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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926749/the-use-of-care-robots-in-aged-care-a-systematic-review-of-argument-based-ethics-literature
#1
REVIEW
Tijs Vandemeulebroucke, Bernadette Dierckx de Casterlé, Chris Gastmans
BACKGROUND: As care robots become more commonplace in aged-care settings, the ethical debate on their use becomes increasingly important. Our objective was to examine the ethical arguments and underlying concepts used in the ethical debate on care robot use in aged care. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search for argument-based ethics publications focusing on care robot use in aged-care practices. We used an innovative methodology that consisted of three steps: (a) identifying conceptual-ethical questions, (b) conducting a literature search, and (c) identifying, describing and analyzing the ethical arguments in connection with the conceptual-ethical questions...
September 6, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926153/comparative-and-population-genomics-landscape-of-phellinus-noxius-a-hypervariable-fungus-causing-root-rot-in-trees
#2
Chia-Lin Chung, Tracy J Lee, Mitsuteru Akiba, Hsin-Han Lee, Tzu-Hao Kuo, Dang Liu, Huei-Mien Ke, Toshiro Yokoi, Marylette B Roa, Meiyeh J Lu, Ya-Yun Chang, Pao-Jen Ann, Jyh-Nong Tsai, Chien-Yu Chen, Shean-Shong Tzean, Yuko Ota, Tsutomu Hattori, Norio Sahashi, Ruey-Fen Liou, Taisei Kikuchi, Isheng J Tsai
The order Hymenochaetales of white rot fungi contain some of the most aggressive wood decayers causing tree deaths around the world. Despite their ecological importance and the impact of diseases they cause, little is known about the evolution and transmission patterns of these pathogens. Here, we sequenced and undertook comparative genomics analyses of Hymenochaetales genomes using brown root rot fungus Phellinus noxius, wood-decomposing fungus Phellinus lamaensis, laminated root rot fungus Phellinus sulphurascens, and trunk pathogen Porodaedalea pini...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926135/a-spatial-approach-to-combatting-wildlife-crime
#3
Sally C Faulkner, Michael C A Stevens, Stephanie S Romañach, Peter A Lindsey, Steven C Le Comber
Poaching can have devastating impacts on animal and plant numbers, and in many countries has reached crisis levels, with illegal hunters employing increasingly sophisticated techniques. Here, we show how geographic profiling - a mathematical technique originally developed in criminology and recently applied to animal foraging and epidemiology - can be adapted for use in investigations of wildlife crime, using data from an eight-year study in Savé Valley Conservancy, Zimbabwe that in total includes more than 10,000 incidents of illegal hunting and the deaths of 6,454 wild animals...
September 19, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926004/where-to-next-with-animal-health-in-latin-america-the-transition-from-endemic-to-disease-free-status
#4
H Rojas, J R Romero
The Latin American and Caribbean region (LAC) is a leading global producer and exporter of animal products. Its livestock production systems are diverse, ranging from large-scale commercial enterprises to family farms. Countries in this region have sought to improve their animal health status through both public and private efforts. Despite significant advances in eradicating such diseases as foot and mouth disease and classical swine fever, other animal health challenges remain; constraining exports, causing negative economic impacts and threatening food security...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925547/biogeographic-conservation-of-the-cytosine-epigenome-in-the-globally-important-marine-nitrogen-fixing-cyanobacterium-trichodesmium
#5
Nathan G Walworth, David A Hutchins, Egor Dolzhenko, Michael D Lee, Feixue Fu, Andrew D Smith, Eric A Webb
Cytosine methylation has been shown to regulate essential cellular processes and impact biological adaptation. Despite its evolutionary importance, only a handful of bacterial, genome-wide cytosine studies have been conducted, with none for marine bacteria. Here, we examine the genome-wide, C(5) -Methyl-cytosine (m5C) methylome and its correlation to global transcription in the marine nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. We characterize genome-wide methylation and highlight conserved motifs across 3 Trichodesmium isolates and 2 Trichodesmium metagenomes, thereby identifying highly conserved, novel genomic signatures of potential gene regulation in Trichodesmium...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925066/beyond-the-androgen-receptor-ii-new-approaches-to-understanding-and-treating-metastatic-prostate-cancer-report-from-the-2017-coffey-holden-prostate-cancer-academy-meeting
#6
REVIEW
Andrea K Miyahira, Heather H Cheng, Wassim Abida, Leigh Ellis, Lauren C Harshman, Daniel E Spratt, Jonathan W Simons, Kenneth J Pienta, Howard R Soule
INTRODUCTION: The 2017 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy (CHPCA) Meeting, "Beyond the Androgen Receptor II: New Approaches to Understanding and Treating Metastatic Prostate Cancer," was held in Carlsbad, California from June 14-17, 2017. METHODS: The CHPCA is an annual scientific conference hosted by the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) that is uniquely designed to produce extensive and constructive discussions on the most urgent and impactful topics concerning research into the biology and treatment of metastatic prostate cancer...
September 18, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924451/phenotypic-landscape-of-non-conventional-yeast-species-for-different-stress-tolerance-traits-desirable-in-bioethanol-fermentation
#7
Vaskar Mukherjee, Dorota Radecka, Guido Aerts, Kevin J Verstrepen, Bart Lievens, Johan M Thevelein
BACKGROUND: Non-conventional yeasts present a huge, yet barely exploited, resource of yeast biodiversity for industrial applications. This presents a great opportunity to explore alternative ethanol-fermenting yeasts that are more adapted to some of the stress factors present in the harsh environmental conditions in second-generation (2G) bioethanol fermentation. Extremely tolerant yeast species are interesting candidates to investigate the underlying tolerance mechanisms and to identify genes that when transferred to existing industrial strains could help to design more stress-tolerant cell factories...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924151/dna-methylomes-reveal-biological-networks-involved-in-human-eye-development-functions-and-associated-disorders
#8
María Berdasco, Antonio Gómez, Marcos J Rubio, Jaume Català-Mora, Vicente Zanón-Moreno, Miguel Lopez, Cristina Hernández, Shigeo Yoshida, Takahito Nakama, Keijiro Ishikawa, Tatsuro Ishibashi, Amina M Boubekeur, Lotfi Louhibi, Miguel A Pujana, Sergi Sayols, Fernando Setien, Dolores Corella, Carmen de Torres, Andreu Parareda, Jaume Mora, Ling Zhao, Kang Zhang, Matilde E Lleonart, Javier Alonso, Rafael Simó, Josep M Caminal, Manel Esteller
This work provides a comprehensive CpG methylation landscape of the different layers of the human eye that unveils the gene networks associated with their biological functions and how these are disrupted in common visual disorders. Herein, we firstly determined the role of CpG methylation in the regulation of ocular tissue-specification and described hypermethylation of retinal transcription factors (i.e., PAX6, RAX, SIX6) in a tissue-dependent manner. Second, we have characterized the DNA methylome of visual disorders linked to internal and external environmental factors...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923923/hydrologic-regulation-of-plant-rooting-depth
#9
Ying Fan, Gonzalo Miguez-Macho, Esteban G Jobbágy, Robert B Jackson, Carlos Otero-Casal
Plant rooting depth affects ecosystem resilience to environmental stress such as drought. Deep roots connect deep soil/groundwater to the atmosphere, thus influencing the hydrologic cycle and climate. Deep roots enhance bedrock weathering, thus regulating the long-term carbon cycle. However, we know little about how deep roots go and why. Here, we present a global synthesis of 2,200 root observations of >1,000 species along biotic (life form, genus) and abiotic (precipitation, soil, drainage) gradients. Results reveal strong sensitivities of rooting depth to local soil water profiles determined by precipitation infiltration depth from the top (reflecting climate and soil), and groundwater table depth from below (reflecting topography-driven land drainage)...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923860/in-silico-modeling-of-immunotherapy-and-stroma-targeting-therapies-in-human-colorectal-cancer
#10
Jakob Nikolas Kather, Jan Poleszczuk, Meggy Suarez-Carmona, Johannes Krisam, Pornpimol Charoentong, Nektarios A Valous, Cleo-Aron Weis, Luca Tavernar, Florian Leiss, Esther Herpel, Fee Klupp, Alexis Ulrich, Martin Schneider, Alexander Marx, Dirk Jaeger, Niels Halama
Despite the fact that the local immunological microenvironment shapes the prognosis of colorectal cancer, immunotherapy has shown no benefit for the vast majority of colorectal cancer patients. A better understanding of the complex immunological interplay within the microenvironment is required. In this study, we utilized wet lab migration experiments and quantitative histological data of human colorectal cancer tissue samples (n=20) including tumor cells, lymphocytes, stroma and necrosis to generate a multi-agent spatial model...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923578/coastal-dynamics-vs-beach-users-attitudes-and-perceptions-to-enhance-environmental-conservation-and-management-effectiveness
#11
Roberta Aretano, Luca Parlagreco, Teodoro Semeraro, Giovanni Zurlini, Irene Petrosillo
This work carries out a landscape analysis for the last 60years to compare the degree of preservation of two areas on the same Italian coastline characterized by different environmental protection levels: a National designated protected areas and a highly tourist coastal destination. The conversion of natural land-covers into human land uses were detected for protected and unprotected coastal stretches highlighting that the only establishment of a protected area is not enough to stem undesirable land-use outcomes...
September 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923541/interpreting-the-genomic-landscape-of-introgression
#12
REVIEW
Simon H Martin, Chris D Jiggins
Introgression, the transfer of genetic material between species through hybridisation, occurs in many taxa and has important consequences. Genomic studies allow us to characterise the landscape of introgression across the genome, shedding light on both its adaptive benefits and the incompatibilities that help to maintain species barriers. Studies taking a genome-wide view suggest that adaptive introgression may be common, but that introgressed variation between many species is selected against throughout much of the genome...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923357/conformational-landscape-mapping-the-difference-between-n-lobes-and-c-lobes-of-calmodulin
#13
Hiroshi Kawasaki, Robert H Kretsinger
Calmodulin is a calcium binding protein that consists of four EF-hand domains. The two EF-lobes of calmodulin, called the N-lobe and the C-lobe, arose from duplication and fusion of a precursor EF-hand. The amino acid sequences and the structures of the N-lobe and of the C-lobe are quite similar to each other. The N-lobe and the C-lobe, however, have subtle differences in structure and function. We analyzed the helix positions of calmodulin lobes by the alignment with the pseudo-two fold axis of the EF-lobe...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922826/the-burnley-dog-war-the-politics-of-dog-walking-and-the-battle-over-public-parks-in-post-industrial-britain
#14
Neil Pemberton
This article investigates controversies surrounding dog walking and dog fouling in 1970s and early 1980s Britain, focusing on the microhistory of a series of events in a Lancashire mill town that became known as the 'Burnley Dog War.' A ban on dog walkers from Burnley's main public parks triggered a highly publicised seven-year struggle over access. On one level, the park ban served as a rallying cry for dog lovers across Britain, widening the dividing line between dog owners and dog haters. On another level, it constituted a struggle between antagonists over questions of belonging and exclusion in a town devastated by large-scale deindustrialisation...
June 1, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922789/comprehensive-intrametastatic-immune-quantification-and-major-impact-of-immunoscore-on-survival
#15
Bernhard Mlecnik, Marc Van den Eynde, Gabriela Bindea, Sarah E Church, Angela Vasaturo, Tessa Fredriksen, Lucie Lafontaine, Nacilla Haicheur, Florence Marliot, Daphné Debetancourt, Géraldine Pairet, Anne Jouret-Mourin, Jean-Francois Gigot, Catherine Hubert, Etienne Danse, Cristina Dragean, Javier Carrasco, Yves Humblet, Viia Valge-Archer, Anne Berger, Franck Pagès, Jean-Pascal Machiels, Jérôme Galon
Background: This study assesses how the metastatic immune landscape is impacting the response to treatment and the outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Methods: Complete curative resection of metastases (n = 441) was performed for two patient cohorts (n = 153). Immune densities were quantified in the center and invasive margin of all metastases. Immunoscore and T and B cell (TB) score were analyzed in relation to radiological and pathological responses and patient's disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922705/from-ancient-to-avant-garde-a-review-of-traditional-and-modern-multimodal-approaches-to-surgical-anatomy-education
#16
REVIEW
Minhao Hu, David Wattchow, Dayan de Fontgalland
The landscape of surgical anatomy education is progressively changing. Traditional methods, such as cadaveric dissection and didacticism are being increasingly phased out in undergraduate courses for multimodal approaches incorporating problem-based learning, radiology and computer-based simulations. Although effective at clinically contextualizing and integrating anatomical information, these approaches may be a poor substitute for fostering a grasp of foundational 'pure' anatomy. Dissection is ideal for this purpose and hence remains the cornerstone of anatomical education...
September 18, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921806/a-large-area-spatially-continuous-assessment-of-land-cover-map-error-and-its-impact-on-downstream-analyses
#17
Lyndon Estes, Peng Chen, Stephanie Debats, Tom Evans, Stefanus Ferreira, Tobias Kuemmerle, Gabrielle Ragazzo, Justin Sheffield, Adam Wolf, Eric Wood, Kelly Caylor
Land cover maps increasingly underlie research into socioeconomic and environmental patterns and processes, including global change. It is known that map errors impact our understanding of these phenomena, but quantifying these impacts is difficult because many areas lack adequate reference data. We used a highly accurate, high-resolution map of South African cropland to assess 1) the magnitude of error in several current generation land cover maps, and 2) how these errors propagate in downstream studies. We first quantified pixel-wise errors in the cropland classes of four widely used land cover maps at resolutions ranging from 1 to 100 km, then calculated errors in several representative "downstream" (map-based) analyses, including assessments of vegetative carbon stocks, evapotranspiration, crop production, and household food security...
September 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921765/assessing-fire-impacts-on-the-carbon-stability-of-fire-tolerant-forests
#18
Lauren T Bennett, Matthew J Bruce, Josephine Machunter, Michele Kohout, Saravanan Jangammanaidu Krishnaraj, Cristina Aponte
The carbon stability of fire-tolerant forests is often assumed but less frequently assessed, limiting potential to anticipate threats to forest carbon posed by predicted increases in forest fire activity. Assessing the carbon stability of fire-tolerant forests requires multi-indicator approaches that recognise the myriad of ways that fires influence the carbon balance including combustion, deposition of pyrogenic material, and tree death, post-fire decomposition, recruitment, and growth. Five years after a large-scale wildfire in south-eastern Australia, we assessed the impacts of low- and high-severity wildfire, with and without prescribed fire (≤ 10 years before), on carbon stocks in multiple pools, and on carbon stability indicators (carbon stock percentages in live trees and in small trees, and carbon stocks in char and fuels) in fire-tolerant eucalypt forests...
September 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921425/uncovering-innovation-features-and-emerging-technologies-in-molecular-biology-through-patent-analysis
#19
Cristiano Gonçalves Pereira, Geciane Silveira Porto
Scientific research at universities has a crucial role in leveraging a country's innovative potential. Sectors that require greater investments in technology for the development of their research, such as biotechnology, need to be aware of the frontier state-of-the-art technology and the knowledge incrusted within it. Although the information available in scientific articles is well explored in academic environment, the patent literature, where much of the technological information is present, is still poorly accessed...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920931/single-molecule-fret-reveals-the-energy-landscape-of-the-full-length-sam-i-riboswitch
#20
Christoph Manz, Andrei Yu Kobitski, Ayan Samanta, Bettina G Keller, Andres Jäschke, G Ulrich Nienhaus
S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) ligand binding induces major structural changes in SAM-I riboswitches, through which gene expression is regulated via transcription termination. Little is known about the conformations and motions governing the function of the full-length Bacillus subtilis yitJ SAM-I riboswitch. Therefore, we have explored its conformational energy landscape as a function of Mg(2+) and SAM ligand concentrations using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) microscopy and hidden Markov modeling analysis...
September 18, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
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