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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141278/a-survey-of-the-neuro-oncology-landscape
#1
REVIEW
Rimas V Lukas, Jing Wu, Mahua Dey, Robin A Buerki, Richard W Byrne, George J Dohrmann
The field of neuro-oncology is evolving rapidly. Many important advances have recently been reported, and other promising investigations have the potential to soon make substantial impacts in the field, especially in the areas of high-grade gliomas and brain metastases. We present an overview of the current status of this field, highlighting the key recent advances as well as representative work of key clinical investigations, since these concepts have the potential to influence clinical management if they are demonstrated to be safe and efficacious...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141226/a-pan-cancer-analysis-of-the-expression-and-clinical-relevance-of-small-nucleolar-rnas-in-human-cancer
#2
Jing Gong, Yajuan Li, Chun-Jie Liu, Yu Xiang, Chunlai Li, Youqiong Ye, Zhao Zhang, David H Hawke, Peter K Park, Lixia Diao, John A Putkey, Liuqing Yang, An-Yuan Guo, Chunru Lin, Leng Han
Increasing evidence has demonstrated that small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) play important roles in tumorigenesis. We systematically investigated the expression landscape and clinical relevance of snoRNAs in >10,000 samples across 31 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We observed overall elevated expression of snoRNAs and their ribonucleoproteins in multiple cancer types. We showed complex regulation of snoRNA expression by their host genes, copy number variation, and DNA methylation. Unsupervised clustering revealed that the snoRNA expression subtype is highly concordant with other molecular/clinical subtypes...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141117/tunable-energy-landscapes-to-control-pathway-complexity-in-self-assembled-n-heterotriangulenes-living-and-seeded-supramolecular-polymerization
#3
Jorge S Valera, Rafael Gómez, Luis Sánchez
Herein, the synthesis and self-assembling features of N-heterotriangulenes 1-3 decorated in their periphery with 3,4,5-trialkoxy-N-(alkoxy)benzamide moieties that enable kinetic control of the supramolecular polymerization process are described. The selection of an appropriate solvent results in a tunable energy landscape in which the relative energy of the different monomeric or aggregated species can be regulated. Thus, in a methylcyclohexane/toluene (MCH/Tol) mixture, intramolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions in the peripheral side units favor the formation of metastable inactivated monomers that evolve with time at precise conditions of concentration and temperature...
November 15, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140828/biomimetic-nanoparticles-for-transplantation-tolerance
#4
Silvia Minardi, Sahil Shah, Xunrong Luo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review aims to provide a current landscape and future trends of biomimetic nanoparticles which have the potential to revolutionize the field of transplantation in the next decade. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, the inability to safely induce robust donor-specific immunological tolerance makes it difficult to achieve immunosuppression-free graft survival. Despite progresses in the development of nanotherapeutics for antigen-specific immunomodulation in autoimmune diseases and in cancer treatments, few have been proposed and tested in transplantation with success...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140754/comparing-diversity-of-fungi-from-living-leaves-using-culturing-and-high-throughput-environmental-sequencing
#5
Peter R Johnston, Duckchul Park, Rob D Smissen
High-throughput sequencing technologies using amplicon approaches have changed the way that studies investigating fungal distribution are undertaken. These powerful and time-efficient technologies have the potential for the first time to accurately map fungal distributions across landscapes or changes in diversity across ecological or biological gradients of interest. There is no requirement for a fungus to form a fruiting body to be detected, and both culturable and nonculturable organisms can be detected...
October 6, 2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140728/sample-based-models-of-protein-energy-landscapes-and-slow-structural-rearrangements
#6
Tatiana Maximova, Zijing Zhang, Daniel B Carr, Erion Plaku, Amarda Shehu
Proteins often undergo slow structural rearrangements that involve several angstroms and surpass the nanosecond timescale. These spatiotemporal scales challenge physics-based simulations and open the way to sample-based models of structural dynamics. This article improves an understanding of current capabilities and limitations of sample-based models of dynamics. Borrowing from widely used concepts in evolutionary computation, this article introduces two conflicting aspects of sampling capability and quantifies them via statistical (and graphical) analysis tools...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140600/vegetation-cover-another-dominant-factor-in-determining-global-water-resources-in-forested-regions
#7
Xiaohua Wei, Qiang Li, Mingfang Zhang, Krysta Giles-Hansen, Wenfei Liu, Houbao Fan, Yi Wang, Guoyi Zhou, Shilong Piao, Shirong Liu
Forested catchments provide critically important water resources. Due to dramatic global forest change over the past decades, the importance of including forest or vegetation change in the assessment of water resources under climate change has been highly recognized by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC); however, this importance has not yet been examined quantitatively across the globe. Here, we used four remote sensing-based indices to represent changes in vegetation cover in forest dominated regions, and then applied them to widely-used models: the Fuh model and the Choudhury-Yang model to assess relative contributions of vegetation and climate changes to annual runoff variations from 2000 to 2011 in forested landscape (forest coverage > 30%) across the globe...
November 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139572/exposing-ecological-and-economic-costs-of-the-research-implementation-gap-and-compromises-in-decision-making
#8
Santtu Kareksela, Atte Moilanen, Olli Ristaniemi, Reima Välivaara, Janne S Kotiaho
The frequently discussed gap between conservation science and practice is manifest in the gap between spatial conservation prioritization plans and their implementation. We analyzed the research-implementation gap of 1 zoning case by comparing results of a spatial prioritization analysis aimed at avoiding ecological impact of peat mining in a regional zoning process with the final zoning plan. We examined the relatively complex planning process to determine the gaps among research, zoning, and decision making...
November 15, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138646/the-characteristics-of-tcm-clinical-trials-a-systematic-review-of-clinicaltrials-gov
#9
REVIEW
Junchao Chen, Jihan Huang, Jordan V Li, Yinghua Lv, Yingchun He, Qingshan Zheng
Objective: The aim of this review is to characterize current status of global TCM clinical trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. Methods: We examined all the trials registered within ClinicalTrials.gov up to 25 September 2015, focusing on study interventions to identify TCM-related trials, and extracted 1,270 TCM trials from the data set. Results: Overall, 691 (54.4%) trials were acupuncture, and 454 (35.8%) trials were herbal medicines...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138459/the-genomic-landscape-of-nepalese-tibeto-burmans-reveals-new-insights-into-the-recent-peopling-of-southern-himalayas
#10
Guido A Gnecchi-Ruscone, Choongwon Jeong, Sara De Fanti, Stefania Sarno, Michela Trancucci, Davide Gentilini, Anna M Di Blasio, Mingma G Sherpa, Phurba T Sherpa, Giorgio Marinelli, Marco Di Marcello, Luca Natali, Davide Peluzzi, Davide Pettener, Anna Di Rienzo, Donata Luiselli, Marco Sazzini
While much research attention has focused on demographic processes that enabled human diffusion on the Tibetan plateau, little is known about more recent colonization of Southern Himalayas. In particular, the history of migrations, admixture and/or isolation of populations speaking Tibeto-Burman languages, which is supposed to be quite complex and to have reshaped patterns of genetic variation on both sides of the Himalayan arc, remains only partially elucidated. We thus described the genomic landscape of previously unsurveyed Tibeto-Burman (i...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138456/prep1-prevents-premature-adipogenesis-of-mesenchymal-progenitors
#11
Giorgia Maroni, Vsevolod A Tkachuk, Alexander Egorov, Marco J Morelli, Raffaele Luongo, Elena Levantini, Francesco Blasi, Maria Cristina Magli, Dmitry Penkov
Transcriptional regulators are crucial in adipocyte differentiation. We now show that the homeodomain-containing transcription factor Prep1 is a repressor of adipogenic differentiation since its down-regulation (DR) in both ex vivo bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and in vitro 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly increases their adipogenic differentiation ability. Prep1 acts at a stage preceding the activation of the differentiation machinery because its DR makes cells more prone to adipogenic differentiation even in the absence of the adipogenic inducers...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138394/critical-mutation-rate-has-an-exponential-dependence-on-population-size-for-eukaryotic-length-genomes-with-crossover
#12
Elizabeth Aston, Alastair Channon, Roman V Belavkin, Danna R Gifford, Rok Krašovec, Christopher G Knight
The critical mutation rate (CMR) determines the shift between survival-of-the-fittest and survival of individuals with greater mutational robustness ("flattest"). We identify an inverse relationship between CMR and sequence length in an in silico system with a two-peak fitness landscape; CMR decreases to no more than five orders of magnitude above estimates of eukaryotic per base mutation rate. We confirm the CMR reduces exponentially at low population sizes, irrespective of peak radius and distance, and increases with the number of genetic crossovers...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138304/refactoring-the-genetic-code-for-increased-evolvability
#13
Gur Pines, James D Winkler, Assaf Pines, Ryan T Gill
The standard genetic code is robust to mutations during transcription and translation. Point mutations are likely to be synonymous or to preserve the chemical properties of the original amino acid. Saturation mutagenesis experiments suggest that in some cases the best-performing mutant requires replacement of more than a single nucleotide within a codon. These replacements are essentially inaccessible to common error-based laboratory engineering techniques that alter a single nucleotide per mutation event, due to the extreme rarity of adjacent mutations...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138298/first-insights-into-the-diverse-human-archaeome-specific-detection-of-archaea-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-lung-and-nose-and-on-skin
#14
Kaisa Koskinen, Manuela R Pausan, Alexandra K Perras, Michael Beck, Corinna Bang, Maximilian Mora, Anke Schilhabel, Ruth Schmitz, Christine Moissl-Eichinger
Human-associated archaea remain understudied in the field of microbiome research, although in particular methanogenic archaea were found to be regular commensals of the human gut, where they represent keystone species in metabolic processes. Knowledge on the abundance and diversity of human-associated archaea is extremely limited, and little is known about their function(s), their overall role in human health, or their association with parts of the human body other than the gastrointestinal tract and oral cavity...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138237/natural-variation-in-ser1-and-ena6-underlie-condition-specific-growth-defects-in-saccharomyces%C3%A2-cerevisiae
#15
Amy Sirr, Adrian C Scott, Gareth A Cromie, Catherine L Ludlow, Vida Ahyong, Trey S Morgan, Teresa Gilbert, Aimée M Dudley
Despite their ubiquitous use in laboratory strains, naturally occurring loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding core metabolic enzymes are relatively rare in wild isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Here, we identify a naturally occurring serine auxotrophy in a sake brewing strain from Japan. Through a cross with a honey wine (white tecc) brewing strain from Ethiopia, we map the minimal medium growth defect to SER1, which encodes 3-phosphoserine aminotransferase and is orthologous to the human disease gene, PSAT1 To investigate the impact of this polymorphism under conditions of abundant external nutrients, we examine growth in rich medium alone or with additional stresses, including the drugs caffeine and rapamycin and relatively high concentrations of copper, salt, and ethanol...
November 14, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137670/modelling-and-mapping-tick-dynamics-using-volunteered-observations
#16
Irene Garcia-Martí, Raúl Zurita-Milla, Arnold J H van Vliet, Willem Takken
BACKGROUND: Tick populations and tick-borne infections have steadily increased since the mid-1990s posing an ever-increasing risk to public health. Yet, modelling tick dynamics remains challenging because of the lack of data and knowledge on this complex phenomenon. Here we present an approach to model and map tick dynamics using volunteered data. This approach is illustrated with 9 years of data collected by a group of trained volunteers who sampled active questing ticks (AQT) on a monthly basis and for 15 locations in the Netherlands...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137663/patent-landscape-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-an-analysis-of-worldwide-patent-families
#17
Folahanmi Tomiwa Akinsolu, Vitor Nobre de Paiva, Samuel Santos Souza, Orsolya Varga
BACKGROUND: "Neglected Tropical Diseases" (NTDs) affect millions of people in Africa, Asia and South America. The two primary ways of strategic interventions are "preventive chemotherapy and transmission control" (PCT), and "innovative and intensified disease management" (IDM). In the last 5 years, phenomenal progress has been achieved. However, it is crucial to intensify research effort into NTDs, because of the emerging drug resistance. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the term NTDs covers 17 diseases, namely buruli ulcer, Chagas disease, dengue, dracunculiasis, echinococcosis, trematodiasis, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, rabies, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthes, taeniasis, trachoma, and yaws...
November 14, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136527/targeting-splicing-abnormalities-in-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Anant A Agrawal, Lihua Yu, Peter G Smith, Silvia Buonamici
Recently splicing has been recognized as a key pathway in cancer. Although aberrant splicing has been shown to be a consequence of mutations or the abnormal expression of splicing factors (trans-effect changes) or mutations in the splicing sequences (cis-effect mutations), the connections between aberrant splicing and cancer initiation or progression are still not well understood. Here we review the mutational landscape of splicing factors in cancer and associated splicing consequences, along with the most important examples of the therapeutic approaches targeting the spliceosome currently being investigated in oncology...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136502/molecular-landscape-of-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#19
Joshua J Meeks, Seth P Lerner
In this issue of Cancer Cell, Hurst et al. report an integrated analysis of non-invasive (stage Ta) bladder cancer. Two genomic subtypes are distinguished by chromosome 9q loss, resulting in increased AKT/PI3K/mTOR signaling. Tumors from female patients have a higher frequency of KDM6A mutations.
November 13, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136202/a-conceptual-framework-for-cell-identity-transitions-in-plants
#20
Idan Efroni
Multicellular organisms develop from a single cell that proliferates to form different cell types with specialized functions. Sixty years ago, Waddington's suggested the "epigenetic landscape" as a useful metaphor for the process. According to this view, cells move through a rugged identity space along genetically-encoded trajectories, until arriving at one of possible final fates. In plants in particular, these trajectories also have strong spatial correlates, as cell identity is intimately linked to its relative position within the plant...
November 9, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
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