function...
February 27, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Miguel H Bronchud, Francesc Tresserra, Bernat Serra Zantop
Microenvironmental properties are thought to be responsible for feto-maternal tolerance. Speculatively, ectopic expression of placental gene programs might also be related to cancer cells' ability to escape from immune vigilance mechanisms during carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Recently, we published the first human genomic evidence of similar immune related gene expression profiles in both placenta (placenta and decidual tissue) and cancer (both primary and metastatic) in the same patient with lymph-node positive breast carcinoma during pregnancy...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
Amélie Loriaud, Alban Denys, Olivier Seror, Naik Vietti Violi, Antonia Digklia, Rafael Duran, Hervé Trillaud, Arnaud Hocquelet
PURPOSE: To compare overall local tumor progression (OLTP), defined as the failure of primary ablation or local tumor progression, with single applicator monopolar RFA, microwave ablation (MWA), cluster-RFA and multibipolar radiofrequency (mbpRFA) in the treatment of HCC≤5cm abutting large vessels (≥3mm). METHOD AND MATERIALS: This multicenter, retrospective, per-nodule study was performed from 2007 to 2015. The study was approved by the ethics review board, and informed consent was waived...
February 18, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Haruhiko Sago, Keisuke Ishii, Rika Sugibayashi, Katsusuke Ozawa, Masahiro Sumie, Seiji Wada
The aim of this study was to review fetoscopic laser photocoagulation (FLP), which ablates placental vascular anastomoses to treat twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). A review of studies reporting on the procedures, outcomes, complications and nonconventional applications of FLP for TTTS was conducted. FLP has been established as the primary treatment for monochorionic twin pregnancy associated with TTTS at 16-26 weeks. FLP is the only therapy that directly addresses the underlying pathophysiology. The recent technique modification of FLP, referred to as the 'Solomon technique', induces selective coagulation to connect the anastomoses ablation sites and has been introduced to reduce residual anastomoses...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Tilayie Feto Gelano, Nega Assefa, Yadeta Dessie Bacha, Afendi Abdi Mahamed, Kedir Teji Roba, Mitiku Teshome Hambisa
BACKGROUND: Globally, the rapid development of mobile technology has created new ways of addressing public health challenges and shifted the paradigm of health care access and delivery. The primary aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of Mobile-health on maternal health care service utilization in Eastern Ethiopia. METHODS/DESIGN: Through, a cluster-randomized controlled trial, 640 participants will be selected based on their districts and respective health centers as the unit of randomization...
February 12, 2018: Trials
Asima Khan, Mathew Thomas, Syamala Devi P K
The aim was to study the feto-maternal outcome of pregnancies complicated by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Analysis of a prospectively-maintained database of 73 patients (June 2006-March 2016) was done. Diagnosis of SLE was made by ACR(American College of Rheumatology)-criteria. Protocol scans and blood tests were done and patients with active disease were followed biweekly for 28 weeks, and weekly thereafter. Mean age + SD was 29 ± 4.9. SLE was diagnosed before conception in 86% of patients...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
James Prah, Andreas Kudom, Alex Afrifa, Mohammed Abdulai, Ignatius Sirikyi, Emmanuel Abu
There is great concern about the increasing rise in the rate of caesarean section in both developed and developing countries. This study was to ascertain the prevalence and compare outcomes of elective and emergency caesarean sections among women who deliver at the University of Cape Coast Hospital, Ghana. This retrospective study reviewed records of 645 women who delivered through caesarean sections during the period of January 2014 and December 2015. The prevalence of caesarean section was 26.9%. There was a significantly higher rate of adverse fetal outcomes (P=0...
December 31, 2017: Journal of Public Health in Africa
Carlos Salomon, Zarin Nuzhat, Christopher L Dixon, Ramkumar Menon
Parturition is defined as the action or process of giving birth to offspring. Normal term human parturition ensues following the maturation of fetal organ systems typically between 37 and 40 weeks of gestation. Our conventional understanding of how parturition initiation is signaled revolves around feto-maternal immune and endocrine changes occurring in the intrauterine cavity. These changes in turn correlate with the sequence of fetal growth and development. These important physiological changes also result in homeostatic imbalances which result in heightened inflammatory signaling...
January 25, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Nigel M Stapleton, Sylvia S Armstrong-Fisher, Jan Terje Andersen, C Ellen van der Schoot, Charlene Porter, Kenneth R Page, Donald Falconer, Masja de Haas, Lorna M Williamson, Michael R Clark, Gestur Vidarsson, Kathryn L Armour
We have previously generated human IgG1 antibodies that were engineered for reduced binding to the classical Fcγ receptors (FcγRI-III) and C1q, thereby eliminating their destructive effector functions (constant region G1Δnab). In their potential use as blocking agents, favorable binding to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is important to preserve the long half-life typical of IgG. An ability to cross the placenta, which is also mediated, at least in part, by FcRn is desirable in some indications, such as feto-maternal alloimmune disorders...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Apeksha Chaturvedi, Abhishek Chaturvedi, A Luana Stanescu, Johan G Blickman, Steven P Meyers
Mechanical birth-related injuries to the neonate are declining in incidence with advances in prenatal diagnosis and care. These injuries, however, continue to represent an important source of morbidity and mortality in the affected patient population. In the United States, these injuries are estimated to occur among 2.6% of births. Although more usual in context of existing feto-maternal risk factors, their occurrence can be unpredictable. While often superficial and temporary, functional and cosmetic sequelae, disability or even death can result as a consequence of birth-related injuries...
January 22, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Victor Hugo Gonçalves-Rizzi, José Sérgio Possomato-Vieira, Regina Aparecida Nascimento, Mayara Caldeira-Dias, Carlos Alan Dias-Junior
Sildenafil has shown nitric oxide (NO)-independent pleiotropic effects, however the mechanisms involved are unclear. We investigated the protective effects of sildenafil against hypertension in pregnancy and feto-placental growth restriction induced by NO inhibition, and if sodium nitrite-derived NO formation influences sildenafil effects. We evaluated the plasmatic levels of NO metabolites, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), oxidative stress and myeloperoxidase, which are involved in endothelial dysfunction during hypertension in pregnancy...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Aidan Kashyap, Philip DeKoninck, Kelly Crossley, Marta Thio, Graeme Polglase, Francesca Maria Russo, Jan Deprest, Stuart Hooper, Ryan Hodges
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a birth defect characterized by failed closure of the diaphragm, allowing abdominal viscera to herniate into the thoracic cavity and subsequently impair pulmonary and vascular development. Despite improving standardized postnatal management, there remains a population of severe CDH for whom postnatal care falls short. In these severe cases, antenatal surgical intervention (fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion [FETO]) may improve survival; however, FETO increases the risk of preterm delivery, is not widely offered, and still fails in half of cases...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Herbert Juch, Liudmila Nikitina, Sabine Reimann, Martin Gauster, Gottfried Dohr, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Denise Hoch, Karin Kornmueller, Rainer Haag
A thorough understanding of nanoparticle bio-distribution at the feto-maternal interface will be a prerequisite for their diagnostic or therapeutic application in women of childbearing age and for teratologic risk assessment. Therefore, the tissue interaction of biocompatible dendritic polyglycerol nanoparticles (dPG-NPs) with first- trimester human placental explants were analyzed and compared to less sophisticated trophoblast-cell based models. First-trimester human placental explants, BeWo cells and primary trophoblast cells from human term placenta were exposed to fluorescence labeled, ∼5 nm dPG-NPs, with differently charged surfaces, at concentrations of 1 µM and 10 nM, for 6 and 24 h...
January 15, 2018: Nanotoxicology
Zaid Mutahar Mohammed Alezzi, Ayman Yosry Abd El Rehim, Waleed Fouad Fathallah, Mansour Ali Alamrani, Fouad Hezam Othman
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasingly seen as a major public health problem, threat, and concern worldwide. In Yemen about 1.7% of the population is infected with chronic hepatitis C. This study aimed to detect the predictors for response to pegylated interferon and ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV) in chronic HCV Yemeni patients. The study was conducted on 100 patients with chronic HCV who received Peg-IFN/RBV in the 48th Military Hospital in Sana'a Yemen, from 2011 to 2013. All patients were subjected to complete history taking, thorough clinical examinations, routine laboratory investigation, and abdominal ultrasonography...
January 2018: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Tharni Vasavan, Elisa Ferraro, Effendi Ibrahim, Peter Dixon, Julia Gorelik, Catherine Williamson
Cardiac dysfunction has an increased prevalence in diseases complicated by liver cirrhosis such as primary biliary cholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. This observation has led to research into the association between abnormalities in bile acid metabolism and cardiac pathology. Approximately 50% of liver cirrhosis cases develop cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. Bile acids are directly implicated in this, causing QT interval prolongation, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and abnormal haemodynamics of the heart...
January 6, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Amir Salek Farrokhi, Amir-Hassan Zarnani, Seyed Mohammad Moazzeni
The imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokines is well known in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) mouse model. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess potent immunoregulatory properties that could modulate the Th1 cytokine responses in benefit of Th2 types. In this study, we aimed to analyze the local and systemic balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines following MSCs therapy. Syngeneic adipose derived MSCs were administered to abortion prone mice during the implantation window. The abortion rate was determined and IL-4, IL-6, IL-12, IL-2, IFN-γ and GM-CSF gene expression was evaluated by Real-Time-PCR in decidual and placental tissues of pregnant mice at day 13...
January 6, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Hai-Ning Liu, Hao Wu, Yan-Jie Chen, Yu-Jen Tseng, Enkhnaran Bilegsaikhan, Ling Dong, Xi-Zhong Shen, Tao-Tao Liu
Background: Many new diagnostic biomarkers have been developed for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We selected two methods with high diagnostic value, the detection of serum microRNAs and metabolomics based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and attempted to establish appropriate models. Methods: We reviewed the diagnostic efficiencies of all microRNAs identified by previous diagnostic tests. Then we chose appropriate microRNAs to validate the diagnostic efficiencies, and determined the optimal combination...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
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