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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786856/characterization-of-pectins-extracted-from-different-varieties-of-pink-red-and-white-grapefruits-citrus-paradisi-macf-by-thermal-treatment-and-thermosonication
#1
Enzo L La Cava, Esteban Gerbino, Sonia C Sgroppo, Andrea Gómez-Zavaglia
The physical and chemical properties of pectin extracts obtained from different white and pink/red varieties of grapefruit [Citrus paradisi (Macf.)], using both conventional heating (CHE) and thermosonication (TS), were investigated. The content of galacturonic acid (GalA), degree of esterification (%DM), color and antioxidant capacity were analyzed. Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) associated with multivariate analysis enabled a structural comparison among the pectin extracts, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) completed a full landscape of the investigated extracts...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786672/the-impacts-of-spatiotemporal-landscape-changes-on-water-quality-in-shenzhen-china
#2
Zhenhuan Liu, Haiyan Yang
The urban landscape in China has changed rapidly over the past four decades, which has led to various environmental consequences, such as water quality degradation at the regional scale. To improve water restoration strategies and policies, this study assessed the relationship between water quality and landscape change in Shenzhen, China, using panel regression analysis. The results show that decreases in natural and semi-natural landscape compositions have had significant negative effects on water quality...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786459/anatomy-of-the-attraction-basins-breaking-with-the-intuition
#3
Leticia Hernando, Alexander Mendiburu, Jose A Lozano
Solving combinatorial optimization problems efficiently requires the development of algorithms that consider the specific properties of the problems. In this sense, local search algorithms are designed over a neighborhood structure that partially accounts for these properties. Considering a neighborhood, the space is usually interpreted as a natural landscape, with valleys and mountains. Under this perception, it is commonly believed that, if maximizing, the solutions located in the slopes of the same mountain belong to the same attraction basin, with the peaks of the mountains being the local optima...
May 22, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786412/the-use-of-scoring-balloons-in-the-superficial-femoral-artery
#4
Simon Bays
Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting is becoming increasingly the first line treatment for patients with both claudication and critical limb ischaemia instead of surgery, with the aim of returning the patient's quality of life in the former and preventing amputation. Drug eluting technologies have seen a large surge in popularity in recent years, and significant patient benefits have been seen with the use of drug eluting stents and balloons over the use of plain balloon angioplasty. Unfortunately in many patients with arterial disease there is significant vessel wall calcification - this can theoretically be a barrier to drug delivery, and can also be a contributing factor to flow limiting dissection and the subsequent need for bail out stenting...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786094/a-protein-activity-assay-to-measure-global-transcription-factor-activity-reveals-determinants-of-chromatin-accessibility
#5
Bei Wei, Arttu Jolma, Biswajyoti Sahu, Lukas M Orre, Fan Zhong, Fangjie Zhu, Teemu Kivioja, Inderpreet Sur, Janne Lehtiö, Minna Taipale, Jussi Taipale
No existing method to characterize transcription factor (TF) binding to DNA allows genome-wide measurement of all TF-binding activity in cells. Here we present a massively parallel protein activity assay, active TF identification (ATI), that measures the DNA-binding activity of all TFs in cell or tissue extracts. ATI is based on electrophoretic separation of protein-bound DNA sequences from a highly complex DNA library and subsequent mass-spectrometric identification of the DNA-bound proteins. We applied ATI to four mouse tissues and mouse embryonic stem cells and found that, in a given tissue or cell type, a small set of TFs, which bound to only ∼10 distinct motifs, displayed strong DNA-binding activity...
May 21, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785967/eighty-routes-to-a-ribonucleotide-world-dispersion-and-stringency-in-the-decisive-selection
#6
Michael Yarus
We examine the initial emergence of genetics; that is, of an inherited chemical capability. The crucial actors are ribonucleotides, occasionally meeting in a prebiotic landscape. Previous work identified six influential variables during such random ribonucleotide pooling. Geochemical pools can be in periodic danger (e.g., from tides) or constant danger (e.g., from unfavorable weather). Such pools receive Gaussian nucleotide amounts sporadically, at random times, or get varying substrates simultaneously. Pools use cross-templated RNA synthesis (5'-5' product from 5'-3' template) or para-templated (5'-5' product from 5'-5' template) synthesis...
May 21, 2018: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785875/egfr-tkis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-focus-on-clinical-pharmacology-and-mechanisms-of-resistance
#7
Stefano Fogli, Beatrice Polini, Marzia Del Re, Iacopo Petrini, Antonio Passaro, Stefania Crucitta, Eleonora Rofi, Romano Danesi
The clinical introduction of EGFR-TKIs within the oncologic armamentarium has changed the therapeutic landscape of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) creating widespread expectations both in patients and clinicians. However, several gaps in current understanding leave open important questions regarding the use of these drugs in clinical practice. For instance, there is uncertainty in regard to which EGFR-TKI should be given first in naive patients with EGFR-driven malignancies since different generations of drugs are available with different pharmacological profiles...
May 22, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785612/water-forests-people-the-swedish-experience-in-building-resilient-landscapes
#8
Mats Eriksson, Lotta Samuelson, Linnéa Jägrud, Eskil Mattsson, Thorsten Celander, Anders Malmer, Klas Bengtsson, Olof Johansson, Nicolai Schaaf, Ola Svending, Anna Tengberg
A growing world population and rapid expansion of cities increase the pressure on basic resources such as water, food and energy. To safeguard the provision of these resources, restoration and sustainable management of landscapes is pivotal, including sustainable forest and water management. Sustainable forest management includes forest conservation, restoration, forestry and agroforestry practices. Interlinkages between forests and water are fundamental to moderate water budgets, stabilize runoff, reduce erosion and improve biodiversity and water quality...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785521/spatial-stochastic-intracellular-kinetics-a-review-of-modelling-approaches
#9
Stephen Smith, Ramon Grima
Models of chemical kinetics that incorporate both stochasticity and diffusion are an increasingly common tool for studying biology. The variety of competing models is vast, but two stand out by virtue of their popularity: the reaction-diffusion master equation and Brownian dynamics. In this review, we critically address a number of open questions surrounding these models: How can they be justified physically? How do they relate to each other? How do they fit into the wider landscape of chemical models, ranging from the rate equations to molecular dynamics? This review assumes no prior knowledge of modelling chemical kinetics and should be accessible to a wide range of readers...
May 21, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785500/boosting-the-efficiency-of-site-saturation-mutagenesis-for-a-difficult-to-randomize-gene-by-a-two-step-pcr-strategy
#10
Aitao Li, Carlos G Acevedo-Rocha, Manfred T Reetz
Site-saturation mutagenesis (SSM) has been used in directed evolution of proteins for a long time. As a special form of saturation mutagenesis, it involves individual randomization at a given residue with formation of all 19 amino acids. To date, the most efficient embodiment of SSM is a one-step PCR-based approach using NNK codon degeneracy. However, in the case of difficult-to-randomize genes, SSM may not deliver all of the expected 19 mutants, which compels the user to invest further efforts by applying site-directed mutagenesis for the construction of the missing mutants...
May 21, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785288/t1a-lung-carcinoma-the-place-of-segmentectomy-in-the-treatment-array
#11
Sameer A Hirji, Scott J Swanson
Contemporary management of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is evolving and can be attributed to a change in size and histology of lung cancer, advancements in imaging modalities, instrumentation and surgical techniques. The emergence of segmentectomy has further challenged the existing treatment landscape, with promising results. Despite limited widespread adoption, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) segmentectomy is a safe option in the treatment of patients with small stage I lung cancers, with excellent oncologic results and improved morbidity relative to open techniques...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785028/the-reference-epigenome-and-regulatory-chromatin-landscape-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#12
Renée Beekman, Vicente Chapaprieta, Núria Russiñol, Roser Vilarrasa-Blasi, Núria Verdaguer-Dot, Joost H A Martens, Martí Duran-Ferrer, Marta Kulis, François Serra, Biola M Javierre, Steven W Wingett, Guillem Clot, Ana C Queirós, Giancarlo Castellano, Julie Blanc, Marta Gut, Angelika Merkel, Simon Heath, Anna Vlasova, Sebastian Ullrich, Emilio Palumbo, Anna Enjuanes, David Martín-García, Sílvia Beà, Magda Pinyol, Marta Aymerich, Romina Royo, Montserrat Puiggros, David Torrents, Avik Datta, Ernesto Lowy, Myrto Kostadima, Maša Roller, Laura Clarke, Paul Flicek, Xabier Agirre, Felipe Prosper, Tycho Baumann, Julio Delgado, Armando López-Guillermo, Peter Fraser, Marie-Laure Yaspo, Roderic Guigó, Reiner Siebert, Marc A Martí-Renom, Xose S Puente, Carlos López-Otín, Ivo Gut, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Elias Campo, Jose I Martin-Subero
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a frequent hematological neoplasm in which underlying epigenetic alterations are only partially understood. Here, we analyze the reference epigenome of seven primary CLLs and the regulatory chromatin landscape of 107 primary cases in the context of normal B cell differentiation. We identify that the CLL chromatin landscape is largely influenced by distinct dynamics during normal B cell maturation. Beyond this, we define extensive catalogues of regulatory elements de novo reprogrammed in CLL as a whole and in its major clinico-biological subtypes classified by IGHV somatic hypermutation levels...
May 21, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784963/single-entity-resolution-valving-of-nanoscopic-species-in-liquids
#13
Patric Eberle, Christian Höller, Philipp Müller, Maarit Suomalainen, Urs F Greber, Hadi Eghlidi, Dimos Poulikakos
Investigating biological and synthetic nanoscopic species in liquids, at the ultimate resolution of single entity, is important in diverse fields1-5 . Progress has been made6-10 , but significant barriers need to be overcome such as the need for intense fields, the lack of versatility in operating conditions and the limited functionality in solutions of high ionic strength for biological applications. Here, we demonstrate switchable electrokinetic nanovalving able to confine and guide single nano-objects, including macromolecules, with sizes down to around 10 nanometres, in a lab-on-chip environment...
May 21, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784774/physiology-underlies-the-assembly-of-ecological-communities
#14
Denon Start, Shannon McCauley, Benjamin Gilbert
Trait-based community ecology promises an understanding of the factors that determine species abundances and distributions across habitats. However, ecologists are often faced with large suites of potentially important traits, making generalizations across ecosystems and species difficult or even impossible. Here, we hypothesize that key traits structuring ecological communities may be causally dependent on common physiological mechanisms and that elucidating these mechanisms can help us understand the distributions of traits and species across habitats...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784744/the-changing-treatment-landscape-for-metastatic-urothelial-carcinoma
#15
Thomas W Flaig
Urothelial carcinoma is the predominant histologic type of bladder cancer. After 30 years of minimal progress in the treatment of advanced-stage disease, recent advances in the genomic characterization of urothelial cancer and breakthroughs in bladder cancer therapeutics have rejuvenated the field. Nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab are among the exciting recent novel therapeutic advances gaining approvals by the FDA for treatment of advanced-stage urothelial carcinoma. Yet the challenge for clinicians is to determine the optimal choice of agents as first-line or second-line therapy and which offers the best chance for overall survival for the individual patient in this rapidly changing field...
May 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784032/metabolic-recoding-of-epigenetics-in-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Yi-Ping Wang, Qun-Ying Lei
Dysregulation of metabolism allows tumor cells to generate needed building blocks as well as to modulate epigenetic marks to support cancer initiation and progression. Cancer-induced metabolic changes alter the epigenetic landscape, especially modifications on histones and DNA, thereby promoting malignant transformation, adaptation to inadequate nutrition, and metastasis. Recent advances in cancer metabolism shed light on how aberrations in metabolites and metabolic enzymes modify epigenetic programs. The metabolism-induced recoding of epigenetics in cancer depends strongly on nutrient availability for tumor cells...
May 21, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783948/expansion-of-the-sos-regulon-of-vibrio-cholerae-through-extensive-transcriptome-analysis-and-experimental-validation
#17
Evelyne Krin, Sebastian Aguilar Pierlé, Odile Sismeiro, Bernd Jagla, Marie-Agnès Dillies, Hugo Varet, Oihane Irazoki, Susana Campoy, Zoé Rouy, Stéphane Cruveiller, Claudine Médigue, Jean-Yves Coppée, Didier Mazel
BACKGROUND: The SOS response is an almost ubiquitous response of cells to genotoxic stresses. The full complement of genes in the SOS regulon for Vibrio species has only been addressed through bioinformatic analyses predicting LexA binding box consensus and in vitro validation. Here, we perform whole transcriptome sequencing from Vibrio cholerae treated with mitomycin C as an SOS inducer to characterize the SOS regulon and other pathways affected by this treatment. RESULTS: Comprehensive transcriptional profiling allowed us to define the full landscape of promoters and transcripts active in V...
May 21, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783676/the-expanding-therapeutic-utility-of-botulinum-neurotoxins
#18
REVIEW
Elena Fonfria, Jacquie Maignel, Stephane Lezmi, Vincent Martin, Andrew Splevins, Saif Shubber, Mikhail Kalinichev, Keith Foster, Philippe Picaut, Johannes Krupp
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a major therapeutic agent that is licensed in neurological indications, such as dystonia and spasticity. The BoNT family, which is produced in nature by clostridial bacteria, comprises several pharmacologically distinct proteins with distinct properties. In this review, we present an overview of the current therapeutic landscape and explore the diversity of BoNT proteins as future therapeutics. In recent years, novel indications have emerged in the fields of pain, migraine, overactive bladder, osteoarthritis, and wound healing...
May 18, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783126/systemic-therapy-for-intermediate-and-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-sorafenib-and-beyond
#19
REVIEW
Jean-Luc Raoul, Masatoshi Kudo, Richard S Finn, Julien Edeline, Maria Reig, Peter R Galle
The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment landscape changed a decade ago, with sorafenib demonstrating survival benefit in the first-line setting and becoming the first systemic therapy to be approved for HCC. More recently, regorafenib and nivolumab have received approval in the second-line setting after sorafenib, with further positive phase 3 studies emerging in the first line (lenvatinib non-inferior to sorafenib) and second line versus placebo (cabozantinib and ramucirumab). A key recommendation in the management of patients receiving sorafenib is to promote close communication between the patient and the physician so that adverse events (AEs) are detected early and severe AEs can be prevented...
May 17, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783117/changes-in-soil-nitrogen-dynamics-caused-by-prescribed-fires-in-dense-gorse-lands-in-sw-pyrenees
#20
Leire Múgica, Rosa M Canals, Leticia San Emeterio
Rural depopulation, abandonment of traditional land uses and decrease of extensive stockfarming is accelerating shrub encroachment in mountain areas. In NW Spain, gorse (Ulex gallii Planch.) is expanding, developing dense shrublands that accumulate high fuel-loads, ignite easily and persist during long periods as alternate stable states. Under this scenario, traditional bush-to-bush farming fires are being replaced by high fuel-load burnings performed by specialised teams to reduce fuels and promote mosaic landscapes...
May 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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