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Fractional excretion urea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665281/experimental-model-for-acute-kidney-injury-caused-by-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#1
Beata Skowron, Agnieszka Baranowska, Jolanta Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Grażyna Więcek, Anna Malska-Woźniak, Piotr Heczko, Magdalena Strus
INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the rapid deterioration of renal function, diagnosed on the basis of an increase in serum creatinine and abnormal urinary parameters. AKI is associated with increased risk of mortality or chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the study was to develop an experimental model for AKI resulting from Escherichia coli-induced pyelonephritis. E. coli was isolated from a patient with clinical symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI). MATERIAL/METHODS: The study included three groups of female Wistar rats (groups 1, 2 and 3), in which pyelonephritis was induced by transurethral inoculation with highly virulent E...
June 19, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638881/aristolochia-bracteolate-retz-attenuates-hyperuricemia-in-a-metabolic-arthritis-rat-model
#2
Yun-Peng Li, Shuang Wu, Afou Ran, Da-Yong Xu, Jing-Mei Wei, Zi-Long Zhao
BACKGROUND: The leaves of Aristolochia bracteolata Retz. has been documented in the folk medicine literature for its anti-arthritic activity. The target of the research envisaged was to elucidate the activity of A. bracteolata extract on hyperuricemic condition in arthritis rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dried and powdered plant leaves were extracted using ether and chloroform. Potassium oxonate was injected intra-articularly to produce arthritis. The hyperuricemic effect, of A...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550063/an-environment-friendly-engineered-azotobacter-can-replace-substantial-amount-of-urea-fertilizer-and-yet-sustain-same-wheat-yield
#3
Umesh K Bageshwar, Madhulika Srivastava, Pedisetty Pardha-Saradhi, Sangeeta Paul, Sellamuthu Gothandapani, Ranjeet S Jaat, Prabha Shankar, Rajbir Yadav, Dipak R Biswas, Polumetla A Kumar, Jasdeep C Padaria, Pranab K Mandal, Kannepalli Annapurna, Hirendra K Das
In our endeavor to improve upon nitrogen fixation efficiency of a soil diazotroph that would be unaffected by synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers, we have deleted a part of the negative regulatory gene nifL and constitutively expressed the positive regulatory gene nifA in the chromosome of Azotobacter chroococcum CBD15, a strain isolated from the local field soil. No antibiotic resistance gene or other foreign gene was there in the chromosome of the engineered strain. Wheat seeds inoculated with this engineered strain, which we have named Azotobacter chroococcum HKD15, were tested for three years in pots and one year in the field...
May 26, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432550/estradiol-mitigates-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-renal-failure-through-nmda-receptor-antagonism-in-rats
#4
Amrit Pal Singh, Nirmal Singh, Preet Mohinder Singh Bedi
In the present study, we investigated possible involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) in estradiol mediated protection against ischemia reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats. Bilateral renal ischemia of 40 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h induced ARF in male wistar rats. Quantification of serum creatinine, creatinine clearance (CrCl), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, potassium, fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa), and urinary microproteins was done to assess I/R-induced renal damage in rats...
April 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381328/long-term-effect-of-a-chronic-low-protein-multideficient-diet-on-the-heart-hypertension-and-heart-failure-in-chronically-malnourished-young-adult-rats
#5
Luiza V P Mendes, Sabrina R Gonsalez, Leonardo M Oliveira-Pinto, Amaury Pereira-Acácio, Christina M Takiya, José H M Nascimento, Marcelo Einicker-Lamas, Adalberto Vieyra, Valéria M N Cunha, Lucienne S Lara
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether a chronic low-protein multideficient diet (BRD) from weaning turns on cardiovascular adaptive responses that could culminate in hypertension and heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Systolic pressure (SP) and heart rate (HR) were determined in CTRL (normal diet) and BRD rats. Plasma albumin, plasma urea and urinary urea excretion decreased in BRD rats. In this group, echocardiography and the Langendorff technique showed: (i) increased HR and hypertension; (ii) decreased LVDP, dP/dtmax, dP/dtmin, cardiac output, ejection fraction, stroke volume and left ventricular diameter...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202885/tolvaptan-reduces-the-risk-of-worsening-renal-function-in-patients-with-acute-decompensated-heart-failure-and-preserved-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction%C3%A3-prospective-randomized-controlled-study
#6
Shunsuke Tamaki, Yoshihiro Sato, Takahisa Yamada, Takashi Morita, Yoshio Furukawa, Yusuke Iwasaki, Masato Kawasaki, Atsushi Kikuchi, Takumi Kondo, Tatsuhisa Ozaki, Masahiro Seo, Iyo Ikeda, Eiji Fukuhara, Makoto Abe, Jun Nakamura, Masatake Fukunami
BACKGROUND: Although the mainstay of treatment for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is decongestion by diuretic therapy, it is often associated with worsening renal function (WRF). The effect of tolvaptan, a selective V2 receptor antagonist, on WRF in ADHF patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is unknown.Methods and Results:We enrolled 50 consecutive ADHF patients whose LVEF on admission was ≥45%. Patients were randomly assigned to either tolvaptan add-on (n=26) or conventional diuretic therapy (n=24)...
February 16, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174217/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyponatremia-compilation-of-the-guidelines
#7
REVIEW
Ewout J Hoorn, Robert Zietse
Hyponatremia is a common water balance disorder that often poses a diagnostic or therapeutic challenge. Therefore, guidelines were developed by professional organizations, one from within the United States (2013) and one from within Europe (2014). This review discusses the diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia, comparing the two guidelines and highlighting recent developments. Diagnostically, the initial step is to differentiate hypotonic from nonhypotonic hyponatremia. Hypotonic hyponatremia is further differentiated on the basis of urine osmolality, urine sodium level, and volume status...
May 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078852/cell-based-therapies-for-experimental-diabetic-nephropathy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
H J Tang, Z G Tian, X Yang, Y Cao, W G Li
Study has shown that stem cell–based therapies are promising strategies in the treatment of several chronic diseases, but their overall benefit in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to summarize the evidence of the effect of cell-based therapy in the treatment of DN to guide future clinical trials. We searched PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library for studies from the inception of cell-based therapies up to July 2015. We included animal trials that reported the effects of cell-based therapy on kidney function, cardiovascular risk factors, and body factors...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069102/the-effect-of-cp-concentration-in-the-diet-on-urea-kinetics-and-microbial-usage-of-recycled-urea-in-cattle-a-meta-analysis
#9
E D Batista, E Detmann, S C Valadares Filho, E C Titgemeyer, R F D Valadares
In ruminants, urea recycling is considered an evolutionary advantage. The amount of urea recycled mainly depends of the nitrogen (N) intake and the amount of organic matter (OM) digested in the rumen. Because recycled N contributes to meeting microbial N requirements, accurate estimates of urea recycling can improve the understanding of efficiency of N utilization and N losses to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate urea kinetics and microbial usage of recycled urea N in ruminants using a meta-analytical approach...
January 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040487/a-waterborne-chemical-cue-from-gulf-toadfish-opsanus-beta-prompts-pulsatile-urea-excretion-in-conspecifics
#10
Jeremy Fulton, Christophe M R LeMoine, Carol Bucking, Kevin V Brix, Patrick J Walsh, M Danielle McDonald
The Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) has a fully functional ornithine urea cycle (O-UC) that allows it to excrete nitrogenous waste in the form of urea. Interestingly, urea is excreted in a pulse across the gill that lasts 1-3h and occurs once or twice a day. Both the stress hormone, cortisol, and the neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT) are involved in the control of pulsatile urea excretion. This and other evidence suggests that urea pulsing may be linked to toadfish social behavior. The hypothesis of the present study was that toadfish urea pulses can be triggered by waterborne chemical cues from conspecifics...
December 28, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013356/diuretic-effect-of-extracts-fractions-and-two-compounds-2%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-19%C3%AE-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic-acid-and-5-hydroxy-3-6-7-8-4-pentamethoxyflavone-from-rubus-rosaefolius-sm-rosaceae-leaves-in-rats
#11
Priscila de Souza, Thaise Boeing, Lincon Bordignon Somensi, Camile Cecconi Cechinel-Zanchett, Jairo Kenupp Bastos, Marcel Petreanu, Rivaldo Niero, Valdir Cechinel-Filho, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade
Although diuretics have been widely used to treat hypertension along with others cardiovascular and renal disorders, no scientific data have been recorded to support the diuretic properties of Rubus rosaefolius Sm. (Rosaceae), a plant popularly used in Brazil to treat hypertension. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with: vehicle; hydrochlorothiazide; aqueous (AERR) and methanolic (MERR) extracts; dichloromethane (DCM), hexane (HEX) and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions; and the isolated compounds 2α,3β,19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (TUA) and 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF)...
April 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751996/fractional-excretion-of-magnesium-a-marker-of-aminoglycoside-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-neonates
#12
Sheikh Farjana Sonia, Mohammad S Hassan, Ferdous Ara, Mohammed Hanif
Aminoglycoside is a widely used antibiotic in neonatal age group at hospital setting in Bangladesh. It has underlying side effect and toxicity which is mostly unseen and ignored. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nephrotoxic effect of aminoglycoside in neonates. This study was conducted in fifty hospital admitted neonates of Dhaka Shishu Hospital from January 2012 to December 2013. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and fractional excretion of magnesium (FEMg) were measured before starting and after seven days of aminoglycoside treatment...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624603/the-effect-of-tolvaptan-on-renal-excretion-of-electrolytes-and-urea-nitrogen-in-patients-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Tomoko S Kato, Hiroshi Nakamura, Mai Murata, Kishio Kuroda, Hitoshi Suzuki, Yasutaka Yokoyama, Akie Shimada, Satoshi Matsushita, Taira Yamamoto, Atsushi Amano
BACKGROUND: Adequate fluid management is an important component of patient care following cardiac surgery. Our aim in this study was to determine the benefits of tolvaptan, an oral selective vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist that causes electrolyte-free water diuresis, in postoperative fluid management. We prospectively examined the effect of tolvaptan on renal excretion of electrolytes and urea nitrogen in cardiac surgery patients. METHODS: Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized to receive conventional loop diuretics (Group C, n = 30) or conventional loop diuretic therapy plus tolvaptan (Group T, n = 27)...
September 13, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585605/renal-effects-of-dpp-4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-or-glp-1-receptor-agonist-liraglutide-in-overweight-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-12-week-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#14
Lennart Tonneijck, Mark M Smits, Marcel H A Muskiet, Trynke Hoekstra, Mark H H Kramer, A H Jan Danser, Piet M Ter Wee, Michaela Diamant, Jaap A Joles, Daniël H van Raalte
OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4I) sitagliptin or glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist liraglutide treatment on renal hemodynamics, tubular functions, and markers of renal damage in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes without chronic kidney disease (CKD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this 12-week, randomized, double-blind trial, 55 insulin-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes (mean ± SEM: age 63 ± 7 years, BMI 31...
November 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522260/astilbin-improves-potassium-oxonate-induced-hyperuricemia-and-kidney-injury-through-regulating-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-response-in-mice
#15
Ming Wang, Jing Zhao, Nan Zhang, Jianghua Chen
Astilbin is a flavonoid compound derived from the rhizome of Smilax china L. The effects and possible molecular mechanisms of astilbin on potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemia mice were investigated in this study. Different dosages of astilbin (5, 10, and 20mg/kg) were administered to induce hyperuricemic mice. The results demonstrated that the serum uric acid (Sur) level was significantly decreased by increasing the urinary uric acid (Uur) level and fractional excretion of urate (FEUA) with astilbin, related with suppressing role in meditation of Glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9), Human urate transporter 1 (URAT1) expression and up-regulation of ABCG2, Organic anion transporter 1/3 (OAT1/3) and Organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1)...
October 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507200/siwu-decoction-attenuates-oxonate-induced-hyperuricemia-and-kidney-inflammation-in-mice
#16
Rong Wang, Chun-Hua Ma, Fan Zhou, Ling-Dong Kong
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of Siwu decoction on hyperuricemia, kidney inflammation, and dysfunction in hyperuricemic mice. Siwu decoction at 363.8, 727.5, and 1 455 mg·kg(-1) was orally administered to potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice for 7 days. Serum urate, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen levels and hepatic xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity were measured. The protein levels of hepatic XOD and renal urate transporter 1 (URAT1), glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9), organic anion transporters 1 (OAT1), ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2), organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), OCT2, organic cation/carnitine transporter 1 (OCTN1), OCNT2, Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), Caspase-1, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were determined by Western blotting...
July 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484883/curcumin-alleviates-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-kidney-injury-through-nmda-receptor-antagonism-in-rats
#17
Anudeep Kaur, Tajpreet Kaur, Balbir Singh, Devendra Pathak, Harpal Singh Buttar, Amrit Pal Singh
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the role of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in curcumin-mediated renoprotection against ischemia reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. METHODS: Rats were subjected to bilateral renal I/R (40 min I, 24 hours R) to induce AKI. Kidney injury was assessed by measuring creatinine clearance, blood urea nitrogen, plasma uric acid, potassium level, fractional excretion of sodium, and macroproteinuria...
October 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466783/conjugated-linoleic-acid-rat-pretreatment-reduces-renal-damage-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-unraveling-antiapoptotic-mechanisms-and-regulation-of-phosphorylated-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin
#18
Gholamali Javedan, Farzad Shidfar, Sayed Hossein Davoodi, Marjan Ajami, Fazel Gorjipour, Antoni Sureda, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Maria Daglia, Hamidreza Pazoki-Toroudi
SCOPE: Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are dietary components with beneficial effects on human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of CLA pretreatment in a rat model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Animals were treated with CLAs (200 mg/kg/day) or water for two weeks prior to sham surgery or to surgery to induce IRI. Renal function, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cell proliferation markers, were evaluated...
December 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448107/molecular-hydrogen-in-human-breath-a-new-strategy-for-selectively-diagnosing-peptic-ulcer-disease-non-ulcerous-dyspepsia-and-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#19
Abhijit Maity, Mithun Pal, Sanchi Maithani, Barnali Ghosh, Sujit Chaudhuri, Manik Pradhan
The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori utilizes molecular hydrogen (H2) as a respiratory substrate during colonization in the gastric mucosa. However, the link between molecular H2 and the pathogenesis of peptic-ulcer disease (PUD) and non-ulcerous dyspepsia (NUD) by the enzymatic activity of H. pylori still remains mostly unknown. Here we provide evidence that breath H2 excretion profiles are distinctly altered by the enzymatic activity of H. pylori for individuals with NUD and PUD. We subsequently unravelled the potential molecular mechanisms responsible for the alteration of H2 in exhaled breath in association with peptic ulcers, encompassing both gastric and duodenal ulcers, along with NUD...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27336410/stim1fl-fl-ksp-cre-mouse-has-impaired-renal-water-balance
#20
Liudmila Cebotaru, Valeriu Cebotaru, Hua Wang, Lois J Arend, William B Guggino
BACKGROUND/AIM: STIM1 is as an essential component in store operated Ca2+ entry. However give the paucity of information on the role of STIM1 in kidney, the aim was to study the function of STIM1 in the medulla of the kidney. METHODS: we crossed a Ksp-cre mouse with another mouse containing two loxP sites flanking Exon 6 of STIM1. The Ksp-cre mouse is based upon the Ksp-cadherin gene promoter which expresses cre recombinase in developing nephrons, collecting ducts (SD) and thick ascending limbs (TAL) of the loop of Henle...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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