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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329919/-chemotherapy-for-biliary-tract-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Sang Myung Woo
The term of biliary tract cancer (BTC) refers to all tumors that arise from the biliary tract or the biliary drainage system, including the intra- and extra-hepatic bile ducts as well as the gallbladder. BTCs are aggressive tumors with limited treatment options and poor overall survival. Currently, surgery remains to be the only potentially curative treatment, and most patients develop recurrence. For advanced tumors, only limited effective treatment modalities exist today. Gemcitabine plus cisplatin is considered as a standard option for advanced biliary cancer...
March 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329786/religious-affiliation-among-older-age-groups-worldwide-estimates-for-2010-and-projections-until-2050
#2
Vegard Skirbekk, Michaela Potancoková, Conrad Hackett, Marcin Stonawski
Objectives: The religious landscape of older adults around the world is changing profoundly. Yet until now, no study has chronicled these changes or compared expected aging patterns of religious groups. Differential aging among religious groups can have important economic and social consequences. This study estimates and projects the future religious composition by age at the global and regional levels. Method: This study presents estimates of age structures by religion for 2010 and projections until 2050...
November 9, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329141/frequent-spread-of-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-maintains-high-genetic-diversity-at-the-myanmar-china-border-without-distance-and-landscape-barriers
#3
Eugenia Lo, Nancy Lam, Elizabeth Hemming-Schroeder, Jennifer Nguyen, Guofa Zhou, Ming-Chieh Lee, Zhaoqing Yang, Liwang Cui, Guiyun Yan
Background.: In Myanmar, civil unrest and the establishment of internally displaced persons (IDP) settlements along the Myanmar-China border have impacted malaria transmission. Methods.: Microsatellite markers were used to examine source-sink dynamics for Plasmodium vivax between IDP and surrounding villages in the border region. Genotypic structure and diversity were compared across the three years following the establishment of IDP in order to infer demographic history...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328955/treatment-monitoring-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-patients-by-quantification-and-kras-genotyping-of-circulating-cell-free-dna
#4
Andreas W Berger, Daniel Schwerdel, Hanna Welz, Ralf Marienfeld, Stefan A Schmidt, Alexander Kleger, Thomas J Ettrich, Thomas Seufferlein
Treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) has continuously improved over the last decade. However, disease monitoring remains underdeveloped and mostly dependent on imaging e.g. RECIST 1.1 criteria. The genetic landscape of individual cancers and subsequently occurring treatment-induced evolution remain neglected in current surveillance strategies. Novel biomarkers demand minimally invasive and repetitive tracking of the cancer mutagenome for therapy stratification and to make prognostic predictions. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a routinely used tumor marker for CRC, does not meet these goals and thus prevents its use as a reliable monitoring tool...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328760/current-practice-for-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-biopharmaceuticals-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
Iris Detrez, Thomas Van Stappen, María Dolores Martín Arranz, Kostas Papamichael, Ann Gils
Since the late nineties, biopharmaceuticals targeting tumor necrosis factor α have revolutionized the treatment of moderately to severely active inflammatory bowel disease. The robust efficacy witnessed in many patients stands in stark contrast with the observation of a proportion of patients who fail to respond or who lose response over time. Therapeutic drug monitoring has been proposed as a means to understand and respond to the variability in clinical response and remission. Various treatment algorithms have been proposed, but optimal use of these measurements in daily practice awaits additional prospective validation trials...
March 22, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328737/considerations-for-medical-students-and-advisors-after-an-unsuccessful-match
#6
Tracy Bumsted, Benjamin N Schneider, Nicole M Deiorio
Increasing numbers of graduating U.S. medical students are not securing a graduate medical education (GME) position, even after participating in the National Resident Matching Program (also known as "the Match") and the Supplemental Offer and Acceptance Program. The reasons for an unsuccessful Match include increasing numbers of applicants compared with nearly unchanging numbers of available GME positions, academic problems or professionalism lapses, and a poor fit between applicants and their first-choice specialty...
March 21, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328543/challenges-in-describing-ribosome-dynamics
#7
Kien Nguyen, Paul Charles Whitford
For decades, protein folding and functional dynamics have been described in terms of diffusive motion across an underlying energy landscape. With continued advances in structural biology and high-performance computing, the field is positioned to extend these approaches to large biomolecular assemblies. Through the application of energy landscape techniques to the ribosome, one may work towards establishing a comprehensive description of the dynamics, which will bridge theoretical concepts and experimental observations...
March 22, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328508/hapiso-an-accurate-method-for-the-haplotype-specific-isoforms-reconstruction-from-long-single-molecule-reads
#8
Serghei Mangul, Harry Taegyun Yang, Farhad Hormozdiari, Alex Dainis, Elizabeth Tseng, Euan A Ashley, Alex Zelikovsky, Eleazar Eskin
Sequencing of RNA provides the possibility to study an individual's transcriptome landscape and determine allelic expression ratios. Single-molecule protocols generate multi-kilobase reads longer than most transcripts allowing sequencing of complete haplotype isoforms. This allows partitioning the reads into two parental haplotypes. While the read length of the single-molecule protocols is long, the relatively high error rate limits the ability to accurately detect the genetic variants and assemble them into the haplotype-specific isoforms...
March 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327938/targeting-the-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-2-in-gastric-cancer-promise-or-pitfall
#9
C Hierro, M Alsina, M Sánchez, V Serra, J Rodon, J Tabernero
Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer worldwide. Systemic chemotherapy remains the mainstay therapeutic option for this poor prognosis cancer. Trastuzumab, the epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2 or HER2)-antibody, is the only biological agent approved for the molecularly-selected population of HER2-positive gastric cancer patients. Over the last decade, several groups have been working for deepening into the molecular characterization of gastric cancer, shedding some light into the heterogeneity of this tumour...
March 7, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327926/genomic-characterisation-of-her2-positive-breast-cancer-and-response-to-neoadjuvant-trastuzumab-and-chemotherapy-results-from-the-acosog-z1041-alliance-trial
#10
R Lesurf, O L Griffith, M Griffith, J Hundal, L Trani, M A Watson, R Aft, M J Ellis, D Ota, V J Suman, F Meric-Bernstam, A M Leitch, J C Boughey, G Unzeitig, A U Buzdar, K K Hunt, E R Mardis
Background: HER2 ( ERBB2 ) gene amplification and its corresponding overexpression are present in 15-30% of invasive breast cancers. While HER2-targeted agents are effective treatments, resistance remains a major cause of death. The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1041 trial (NCT00513292) was designed to compare the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate of distinct regimens of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and trastuzumab, but ultimately identified no difference [1]. Patients and methods: In supplement to tissues from 37 Z1041 cases, 11 similarly treated cases were obtained from a single institution study (NCT00353483)...
February 21, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327897/towards-a-global-cancer-knowledge-network-dissecting-the-current-international-cancer-genomic-sequencing-landscape
#11
D J Vis, J Lewin, R G Liao, M Mao, F Andre, R L Ward, F Calvo, B T Teh, A A Camargo, B M Knoppers, C Sawyers, L F A Wessels, M Lawler, L L Siu, E Voest
Background: While next generation sequencing has enhanced our understanding of the biological basis of malignancy, current knowledge on global practices for sequencing cancer samples is limited. To address this deficiency, we developed a survey to provide a snapshot of current sequencing activities globally, identify barriers to data sharing and use this information to develop sustainable solutions for the cancer research community. Methods: A multi-item survey was conducted assessing demographics, clinical data collection, genomic platforms, privacy/ethics concerns, funding sources and data sharing barriers for sequencing initiatives globally...
February 3, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327792/vegetation-loss-and-the-2016-oropouche-fever-outbreak-in-peru
#12
Daniel Romero-Alvarez, Luis E Escobar
BACKGROUND: Oropouche virus causes Oropouche fever, an arboviral disease transmitted mainly by midges of the genus Culicoides and Culex mosquitoes. Clinical presentation of Oropouche fever in humans includes fever, headache, rash, myalgia, and in rare cases spontaneous bleeding and aseptic meningitis. Landscape change has been proposed as a driver of Oropouche fever emergence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the landscape epidemiology of the Oropouche fever outbreak that began in April 2016 in Cusco, Peru...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327598/global-dna-methylation-analysis-identifies-two-discrete-clusters-of-pheochromocytoma-with-distinct-genomic-and-genetic-alterations
#13
Samuel Backman, Rajani Maharjan, Alberto Falk-Delgado, Joakim Crona, Kenko Cupisti, Peter Stålberg, Per Hellman, Peyman Björklund
Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare and frequently heritable neural-crest derived tumours arising from the adrenal medulla or extra-adrenal chromaffin cells respectively. The majority of PPGL tumours are benign and do not recur with distant metastases. However, a sizeable fraction of these tumours secrete vasoactive catecholamines into the circulation causing a variety of symptoms including hypertension, palpitations and diaphoresis. The genetic landscape of PPGL has been well characterized and more than a dozen genes have been described as recurrently mutated...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327591/gully-evolution-and-geomorphic-adjustments-of-badlands-to-reforestation
#14
J A Ballesteros Cánovas, M Stoffel, J F Martín-Duque, C Corona, A Lucía, J M Bodoque, D R Montgomery
Badlands and gullied areas are among those geomorphic environments with the highest erosion rates worldwide. Nevertheless, records of their evolution and their relations with anthropogenic land transformation are scarcer. Here we combine historical data with aerial photographs and tree-ring records to reconstruct the evolution of a badland in a Mediterranean environment of Central Spain. Historical sources suggest an anthropogenic origin of this badland landscape, caused by intense quarrying activities during the 18(th) century...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326888/peripersonal-versus-extrapersonal-visual-scene-information-for-egocentric-direction-and-position-perception
#15
Ryoichi Nakashima, Takatsune Kumada
When perceiving the visual environment, people simultaneously perceive their own direction and position in the environment (i.e., egocentric spatial perception). This study investigated what visual information in a scene is necessary for egocentric spatial perceptions. In two perception tasks (the egocentric direction and position perception tasks), observers viewed two static road images presented sequentially. In Experiment 1, the critical manipulation involved an occluded region in the road image; an extrapersonal region (far-occlusion) and a peripersonal region (near-occlusion)...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325926/night-and-day-variations-of-sleep-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#16
Malgorzata Wislowska, Renata Del Giudice, Julia Lechinger, Tomasz Wielek, Dominik P J Heib, Alain Pitiot, Gerald Pichler, Gabriele Michitsch, Johann Donis, Manuel Schabus
Brain injuries substantially change the entire landscape of oscillatory dynamics and render detection of typical sleep patterns difficult. Yet, sleep is characterized not only by specific EEG waveforms, but also by its circadian organization. In the present study we investigated whether brain dynamics of patients with disorders of consciousness systematically change between day and night. We recorded ~24 h EEG at the bedside of 18 patients diagnosed to be vigilant but unaware (Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome) and 17 patients revealing signs of fluctuating consciousness (Minimally Conscious State)...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325911/theoretical-and-computational-validation-of-the-kuhn-barrier-friction-mechanism-in-unfolded-proteins
#17
Stanislav M Avdoshenko, Atanu Das, Rohit Satija, Garegin A Papoian, Dmitrii E Makarov
A long time ago, Kuhn predicted that long polymers should approach a limit where their global motion is controlled by solvent friction alone, with ruggedness of their energy landscapes having no consequences for their dynamics. In contrast, internal friction effects are important for polymers of modest length. Internal friction in proteins, in particular, affects how fast they fold or find their binding targets and, as such, has attracted much recent attention. Here we explore the molecular origins of internal friction in unfolded proteins using atomistic simulations, coarse-grained models and analytic theory...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325904/abundance-of-badgers-meles-meles-in-england-and-wales
#18
Johanna Judge, Gavin J Wilson, Roy Macarthur, Robbie A McDonald, Richard J Delahay
The European badger (Meles meles) is of considerable interest in the UK as it is both a protected species and the main wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis infection in cattle. While there have been three national badger surveys in the 1980s, 1990s and 2011-13, using the number of badger main setts as a proxy for the abundance of badger social groups, none has combined contemporary data on social group size at landscape and national scales. We estimated social group size by genotyping hair samples collected at 120 main setts across England and Wales and employing a capture-mark-recapture method based on genotypes...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325842/surface-changes-on-comet-67p-churyumov-gerasimenko-suggest-a-more-active-past
#19
M Ramy El-Maarry, O Groussin, N Thomas, M Pajola, A-T Auger, B Davidsson, X Hu, S F Hviid, J Knollenberg, C Güttler, C Tubiana, S Fornasier, C Feller, P Hasselmann, J-B Vincent, H Sierks, C Barbieri, P Lamy, R Rodrigo, D Koschny, H U Keller, H Rickman, M F A'Hearn, M A Barucci, J-L Bertaux, I Bertini, S Besse, D Bodewits, G Cremonese, V Da Deppo, S Debei, M De Cecco, J Deller, J D P Deshapriya, M Fulle, P J Gutierrez, M Hofmann, W-H Ip, L Jorda, G Kovacs, J-R Kramm, E Kührt, M Küppers, L M Lara, M Lazzarin, Z-Yi Lin, J J Lopez Moreno, S Marchi, F Marzari, S Mottola, G Naletto, N Oklay, A Pommerol, F Preusker, F Scholten, X Shi
The Rosetta spacecraft spent ~2 years orbiting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, most of it at distances that allowed surface characterization and monitoring at submeter scales. From December 2014 to June 2016, numerous localized changes were observed, which we attribute to cometary-specific weathering, erosion, and transient events driven by exposure to sunlight and other processes. While the localized changes suggest compositional or physical heterogeneity, their scale has not resulted in substantial alterations to the comet's landscape...
March 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325831/landscape-genomic-insights-into-the-historic-migration-of-mountain-hemlock-in-response-to-holocene-climate-change
#20
Jeremy S Johnson, Keith D Gaddis, David M Cairns, Kranti Konganti, Konstantin V Krutovsky
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Untangling alternative historic dispersal pathways in long-lived tree species is critical to better understand how temperate tree species may respond to climatic change. However, disentangling these alternative pathways is often difficult. Emerging genomic technologies and landscape genetics techniques improve our ability to assess these pathways in natural systems. We address the question to what degree have microrefugial patches and long-distance dispersal been responsible for the colonization of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) on the Alaskan Kenai Peninsula...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Botany
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