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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548860/direct-imaging-of-kinetic-pathways-of-atomic-diffusion-in-monolayer-molybdenum-disulfide
#1
Jinhua Hong, Yuhao Pan, Zhixin Hu, Danhui Lv, Chuanhong Jin, Wei Ji, Jun Yuan, Ze Zhang
Direct observation of atomic migration both on and below surfaces is a long-standing but important challenge in materials science as diffusion is one of the most elementary processes essential to many vital material behaviors. Probing the kinetic pathways, including metastable or even transition states involved down to atomic scale, holds the key to the underlying physical mechanisms. Here, we applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to demon-strate direct atomic-scale imaging and quasi-real-time tracking of diffusion of Mo adatoms and vacancies in monolayer MoS2, an important 2D transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) system...
May 26, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548844/two-dynamical-regimes-of-the-substrate-radical-rearrangement-reaction-in-b12-dependent-ethanolamine-ammonia-lyase-resolve-contributions-of-native-protein-configurations-and-collective-configurational-fluctuations-to-catalysis
#2
Meghan Kohne, Chen Zhu, Kurt Warncke
The kinetics of the substrate radical rearrangement reaction step in B12-dependent ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EAL) from Salmonella typhimurium are measured over a 92 K temperature range. The observed first-order rate constants display a piecewise-continuous Arrhenius dependence, with linear regions over 295→220 K (monoexponential) and 214→203 K (biexponential) that are delineated by a kinetic bifurcation and kinks at 219 and 217 K, respectively. The results are interpreted by using a free energy landscape model and derived microscopic kinetic mechanism...
May 26, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548460/internally-generated-hippocampal-sequences-as-a-vantage-point-to-probe-future-oriented-cognition
#3
REVIEW
Giovanni Pezzulo, Caleb Kemere, Matthijs A A van der Meer
Information processing in the rodent hippocampus is fundamentally shaped by internally generated sequences (IGSs), expressed during two different network states: theta sequences, which repeat and reset at the ∼8 Hz theta rhythm associated with active behavior, and punctate sharp wave-ripple (SWR) sequences associated with wakeful rest or slow-wave sleep. A potpourri of diverse functional roles has been proposed for these IGSs, resulting in a fragmented conceptual landscape. Here, we advance a unitary view of IGSs, proposing that they reflect an inferential process that samples a policy from the animal's generative model, supported by hippocampus-specific priors...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548241/-making-better-use-of-u-s-women-psychology-sex-roles-and-womanpower-in-post-wwii-america
#4
Alexandra Rutherford
The relationship between American psychology and gender ideologies in the two decades following World War II was complicated and multivalent. Although many psy-professionals publicly contributed to the cult of domesticity that valorized women's roles as wives and mothers, other psychologists, many of them women, reimagined traditional sex roles to accommodate and deproblematize the increasing numbers of women at work, especially working mothers. In this article, I excavate and highlight the contributions of several of these psychologists, embedding their efforts in the context of the paradoxical expectations for women that colored the postwar and increasingly Cold War landscape of the United States...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548109/morphometric-convergence-between-proterozoic-and-post-vegetation-rivers
#5
Alessandro Ielpi, Robert H Rainbird, Dario Ventra, Massimiliano Ghinassi
Proterozoic rivers flowed through barren landscapes, and lacked interactions with macroscopic organisms. It is widely held that, in the absence of vegetation, fluvial systems featured barely entrenched channels that promptly widened over floodplains during floods. This hypothesis has never been tested because of an enduring lack of Precambrian fluvial-channel morphometric data. Here we show, through remote sensing and outcrop sedimentology, that deep rivers were developed in the Proterozoic, and that morphometric parameters for large fluvial channels might have remained within a narrow range over almost 2 billion years...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548104/genomic-analysis-of-oesophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-identifies-alcohol-drinking-related-mutation-signature-and-genomic-alterations
#6
Jiang Chang, Wenle Tan, Zhiqiang Ling, Ruibin Xi, Mingming Shao, Mengjie Chen, Yingying Luo, Yanjie Zhao, Yun Liu, Xiancong Huang, Yuchao Xia, Jinlin Hu, Joel S Parker, David Marron, Qionghua Cui, Linna Peng, Jiahui Chu, Hongmin Li, Zhongli Du, Yaling Han, Wen Tan, Zhihua Liu, Qimin Zhan, Yun Li, Weimin Mao, Chen Wu, Dongxin Lin
Approximately half of the world's 500,000 new oesophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases each year occur in China. Here, we show whole-genome sequencing of DNA and RNA in 94 Chinese individuals with ESCC. We identify six mutational signatures (E1-E6), and Signature E4 is unique in ESCC linked to alcohol intake and genetic variants in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. We discover significantly recurrent mutations in 20 protein-coding genes, 4 long non-coding RNAs and 10 untranslational regions. Functional analyses show six genes that have recurrent copy-number variants in three squamous-cell carcinomas (oesophageal, head and neck and lung) significantly promote cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547936/fragment-based-drug-discovery-as-alternative-strategy-to-the-drug-development-for-neglected-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Juliana da Fonseca Rezende E Mello, Renan Augusto Gomes, Drielli Gomes Vital-Fujii, Glaucio Monteiro Ferreira, Gustavo Henrique Goulart Trossini
Neglected diseases (NDs) affect large populations and almost whole continents, representing 12% of the global health burden. In contrast, the treatment available today is limited and sometimes ineffective. Under this scenery, the Fragment-Based Drug Discovery (FBDD) emerged as one of the most promising alternatives to the traditional methods of drug development. This method allows achieving new lead compounds with smaller size of fragment libraries. Even with the wide Fragment-Based Drug Discovery success resulting in new effective therapeutic agents against different diseases, until this moment few studies have been applied this approach for NDs area...
May 26, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547888/mapping-the-free-energy-of-lithium-solvation-in-the-protic-ionic-liquid-ethylammonuim-nitrate-a-metadynamics-study
#8
Ali Kachmar, Marcelo Carignano, Teodoro Laino, Marcella Iannuzzi, Jürg Hutter
The understanding of lithium solvation and transport in ionic liquids is important due to the possible applications in electrochemical devices. Using first principles simulations aided with the metadynamics approach we study the free energy landscape for lithium at infinite dilution conditions in ethylammonium nitrate, a protic ionic liquid. We analyze the local structure of the liquid around the lithium cation and find a quantitative picture in agreement with experimental findings. Our simulations show that the lowest two free energy minima correspond to conformations with the lithium solvated either by 3 or 4 nitrates ions with a transition barrier between them of 0...
May 26, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546842/opportunities-and-challenges-for-the-sustainable-production-of-structurally-complex-diterpenoids-in-recombinant-microbial-systems
#9
REVIEW
Katarina Kemper, Max Hirte, Markus Reinbold, Monika Fuchs, Thomas Brück
With over 50.000 identified compounds terpenes are the largest and most structurally diverse group of natural products. They are ubiquitous in bacteria, plants, animals and fungi, conducting several biological functions such as cell wall components or defense mechanisms. Industrial applications entail among others pharmaceuticals, food additives, vitamins, fragrances, fuels and fuel additives. Central building blocks of all terpenes are the isoprenoid compounds isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546825/efficient-isolation-of-magnolia-protoplasts-and-the-application-to-subcellular-localization-of-mdehsf1
#10
Yamei Shen, Dong Meng, Kim McGrouther, Junhong Zhang, Lailiang Cheng
BACKGROUND: Magnolia is a woody ornamental plant, which is widely used in urban landscaping. However, its lengthy juvenile period and recalcitrance to regeneration impedes functional characterization of its genes. RESULTS: We developed an efficient protoplast isolation and transient expression system for Magnolia denudata × Magnolia acuminata 'Yellow River'. The highest yield of protoplasts was obtained from young leaves digested in 3% Cellulase R10, 0.8% Macerozyme R10, 0...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546652/chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-flexibly-use-introduced-species-for-nesting-and-bark-feeding-in-a-human-dominated-habitat
#11
Maureen S McCarthy, Jack D Lester, Craig B Stanford
As habitat loss and fragmentation place growing pressure on endangered nonhuman primate populations, researchers find increasing evidence for novel responses in behavior. In western Uganda between the Budongo and Bugoma Forests, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) inhabit a mosaic landscape comprising forest fragments, human settlements, and agricultural land. We recorded nests and feeding evidence of unhabituated chimpanzees in this region over a 12-mo period. We found extensive evidence of nesting in introduced tree species, including eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis), guava (Psidium guajava), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), and Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea)...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546651/activity-and-habitat-use-of-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-verus-in-the-anthropogenic-landscape-of-bossou-guinea-west-africa
#12
Nicola Bryson-Morrison, Joseph Tzanopoulos, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Tatyana Humle
Many primate populations inhabit anthropogenic landscapes. Understanding their long-term ability to persist in such environments and associated real and perceived risks for both primates and people is essential for effective conservation planning. Primates in forest-agricultural mosaics often consume cultivars to supplement their diet, leading to potentially negative encounters with farmers. When crossing roads, primates also face the risk of encounters with people and collision with vehicles. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa, face such risks regularly...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546650/samango-monkeys-cercopithecus-albogularis-labiatus-manage-risk-in-a-highly-seasonal-human-modified-landscape-in-amathole-mountains-south-africa
#13
Katarzyna Nowak, Kirsten Wimberger, Shane A Richards, Russell A Hill, Aliza le Roux
Wild species use habitats that vary in risk across space and time. This risk can derive from natural predators and also from direct and indirect human pressures. A starving forager will often take risks that a less hungry forager would not. At a highly seasonal and human-modified site, we predicted that arboreal samango monkeys (Cercopithecus albogularis labiatus) would show highly flexible, responsive, risk-sensitive foraging. We first determined how monkeys use horizontal and vertical space across seasons to evaluate if high-risk decisions (use of gardens and ground) changed with season, a proxy for starvation risk...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546649/seeing-is-not-believing-how-viewing-pornography-shapes-the-religious-lives-of-young-americans
#14
Samuel L Perry, George M Hayward
Pornography has become increasingly accessible in the United States, and particularly for younger Americans. While some research considers how pornography use affects the sexual and psychological health of adolescents and emerging adults, sociologists have given little attention to how viewing pornography may shape young Americans' connection to key social and cultural institutions, like religion. This article examines whether viewing pornography may actually have a secularizing effect, reducing young Americans' personal religiosity over time...
June 2017: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546577/corrigendum-landscape-of-monoallelic-dna-accessibility-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-and-neural-progenitor-cells
#15
Jin Xu, Ava C Carter, Anne-Valerie Gendrel, Mikael Attia, Joshua Loftus, William J Greenleaf, Robert Tibshirani, Edith Heard, Howard Y Chang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546560/potential-decline-in-carbon-carrying-capacity-under-projected-climate-wildfire-interactions-in-the-sierra-nevada
#16
Shuang Liang, Matthew D Hurteau, Anthony LeRoy Westerling
Ecosystem carbon carrying capacity (CCC) is determined by prevailing climate and natural disturbance regimes, conditions that are projected to change significantly. The interaction of changing climate and its effects on disturbance regimes is expected to affect forest regeneration and growth, which may diminish forest carbon (C) stocks and uptake. We modeled landscape C dynamics over 590 years along the latitudinal gradient of the U.S. Sierra Nevada Mountains under climate and area burned by large wildfires projected by late 21(st) century...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546318/an-environment-dependent-transcriptional-network-specifies-human-microglia-identity
#17
David Gosselin, Dylan Skola, Nicole G Coufal, Inge R Holtman, Johannes C M Schlachetzki, Eniko Sajti, Baptiste N Jaeger, Carolyn O'Connor, Conor Fitzpatrick, Martina P Pasillas, Monique Pena, Amy Adair, David G Gonda, Michael L Levy, Richard M Ransohoff, Fred H Gage, Christopher K Glass
Microglia play essential roles in central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis and influence diverse aspects of neuronal function. However, the transcriptional mechanisms that specify human microglia phenotypes are largely unknown. We examined the transcriptomes and epigenetic landscapes of human microglia isolated from surgically resected brain tissue ex vivo and following transition to an in vitro environment. Transfer to a tissue culture environment results in rapid and extensive downregulation of microglia-specific genes that are induced in primitive mouse macrophages following migration into the fetal brain...
May 25, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545576/a-computational-assessment-of-ph-dependent-differential-interaction-of-t7-lysozyme-with-t7-rna-polymerase
#18
Subhomoi Borkotoky, Ayaluru Murali
BACKGROUND: T7 lysozyme (T7L), also known as N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, is a T7 bacteriophage gene product. It involves two functions: It can cut amide bonds in the bacterial cell wall and interacts with T7 RNA polymerase (T7RNAP) as a part of transcription inhibition. In this study, with the help of molecular dynamics (MD) calculations and computational interaction studies, we investigated the effect of varying pH conditions on conformational flexibilities of T7L and their influence on T7RNAP -T7L interactions...
May 25, 2017: BMC Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545397/jed-a-java-essential-dynamics-program-for-comparative-analysis-of-protein-trajectories
#19
Charles C David, Ettayapuram Ramaprasad Azhagiya Singam, Donald J Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Essential Dynamics (ED) is a common application of principal component analysis (PCA) to extract biologically relevant motions from atomic trajectories of proteins. Covariance and correlation based PCA are two common approaches to determine PCA modes (eigenvectors) and their eigenvalues. Protein dynamics can be characterized in terms of Cartesian coordinates or internal distance pairs. In understanding protein dynamics, a comparison of trajectories taken from a set of proteins for similarity assessment provides insight into conserved mechanisms...
May 25, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545209/the-footprint-of-marginal-agriculture-in-the-mediterranean-mountain-landscape-an-analysis-of-the-central-spanish-pyrenees
#20
T Lasanta, E Nadal-Romero, M P Errea
Agriculture forms an essential part of the mountains of the Mediterranean. For centuries, large areas were cultivated to feed the local population, with highly marginal slopes being tilled at times of heavy demographic pressure, using the shifting agriculture system. A great deal of agricultural land was abandoned during the 20th century, giving rise to secondary succession processes that tend to eliminate the agricultural footprint. However, revegetation is a highly complex process leading to areas with dense, well-structured plant cover, and other open areas of scrubland...
May 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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