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Cryptococcal meningitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906037/integrated-therapy-for-hiv-and-cryptococcosis
#1
REVIEW
Sirawat Srichatrapimuk, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Cryptococcosis has been one of the most common opportunistic infections and causes of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common form of cryptococcosis. Laboratory diagnosis of cryptococcosis includes direct microscopic examination, isolation of Cryptococcus from a clinical specimen, and detection of cryptococcal antigen. Without appropriate treatment, cryptococcosis is fatal. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to treatment success...
November 29, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886201/cryptococcal-meningitis-epidemiology-immunology-diagnosis-and-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Peter R Williamson, Joseph N Jarvis, Anil A Panackal, Matthew C Fisher, Síle F Molloy, Angela Loyse, Thomas S Harrison
HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is by far the most common cause of adult meningitis in many areas of the world that have high HIV seroprevalence. In most areas in Sub-Saharan Africa, the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis is not decreasing despite availability of antiretroviral therapy, because of issues of adherence and retention in HIV care. In addition, cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals is a substantial problem: the risk of cryptococcal infection is increased in transplant recipients and other individuals with defects in cell-mediated immunity, and cryptococcosis is also reported in the apparently immunocompetent...
November 25, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875016/cryptococcal-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-over-a-15-year-period-at-a-state-transplant-center
#3
Ian Gassiep, David McDougall, Joel Douglas, Ross Francis, Elliott G Playford
BACKGROUND: The aim of this research paper is to determine the incidence, risk factors and clinical outcome of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients diagnosed and treated for cryptococcosis at our institution. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all patients with SOT diagnosed and treated for cryptococcal infection occurring between January 2001 and December 2015. RESULTS: Of 102 patients diagnosed with cryptococcal infection, 23 were SOT recipients...
November 22, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862555/genomic-epidemiology-of-cryptococcus-yeasts-identifies-adaptation-to-environmental-niches-underpinning-infection-across-an-african-hiv-aids-cohort
#4
Mathieu Vanhove, Mathew A Beale, Johanna Rhodes, Duncan Chanda, Shabir Lakhi, Geoffrey Kwenda, Sile Molloy, Natasha Karunaharan, Neil Stone, Thomas S Harrison, Tihana Bicanic, Matthew C Fisher
Emerging infections caused by fungi have become a widely recognized global phenomenon and are causing an increasing burden of disease. Genomic techniques are providing new insights into the structure of fungal populations, revealing hitherto undescribed fine-scale adaptations to environments and hosts that govern their emergence as infections. Cryptococcal meningitis is a neglected tropical disease that is responsible for a large proportion of AIDS-related deaths across Africa; however, the ecological determinants that underlie a patient's risk of infection remain largely unexplored...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852678/disseminated-cryptococcosis-in-an-immunocompetent-child
#5
Noora Saeed, Hena A Ansari, Nazoora Khan, Mohsin Aijaz
Cryptococcus is a ubiquitous fungus and is known for causing meningitis and cutaneous infections in immunocompromised individuals. Disseminated cryptococcal infection is very rare and almost always found to occur in immunocompromised individuals especially in persons infected with HIV. This is particularly attributed to its capsulated spores. But there are few reported cases in which it has been found to cause disseminated infections even in immunocompetent individuals. We report a similar case of disseminated cryptococcal infection in an immunocompetent host...
November 16, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818191/corticosteroids-for-the-management-of-severe-intracranial-hypertension-in-meningoencephalitis-caused-by-cryptococcus-gattii-a-case-report-and-review
#6
R-A Maciel, L-S Ferreira, F Wirth, P-D Rosa, M Aves, E Turra, L-Z Goldani
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in meningitis caused by Cryptococcus gattii in immunocompetent patients after initiation of antifungal therapy appears to be the result of paradoxical antifungal treatment-induced clinical deterioration due to improved local immune responses to cryptococcal organisms. Recent anecdotal reports have suggested a favorable clinical response to corticosteroids in select patients with C. gattii central nervous system (CNS) infections. In this report, we describe a 65-year-old patient with meningoencephalitis caused by C...
November 3, 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814690/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-hiv-seronegative-children-in-beijing-china-2002-2013
#7
Ling-Yun Guo, Lin-Lin Liu, Yue Liu, Tian-Ming Chen, Shao-Ying Li, Yong-Hong Yang, Gang Liu
BACKGROUND: Data regarding HIV-seronegative pediatric patients with cryptococcal meningitis (CM) have been very limited. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed non-HIV-infected in patients with CM from January 2002 through December 2013 in Beijing Children's Hospital. Records of the all patients were obtained and compared. RESULTS: The 34 children had a median age of 5.6 years. Most of the patients were male (67.6 %). Only 23.5 % of the cases had identifiable underlying diseases...
November 4, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807560/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-and-fatal-cryptococcal-meningitis-after-immunosuppression-in-a-patient-with-elderly-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Dipesh H Vasant, Jimmy K Limdi, Simon P Borg-Bartolo, Alec Bonington, Regi George
Advanced age and associated comorbidities are-recognized predictors of life-threatening adverse outcomes, such as opportunistic infection following immunosuppressive therapy. We describe the case of an elderly patient with stricturing colonic Crohn's disease and significant clinical comorbidities, initially controlled with corticosteroid induction followed by infliximab, whose course was complicated by fatal disseminated cryptococcal infection and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Our patient's case highlights rare, but serious, complications of immunosuppression...
August 2016: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789254/estimating-the-burden-of-invasive-and-serious-fungal-disease-in-the-united-kingdom
#9
Matthew Pegorie, David W Denning, William Welfare
BACKGROUND: The burden of fungal disease in the UK is unknown. Only limited data are systematically collected. We have estimated the annual burden of invasive and serious fungal disease. METHODS: We used several estimation approaches. We searched and assessed published estimates of incidence, prevalence or burden of specific conditions in various high risk groups. Studies with adequate internal and external validity allowed extrapolation to estimate current UK burden...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787346/association-of-hiv-and-opportunistic-infections-with-incident-stroke-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#10
Yung-Feng Yen, Marcelo Chen, Ian Jen, Yu-Ching Lan, Pei-Hung Chuang, Yen-Ling Liu, Yun Lee, Yi-Ming Arthur Chen
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated vasculopathy and opportunistic infections (OIs) might cause vascular atherosclerosis and aneurysmal arteriopathy, which could increase the risk of incident stroke. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated the link between HIV and incident stroke. This cohort study evaluated the association of HIV and OIs with incident stroke. METHODS: We identified adults with HIV infection in 2000-2012, using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786246/hiv-associated-opportunistic-cns-infections-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Lauren N Bowen, Bryan Smith, Daniel Reich, Martha Quezado, Avindra Nath
Nearly 30 years after the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), CNS opportunistic infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Unknown HIV-positive disease status, antiretroviral drug resistance, poor drug compliance, and recreational drug abuse are factors that continue to influence the morbidity and mortality of infections. The clinical and radiographic pattern of CNS opportunistic infections is unique in the setting of HIV infection: opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients often have characteristic clinical and radiological presentations that can differ from the presentation of opportunistic infections in immunocompetent patients and are often sufficient to establish the diagnosis...
October 27, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766797/clinical-diversity-of-cns-cryptococcosis
#12
J M Koshy, S Mohan, D Deodhar, M John, A Oberoi, A Pannu
BACKGROUND: Though cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is recognized as a disease of the immunocompromised, studies have implicated that it also affect immunocompetent patients. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross sectional study conducted in the Department of Medicine of a tertiary teaching institution in North India. All the patients diagnosed with CM on the basis of detection of cryptococcal antigen or the presence of capsulated budding yeast cells on India ink preparation, from April 2009 to March2015 were included in the study...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766195/reversible-cardiomyopathy-secondary-to-amphotericin-b
#13
Antonio Carlos Bandeira, José Magalhães Filho, Karine de Almeida Ramos
We describe a 32-yr old woman with AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis that developed cardiomyopathy after 17 days of treatment with Deoxycholate Amphotericin-B (D-Amb) with reversal of the symptoms and transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) findings after the drug had been stopped and switched to Fluconazole.
September 2016: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760140/estimated-prevalence-of-cryptococcus-antigenemia-crag-among-hiv-infected-adults-with-advanced-immunosuppression-in-namibia-justifies-routine-screening-and-preemptive-treatment
#14
Souleymane Sawadogo, Boniface Makumbi, Anne Purfield, Christophine Ndjavera, Gram Mutandi, Andrew Maher, Francina Kaindjee-Tjituka, Jonathan E Kaplan, Benjamin J Park, David W Lowrance
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis is common and associated with high mortality among HIV infected persons. The World Health Organization recommends that routine Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening in ART-naïve adults with a CD4+ count <100 cells/μL followed by pre-emptive antifungal therapy for CrAg-positive patients be considered where CrAg prevalence is ≥3%. The prevalence of CrAg among HIV adults in Namibia is unknown. We estimated CrAg prevalence among HIV-infected adults receiving care in Namibia for the purpose of informing routine screening strategies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756232/acute-vision-loss-in-post-partum-period-as-presenting-symptom-of-hiv-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis-an-unusual-case-report
#15
Aniruddha More, Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Neeraj Kumar, Ravi Uniyal
BACKGROUND: Acute vision loss in the post-partum period can occur due to many reasons. Eclampsia, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), pituitary apoplexy, and central serous retinopathy are some of the important causes. Cryptococcal meningitis as a cause of acute vision loss in the post-partum period has not been mentioned in literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 25-year-old female presented to us with acute bilateral complete vision loss in the post-partum period...
October 19, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751821/evaluation-and-management-of-the-swollen-optic%C3%A2-disk-in-cryptococcal-meningitis
#16
REVIEW
Mohammed Rigi, Khurrum Khan, Stacy V Smith, Ayman O Suleiman, Andrew G Lee
Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common and severe form of cryptococcal infection. In addition to infiltrative and inflammatory mechanisms, intracranial hypertension commonly complicates cryptococcal meningitis and may cause significant visual and neurological morbidity and mortality. The mainstays of treatment for cryptococcal meningitis include standard antifungal therapy, management of intracranial hypertension, and treatment of underlying immunosuppressive conditions. Early and aggressive management of intracranial hypertension in accordance with established guidelines reduces the risk of long-term visual and neurological complications and death...
October 15, 2016: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742281/cryptococcosis-in-renal-transplant-recipients-a-single-center-experience
#17
S Marques, R Carmo, I Ferreira, M Bustorff, S Sampaio, M Pestana
BACKGROUND: In solid organ transplant patients, 8% of invasive fungal infections are attributed to Cryptococcus. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcome of kidney transplant recipients (TR) infected with Cryptococcus. CASE SERIES: Between 2007 and 2014, a total of 500 kidney transplantations were performed at São João Hospital, in Porto, Portugal. Six infections by C. neoformans were reported, an incidence of 1...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728431/community-acquired-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-a-non-immunocompromised-patient
#18
John T Kevin, N Iqbal, G Sanjoy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728416/unusual-presentation-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-immunocompetent-individual
#19
Sphoorti P Pai, Nagaraja Bs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728398/cryptococcal-meningitis-in-immunocompetent-patient
#20
Nitin Naik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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