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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107783/lorcaserin-suppresses-oxycodone-self-administration-and-relapse-vulnerability-in-rats
#1
Harshini Neelakantan, Erica D Holliday, Robert G Fox, Sonja J Stutz, Sandra D Comer, Margaret Haney, Noelle C Anastasio, Frederick Gerard Moeller, Kathryn A Cunningham
Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a major public health problem. High relapse rates and poor treatment retention continue to pose major challenges in OUD treatment. Of the abused opioids, oxycodone is well described to maintain self-administration and evoke the durable conditioned responses ("cue reactivity") that result from pairing of opioid-related stimuli (e.g., paraphernalia) with repeated abuse. Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission, particularly through the 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR), regulates psychostimulant reward and cue reactivity, and in the present experiments, we investigated the hypothesis that the selective 5-HT2CR agonist lorcaserin, which is FDA-approved for the treatment of obesity, will suppress oxycodone self-administration and oxycodone-associated cue reactivity in rats...
January 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103678/an-advance-in-prescription-opioid-vaccines-overdose-mortality-reduction-and-extraordinary-alteration-of-drug-half-life
#2
Atsushi Kimishima, Cody J Wenthur, Bin Zhou, Kim D Janda
Prescription opioids (POs) such as oxycodone and hydrocodone are highly effective medications for pain management, yet they also present a substantial risk for abuse and addiction. The consumption of POs has been escalating worldwide, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths due to overdose each year. Pharmacokinetic strategies based upon vaccination present an attractive avenue to suppress PO abuse. Herein, the preparation of two active PO vaccines is described that were found to elicit high-affinity antiopioid antibodies through a structurally congruent drug-hapten design...
January 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101968/defined-daily-doses-ddd-do-not-accurately-reflect-opioid-doses-used-in-contemporary-chronic-pain-treatment
#3
Suzanne Nielsen, Natasa Gisev, Raimondo Bruno, Wayne Hall, Milton Cohen, Briony Larance, Gabrielle Campbell, Marian Shanahan, Fiona Blyth, Nicholas Lintzeris, Sallie Pearson, Richard Mattick, Louisa Degenhardt
OBJECTIVE: To assess how well the defined daily dose (DDD) metric reflects opioid utilisation among chronic non-cancer pain patients. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study, utilising a 7-day medication diary. SETTING: Community-based treatment settings, Australia. SUBJECTS: A sample of 1101 people prescribed opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. METHODS: Opioid dose data was collected via a self-completed 7-day medication diary capturing names, strengths and doses of each medication taken in the past week...
January 19, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101955/prescription-drug-monitoring-programs-produce-a-limited-impact-on-painkiller-prescribing-in-medicare-part-d
#4
Courtney R Yarbrough
OBJECTIVE: To measure the impact of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) on prescribing of opioid and nonopioid painkillers. DATA SOURCE: 2010-2013 physician-level Medicare Part D prescribing data released by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and Propublica. STUDY DESIGN: Using difference-in-differences models with physician-level fixed effects, the study compares prescribing in states with and without PDMPs for opioid and nonopioid analgesics, oxycodone, hydrocodone, and opioids by controlled substances Schedules II-IV...
January 18, 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097095/limited-knowledge-of-acetaminophen-in-patients-with-liver-disease
#5
Sammy Saab, Peter G Konyn, Matthew R Viramontes, Melissa A Jimenez, Jonathan F Grotts, Wally Hamidzadah, Veronica P Dang, Negin L Esmailzadeh, Gina Choi, Francisco A Durazo, Mohamed M El-Kabany, Steven-Huy B Han, Myron J Tong
Background and Aims: Unintentional acetaminophen overdose remains the leading cause of acute liver failure in the United States. Patients with underlying liver disease are at higher risk of poor outcomes from acetaminophen overdose. Limited knowledge of acetaminophen may be a preventable contributor to elevated rates of overdose and thus acute liver failure. The purpose of this study is to assess knowledge of acetaminophen dosing and presence of acetaminophen in common combination products in patients with liver disease...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093132/controlled-release-oxycodone-improves-pain-management-after-uterine-artery-embolisation-for-symptomatic-fibroids
#6
G M G Freire, R N Cavalcante, J M Motta-Leal-Filho, M Messina, F L Galastri, B B Affonso, R D Rocha, F Nasser
AIM: To evaluate if pre- and post-procedure administration of controlled-release oxycodone (CRO) in combination with standard analgesia improves pain control and decreases the amount of required post-procedure opioids in uterine fibroid embolisation (UFE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2009 and March 2010, 60 consecutive women were prospectively randomised in two groups for UFE: the control group, in which 30 patients underwent the standard anaesthetic procedure and the CRO group, in which 30 patients underwent the standard anaesthetic procedure with the addition of CRO...
January 13, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087496/digital-pills-to-measure-opioid-ingestion-patterns-in-emergency-department-patients-with-acute-fracture-pain-a-pilot-study
#7
Peter R Chai, Stephanie Carreiro, Brendan J Innes, Rochelle K Rosen, Conall O'Cleirigh, Kenneth H Mayer, Edward W Boyer
BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to prescribed regimens for opioid analgesic agents contributes to increasing opioid abuse and overdose death. Opioids are frequently prescribed on an as-needed basis, placing the responsibility to determine opioid dose and frequency with the patient. There is wide variability in physician prescribing patterns because of the lack of data describing how patients actually use as-needed opioid analgesics. Digital pill systems have a radiofrequency emitter that directly measures medication ingestion events, and they provide an opportunity to discover the dose, timing, and duration of opioid therapy...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080998/determination-of-oxycodone-and-its-major-metabolites-noroxycodone-and-oxymorphone-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-in-plasma-and-urine-application-to-real-cases
#8
Flaminia Pantano, Stefano Brauneis, Alexandre Forneris, Roberta Pacifici, Enrico Marinelli, Chrystalla Kyriakou, Simona Pichini, Francesco Paolo Busardò
BACKGROUND: Oxycodone is a narcotic drug widely used to alleviate moderate and severe acute and chronic pain. Variability in analgesic efficacy could be explained by inter-subject variations in plasma concentrations of parent drug and its active metabolite, oxymorphone. To evaluate patient compliance and to set up therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) assay was developed and validated for the parent drug and its major metabolites noroxycodone and oxymorphone...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076697/development-and-characterization-of-a-mucoadhesive-sublingual-formulation-for-pain-control-extemporaneous-oxycodone-films-in-personalized-therapy
#9
Brunella Parodi, Eleonora Russo, Sara Baldassari, Guendalina Zuccari, Sara Pastorino, Mengying Yan, Karthik Neduri, Gabriele Caviglioli
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was the development of mucoadhesive sublingual films, prepared using a casting method, for the administration of oxycodone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A solvent casting method was employed to prepare the mucoadhesive films. A calibrated pipette was used to deposit single aliquots of different polymeric solutions on a polystyrene plate lid. Among the various tested polymers, hydroxypropylcellulose at low and medium molecular weight (HPC) and pectin at two different degrees of esterification (PC) were chosen for preparing solutions with good casting properties, capable of producing films suitable for mucosal application...
January 11, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074831/rgs9-2-modulates-responses-to-oxycodone-in-pain-free-and-chronic-pain-states
#10
Sevasti Gaspari, Valeria Cogliani, Lefteris Manouras, Ethan M Anderson, Vasiliki Mitsi, Kleopatra Avrampou, Fiona B Carr, Venetia Zachariou
Regulator of G protein signalling 9-2 (RGS9-2) is a striatal enriched signal transduction modulator, known to play a critical role in the development of addiction-related behaviours following exposure to psychostimulants or opioids. RGS9-2 controls the function of several GPCRs, including dopamine and mu opioid (MOR) receptors. We previously showed that RGS9-2 complexes negatively control morphine analgesia, and promote the development of morphine tolerance. In contrast, RGS9-2 positively modulates the actions of other opioid analgesics, such as fentanyl and methadone...
January 11, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045611/establishment-of-personalized-pain-goals-in-oncology-patients-to-improve-care-and-decrease-costs
#11
Dylan Zylla, Amber Larson, Gladys Chuy, Lisa Illig, Adina Peck, Sarah Van Peursem, James W Fulbright, Pamala A Pawloski, Sara Richter, Jeanne Mettner
PURPOSE: Cancer-related pain is common, negatively affects quality of life and survival, and often requires treatment with opioid analgesics. Patient-reported data that describe the incidence and severity of pain, medication use, and patient satisfaction with care are lacking. METHODS: We analyzed 18 months of outpatient oncology clinic encounters from the electronic medical record to obtain data on pain levels and opioid and nonopioid treatments. In June 2014, we instituted a pain intervention by creating a pain management information handout for patients, educating clinicians on opioid cost-effectiveness, and implementing a nursing protocol to document personalized pain goals (PPGs)...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034513/suppression-of-the-acute-upregulation-of-phosphorylated-extracellular-regulated-kinase-in-ventral-tegmental-area-by-a-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-agonist-is-related-to-resistance-to-rewarding-effects-in-a-mouse-model-of-bone-cancer
#12
Atsushi Nakamura, Hiroko Ono, Azusa Ando, Mikie Hinata, Kazuki Niidome, Shigeki Omachi, Gaku Sakaguchi, Shunji Shinohara
We investigated the mechanisms underlying the suppression of the rewarding effects of opioids using the femur bone cancer (FBC) mouse model. The rewarding and antinociceptive effects of subcutaneously administered morphine and oxycodone in the FBC model mice were assessed using the conditioned place preference test and the von-Frey test. In FBC mice, antinociceptive doses of morphine (30 mg/kg) and oxycodone (5 mg/kg) did not produce the rewarding effects but excessive doses of morphine (300 mg/kg) and oxycodone (100 mg/kg) did...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025373/trends-in-opioid-analgesic-use-in-encounters-involving-physician-trainees-in-u-s-emergency-departments
#13
Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, Peter M Mullins, Christie Sun, Jesse M Pines, Lewis S Nelson, Jeanmarie Perrone
BACKGROUND: Opioid analgesic use has increased dramatically in emergency departments (EDs), but the relative contribution of physician trainees has not been explored. We assessed trends in opioid utilization focusing on ED encounters where a physician trainee was involved. METHODS: We studied ED visits from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2001-2011. Adult ED visits in which an opioid was administered in the ED or prescribed at discharge were stratified by whether or not there was trainee involvement...
December 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011980/potential-safety-concerns-of-tlr4-antagonism-with-irinotecan-a-preclinical-observational-report
#14
Janet K Coller, Joanne M Bowen, Imogen A Ball, Hannah R Wardill, Ysabella Z A van Sebille, Romany L Stansborough, Zenab Lightwala, Anthony Wignall, Joseph Shirren, Kate Secombe, Rachel J Gibson
PURPOSE: Irinotecan-induced gut toxicity is mediated in part by Toll-Like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling. The primary purpose of this preclinical study was to determine whether blocking TLR4 signalling by administering (-)-naloxone, a TLR4 antagonist, would improve irinotecan-induced gut toxicity. Our secondary aim was to determine the impact of (-)-naloxone on tumour growth. METHODS: Female Dark Agouti (DA) tumour-bearing rats were randomly assigned to four treatments (n = 6 in each); control, (-)-naloxone (100 mg/kg oral gavage at -2, 24, 48, and 72 h), irinotecan (175 mg/kg intraperitoneal at 0 h), and (-)-naloxone and irinotecan...
December 23, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009603/crospovidone-and-microcrystalline-cellulose-a-novel-description-of-pharmaceutical-fillers-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#15
Sophia M Shaddy, Michael A Arnold, Konstantin Shilo, Wendy L Frankel, Alan E Harzman, Peter P Stanich, Aatur D Singhi, Martha M Yearsley, Christina A Arnold
Crospovidone and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) are pharmaceutical fillers well known in the pulmonary pathology literature. Fillers are inactive substances incorporated into medications to facilitate drug delivery. By examining 545 consecutive gastrointestinal surgical specimens from 302 patients between September 11, 2015 and October 23, 2015, we identified the fillers in 29 specimens from 26 patients. The control group consisted of an equal number of consecutive site-matched specimens collected during this same time...
December 22, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000295/drug-availability-adjustments-in-population-based-studies-of-prescription-opioid-abuse
#16
Alex Secora, James Phillip Trinidad, Rongmei Zhang, Rajdeep Gill, Gerald Dal Pan
PURPOSE: Population-based prescription opioid abuse studies in which one drug is compared to another, or drugs are compared across time, often account for the availability of those drugs in the community. The objective of this investigation is to assess consistency in the relative abuse ratios (RARs) across different approaches for adjusting for drug availability. METHODS: For the years 2004 through 2010, RARs for each of four prescription opioids (hydrocodone, oxycodone, hydromorphone, and morphine) were calculated using negative binomial regression...
December 21, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996932/drugs-most-frequently-involved-in-drug-overdose-deaths-united-states-2010-2014
#17
Margaret Warner, James P Trinidad, Brigham A Bastian, Arialdi M Minino, Holly Hedegaard
Objectives-This report identifies the specific drugs most frequently involved in drug overdose deaths in the United States from 2010 through 2014. Methods-The 2010-2014 National Vital Statistics System mortality files were linked to electronic files containing literal text information from death certificates. Drug overdose was defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision underlying cause-of-death codes X40-X44 (unintentional), X60-X64 (suicide), X85 (homicide), and Y10-Y14 (undetermined intent)...
December 2016: National Vital Statistics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994790/a-nationwide-retrospective-study-of-opioid-management-patterns-in-2-468-patients-with-spinal-pain-in-korea
#18
Sung-Soo Chung, Chun-Kun Park, Kyu-Jung Cho, Kyoung Hyo Choi, Jin-Hyok Kim, Sung-Bum Kim, Sung-Uk Kuh, Jae Chul Lee, Jae Hyup Lee, Kyu-Yeol Lee, Sun-Ho Lee, Seong-Hwan Moon, Si-Young Park, Jae Hang Shim, Byung-Chul Son, Myung Ha Yoon, Hye-Jeong Park
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective patient data collection and investigator survey. PURPOSE: To investigate patterns of opioid treatment for pain caused by spinal disorders in Korea. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Opioid analgesic prescription and adequacy of consumption measures in Korea have markedly increased in the past decade, suggesting changing patterns in pain management practice; however, there is lack of integrated data specific to Korean population...
December 2016: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990189/effects-of-modification-of-pain-protocol-on-incidence-of-post-operative-nausea-and-vomiting
#19
Ran Schwarzkopf, Nimrod Snir, Zachary T Sharfman, Joseph B Rinehart, Michael-David Calderon, Esther Bahn, Brian Harrington, Kyle Ahn
BACKGROUND: A Perioperative Surgical Home (PSH) care model applies a standardized multidisciplinary approach to patient care using evidence-based medicine to modify and improve protocols. Analysis of patient outcome measures, such as postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), allows for refinement of existing protocols to improve patient care. We aim to compare the incidence of PONV in patients who underwent primary total joint arthroplasty before and after modification of our PSH pain protocol...
2016: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986693/cautious-use-and-optimal-dose-of-morphine-for-relieving-malignant-pain-in-a-complex-patient-with-multiple-comorbidities
#20
Vinod Kumar, Rakesh Garg, Nishkarsh Gupta, Sachidanand Jee Bharati
Oral morphine remains the drug of choice for the management of severe pain due to cancer as per WHO ladder of analgesia. Providing adequate pain relief in palliative care settings for pain due to cancer is challenging. Options become limited in cases of associated systemic comorbidities such as renal dysfunction, hypoproteinaemia, anaemia. Patients with renal dysfunction and other comorbidities may develop drug overdose due to abnormal pharmacokinetics. Renal dysfunction affects the pharmacokinetics of morphine by altering its absorption, metabolism and clearance...
December 16, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
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