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Chest diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786774/computational-fluid-dynamics-modeling-of-the-human-pulmonary-arteries-with-experimental-validation
#1
Alifer D Bordones, Matthew Leroux, Vitaly O Kheyfets, Yu-An Wu, Chia-Yuan Chen, Ender A Finol
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a chronic progressive disease characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure, caused by an increase in pulmonary arterial impedance. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to identify metrics representative of the stage of PH disease. However, experimental validation of CFD models is often not pursued due to the geometric complexity of the model or uncertainties in the reproduction of the required flow conditions. The goal of this work is to validate experimentally a CFD model of a pulmonary artery phantom using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique...
May 21, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785934/imaging-modalities-in-the-etiologic-evaluation-of-unilateral-vocal-fold-paralysis
#2
Suat Bilici, Muhammet Yildiz, Ozgur Yigit, Esra Misir
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the roles of computed tomography (CT) and neck ultrasonography (US) in evaluating unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) of unknown etiology and to compare our results with those of other studies to assess the differences in etiology of UVFP. METHODS: We investigated the medical records of 202 eligible patients with UVFP. In total, 168 underwent chest CT, 118 underwent neck CT, and 108 underwent head CT. One hundred and three patients were also evaluated with high-resolution neck US...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785839/optimization-of-a-secondary-voi-protocol-for-lung-imaging-in-a-clinical-ct-scanner
#3
Thomas C Larsen, Vissagan Gopalakrishnan, Jianhua Yao, Catherine P Nguyen, Marcus Y Chen, Joel Moss, Han Wen
We present a solution to meet an unmet clinical need of an in-situ "close look" at a pulmonary nodule or at the margins of a pulmonary cyst revealed by a primary (screening) chest CT while the patient is still in the scanner. We first evaluated options available on current whole-body CT scanners for high resolution screening scans, including ROI reconstruction of the primary scan data and HRCT, but found them to have insufficient SNR in lung tissue or discontinuous slice coverage. Within the capabilities of current clinical CT systems, we opted for the solution of a secondary, volume-of-interest (VOI) protocol where the radiation dose is focused into a short-beam axial scan at the z position of interest, combined with a small-FOV reconstruction at the xy position of interest...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785296/division-of-the-intersegmental-plane-using-electrocautery-for-segmentectomy-in-clinical-stage-i-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Mitsuyoshi Matsumoto, Koyo Shirahashi, Hirotaka Yamamoto, Yusaku Miyamaoto, Hiroyasu Komuro, Kiyoshi Doi, Hisashi Iwata
Background: Division of intersegmental planes is one of the important practical issues for segmentectomy to obtain feasible outcomes without relapse for clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Almost all surgeons perform this procedure using a stapler. However, division of intersegmental planes for segmentectomy can also be performed by electrocautery. In this article, we demonstrate the merits and drawbacks of division of the intersegmental plane by electrocautery for segmentectomy...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785130/human-herpesvirus-6-pneumonitis-in-a-patient-with-follicular-lymphoma-following-immunochemotherapy-with-rituximab
#5
Saeko Kuwahara-Ota, Yoshiaki Chinen, Yoshimi Mizuno, Tomoko Takimoto-Shimomura, Yayoi Matsumura-Kimoto, Kazuna Tanba, Taku Tsukamoto, Shinsuke Mizutani, Yuji Shimura, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Shigeo Horiike, Junya Kuroda
Primary infection with human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) commonly occurs at an early age in children, most often at 3 years of age, and is associated with childhood diseases, such as exanthema subitum, hepatitis, febrile convulsions, or encephalitis. However, the virus occasionally reactivates from its latent state in immunosuppressed adults, especially post-transplant, resulting in serious disseminated, sometimes life-threatening end-organ complications. Herein, we report a case of a 68-year-old man with relapsed follicular lymphoma who developed HHV-6 pneumonitis...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783881/lemierre-s-syndrome-a-case-study-with-a-short-review-of-literature
#6
Ken De Smet, Paul-Emile Claus, Gudrun Alliet, An Simpelaere, Geert Desmet
Objective and Importance Lemierre's syndrome (LS) is a rare condition that typically starts with a bacterial oropharyngeal infection complicated by a thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and septic emboli to the lungs or other organs. The most common organism isolated is Fusobacterium necrophorum, although other causative organisms are isolated in rare cases. Case presentation We discuss a case of LS in a 44-year-old, previously healthy man presenting with an oropharyngeal infection. F. necrophorum was isolated from blood cultures and Computed tomography of the chest demonstrated septic emboli in the lungs...
May 21, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783820/-efficacy-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-and-its-influence-factors-in-the-treatment-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-with-atelectasis
#7
M Yang, D H Yang, X Yang, Y S Wang, L Wu, Z M Chen
Objective: To investigate the efficacy of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and its influence factors in the treatment of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) with atelectasis. Methods: A retrospective case control study was performed on hospitalized MPP patients with atelectasis and received BAL in the Department of Pulmonology, Children's Hospital Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 1, 2015 to July 31, 2017. Fever relieved in 48 hours and chest imaging improved in one week after BAL were considered effective...
May 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783140/congenital-diaphragmatic-disease-an-unusual-presentation-in-adulthood-case-report
#8
Angela Gurrado, Roberta Maria Isernia, Alessandro De Luca, Valentina Ferraro, Daniela Virgintino, Anna Napoli, Giuseppe Cavallaro, Eugenio Maiorano, Angela Pezzolla, Mario Testini
INTRODUCTION: Congenital diaphragmatic disease is a quite common condition that usually occurs in the neonatal period, and the diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic disease in adulthood is rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-years-old Caucasian woman was admitted in emergency at our Department, due to a bowel obstruction and dyspnea. A CT-scan showed a diaphragmatic herniation in the left area, with malposition of dilated transverse and descending colon in the chest. An emergency laparatomy was performed, showing a toxic megacolon, in the absence of a true diaphragmatic hernia, and a left diaphragm and left liver hypoplasia...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781853/the-use-of-pedicled-perforator-flaps-in-chest-reconstruction-a-systematic-review-of-outcomes-and-reliability
#9
Anne-Sophie Florczak, Benoit Chaput, Christian Herlin, Pascal Rousseau, Eric Watier, Nicolas Bertheuil
BACKGROUND: In recent years, pedicled perforator flaps have revolutionized plastic surgery by reducing donor site morbidity and ensuring larger and deeper reconstructions with local pedicled cutaneous flaps. The aim of the study was to make a systematic review of perforator pedicled propeller flaps (PPPFs) in chest reconstruction. METHODS: Pubmed and Cochrane databases were searched from 1989 to October 2016 for articles describing the use of PPPFs in chest reconstruction...
May 17, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781330/management-of-pleural-infections
#10
Lucía Ferreiro, José M Porcel, Silvia Bielsa, María Elena Toubes, José Manuel Álvarez-Dobaño, Luis Valdés
The management of infected pleural effusion is complex. Therapeutic resolution requires determining the following: appropriate antibiotic regimen, the need for pleural drainage, the optimal drainage tube size, and the need for intrapleural therapy or surgery. Areas covered: An updating of the latest advances in the management of parapneumonic pleural effusion based on the best evidence available is provided. Expert commentary: The correct management of parapneumonic pleural effusion is based on selecting an antibiotic regimen according to the origin of the pleural infection (community-acquired or nosocomial)...
May 20, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780244/severity-of-acidosis-affects-long-term-survival-in-copd-patients-with-hypoxemia-after-intensive-care-unit-discharge
#11
Sinem Gungor, Feyza Kargin, Ilim Irmak, Fulya Ciyiltepe, Eylem Acartürk Tunçay, Pinar Atagun Guney, Emine Aksoy, Birsen Ocakli, Nalan Adiguzel, Zuhal Karakurt
Background: Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to COPD have high mortality and morbidity. Acidosis has several harmful effects on hemodynamics and metabolism, and the current knowledge regarding the relationship between respiratory acidosis severity on the short- and long-term survival of COPD patients is limited. We hypothesized that COPD patients with severe acidosis would have a poorer short- and long-term prognosis compared with COPD patients with mild-to-moderate acidosis...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780243/effect-of-starting-oral-intake-on-weekends-on-the-clinical-course-of-patients-with-aspiration-pneumonia
#12
Tsuneaki Kenzaka, Ayako Kumabe, Koki Kosami, Yuki Ueda, Takeshi Takahashi, Yuya Yamamoto, Yurika Hayashi, Akihito Kitao, Masanobu Okayama
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the day of starting oral intake affects the clinical course of patients with aspiration pneumonia. Results: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 392 patients who were hospitalized for aspiration pneumonia but tolerated oral intake. Patients were divided into two groups according to the day of starting oral intake: Monday to Friday (midweek group) and Saturday or Sunday (weekend group). Underlying diseases, severity of pneumonia, time to oral intake, hospital duration, discontinuation of oral intake, and death during hospitalization were compared between the groups...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780127/a-case-of-transient-pulmonary-interstitial-lesions-in-aquaporin-4-positive-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#13
Yuko Asato, Toshiaki Kamitani, Kuniyuki Ootsuka, Mizuki Kuramochi, Kozo Nakanishi, Tetsuya Shimada, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Tatsuro Misu, Masashi Aoki, Kazuo Fujihara, Yoshinori Kawabata
We herein report the case of a 76-year old man with aquaporin-4-Immunoglobulin-G (AQP4-IgG)-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), in whom transient interstitial pulmonary lesions developed at the early stage of the disease. Chest X-ray showed multiple infiltrative shadows in both upper lung fields, and computed tomography revealed abnormal shadows distributed randomly in the lungs. Surgical lung biopsy showed features of unclassifiable interstitial pneumonia, characterized by various types of air-space organization, which resulted in obscure lung structure...
May 18, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779892/-cardiac-compression-of-hydatid-origin
#14
I Bouassida, C Pricopi, G Mangiameli, A Arame, J B Auliac, B Gorbatai, M Riquet, F Le Pimpec Barthes
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac hydatid disease is uncommon and occurs in 0.5 to 2% of patients with hydatidosis. Isolated intrapericardial hydatid cystic disease is extremely rare. OBSERVATION: We report the case of a young woman with cardiac compression due to multiple primary intrapericardial hydatid cysts. Since 1 year, she had gradual general health deterioration including dyspnoea, sweats and weight loss of 8kg. A widening of the mediastinum was observed on chest X-ray...
May 17, 2018: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779802/feasibility-of-initiating-early-enteral-nutrition-after-congenital-heart-surgery-in-neonates-and-infants
#15
Rajat Kalra, Rohit Vohra, Malti Negi, Reena Joshi, Neeraj Aggarwal, Mridul Aggarwal, Raja Joshi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of initiating enteral nutrition support with first 24 h of congenital heart repairs in neonates and Infants and its impact on outcomes following surgery. DESIGN: It is a prospective randomized control single blind study. SETTING: It is a single centre prospective study carried out in a tertiary care centre at Pediatric cardiac intensive care unit. PATIENTS: All patients with the cyanotic congenital heart disease with increase pulmonary blood flow, weighing less than 5 kg and undergoing congenital heart repair during the study period were included in the study...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779604/progress-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-neuromuscular-and-nonmuscular-chest-wall-diseases
#16
EDITORIAL
F Dennis McCool, Joshua O Benditt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779593/assessing-diaphragm-function-in-chest-wall-and-neuromuscular-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Taro Minami, Kamran Manzoor, F Dennis McCool
Diaphragm dysfunction is defined as the partial or complete loss of diaphragm muscle contractility. However, because the diaphragm is one of only a few skeletal muscles that is not amenable to direct examination, the tools available for the clinician to assess diaphragm function have been limited. Traditionally, measures of lung volume, inspiratory muscle strength, and radiographic techniques such as fluoroscopy have provided the major method to assess diaphragm function. Measurement of transdiaphragmatic pressure provides the most direct means of evaluating the diaphragm, but this technique is not readily available to clinicians...
June 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779591/sleep-disordered-breathing-in-neuromuscular-and-chest-wall-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Janet Hilbert
Neuromuscular and chest wall diseases include a diverse group of conditions that share common risk factors for sleep-disordered breathing, including respiratory muscle weakness and/or thoracic restriction. Sleep-disordered breathing results from both the effects of normal sleep on ventilation and the additional challenges imposed by the underlying disorders. Patterns of sleep- disordered breathing vary with the specific diagnosis and stage of disease. Sleep hypoventilation precedes diurnal respiratory failure and may be difficult to recognize clinically because symptoms are nonspecific...
June 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779589/chest-wall-diseases-respiratory-pathophysiology
#19
REVIEW
George E Tzelepis
The chest wall consists of various structures that function in an integrated fashion to ventilate the lungs. Disorders affecting the bony structures or soft tissues of the chest wall may impose elastic loads by stiffening the chest wall and decreasing respiratory system compliance. These alterations increase the work of breathing and lead to hypoventilation and hypercapnia. Respiratory failure may occur acutely or after a variable period of time. This review focuses on the pathophysiology of respiratory function in specific diseases and disorders of the chest wall, and highlights pathogenic mechanisms of respiratory failure...
June 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779492/pretreatment-chest-x-ray-severity-and-its-relation-to-bacterial-burden-in-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#20
S E Murthy, F Chatterjee, A Crook, R Dawson, C Mendel, M E Murphy, S R Murray, A J Nunn, P P J Phillips, Kasha P Singh, T D McHugh, S H Gillespie
BACKGROUND: Chest radiographs are used for diagnosis and severity assessment in tuberculosis (TB). The extent of disease as determined by smear grade and cavitation as a binary measure can predict 2-month smear results, but little has been done to determine whether radiological severity reflects the bacterial burden at diagnosis. METHODS: Pre-treatment chest x-rays from 1837 participants with smear-positive pulmonary TB enrolled into the REMoxTB trial (Gillespie et al...
May 21, 2018: BMC Medicine
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