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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933091/spatially-heterogeneous-environmental-selection-strengthens-evolution-of-reproductively-isolated-populations-in-a-dobzhansky-muller-system-of-hybrid-incompatibility
#1
Samuel A Cushman, Erin L Landguth
Within-species hybrid incompatibility can arise when combinations of alleles at more than one locus have low fitness but where possession of one of those alleles has little or no fitness consequence for the carriers. Limited dispersal with small numbers of mate potentials alone can lead to the evolution of clusters of reproductively isolated genotypes despite the absence of any geographical barriers or heterogeneous selection. In this paper, we explore how adding heterogeneous natural selection on the genotypes (e...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933048/clay-components-in-soil-dictate-environmental-stability-and-bioavailability-of-cervid-prions-in-mice
#2
A Christy Wyckoff, Sarah Kane, Krista Lockwood, Jeff Seligman, Brady Michel, Dana Hill, Aimee Ortega, Mihnea R Mangalea, Glenn C Telling, Michael W Miller, Kurt Vercauteren, Mark D Zabel
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) affects cervids and is the only known prion disease to affect free-ranging wildlife populations. CWD spread continues unabated, and exact mechanisms of its seemingly facile spread among deer and elk across landscapes in North America remain elusive. Here we confirm that naturally contaminated soil contains infectious CWD prions that can be transmitted to susceptible model organisms. We show that smectite clay content of soil potentiates prion binding capacity of different soil types from CWD endemic and non-endemic areas, likely contributing to environmental stability of bound prions...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932891/trastuzumab-in-the-management-of-gastroesophageal-cancer-patient-selection-and-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
Michael Davidson, Naureen Starling
The addition of trastuzumab to the treatment of a subset of patients with advanced gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancers showing HER2 positivity has been shown to confer clinical benefit; however, questions remain over the optimal methods for defining and selecting such patients. This review provides an overview of current standards for assessing HER2 positivity, the evolving treatment landscape for HER2-positive gastric and esophageal cancers and the challenges and potential future directions in optimal patient selection for HER2-targeted therapy...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932572/a-mechanism-for-acetylcholine-receptor-gating-based-on-structure-coupling-phi-and-flip
#4
Shaweta Gupta, Srirupa Chakraborty, Ridhima Vij, Anthony Auerbach
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are allosteric proteins that generate membrane currents by isomerizing ("gating") between resting and active conformations under the influence of neurotransmitters. Here, to explore the mechanisms that link the transmitter-binding sites (TBSs) with the distant gate, we use mutant cycle analyses to measure coupling between residue pairs, phi value analyses to sequence domain rearrangements, and current simulations to reproduce a microsecond shut component ("flip") apparent in single-channel recordings...
December 8, 2016: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932399/novel-hybrid-phenotype-revealed-in-small-cell-lung-cancer-by-a-transcription-factor-network-model-that-can-explain-tumor-heterogeneity
#5
Akshata R Udyavar, David J Wooten, Megan D Hoeksema, Mukesh Bansal, Andrea Califano, Lourdes Estrada, Santiago Schnell, Jonathan M Irish, Pierre P Massion, Vito Quaranta
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a devastating disease due to its propensity for early invasion and refractory relapse after initial treatment response. Although these aggressive traits have been associated with phenotypic heterogeneity, our understanding of this association remains incomplete. To fill this knowledge gap, we inferred a set of 33 transcription factors (TF) associated with gene signatures of the known neuroendocrine/epithelial (NE) and non-neuroendocrine/mesenchymal-like (ML) SCLC phenotypes...
December 8, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932224/unmet-needs-in-parkinson-s-disease-new-horizons-in-a-changing-landscape
#6
K Ray Chaudhuri, Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Teus van Laar
The success of levodopa and other classes of drugs have meant that most people with Parkinson's disease enjoy a good quality of life for many years. However, despite the availability of several drugs and formulations that can be used as monotherapy and in combination, there are a number of disease features that the current therapies are unable to address. The disease continues to progress despite treatment, patients suffer from a myriad of motor and non-motor symptoms, and a neuroprotective therapy is urgently required...
December 5, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932215/the-land-use-legacy-effect-towards-a-mechanistic-understanding-of-time-lagged-water-quality-responses-to-land-use-cover
#7
Sherry L Martin, Daniel B Hayes, Anthony D Kendall, David W Hyndman
Numerous studies have linked land use/land cover (LULC) to aquatic ecosystem responses, however only a few have included the dynamics of changing LULC in their analysis. In this study, we explicitly recognize changing LULC by linking mechanistic groundwater flow and travel time models to a historical time series of LULC, creating a land-use legacy map. We then illustrate the utility of legacy maps to explore relationships between dynamic LULC and lake water chemistry. We tested two main concepts about mechanisms linking LULC and lake water chemistry: groundwater pathways are an important mechanism driving legacy effects; and, LULC over multiple spatial scales is more closely related to lake chemistry than LULC over a single spatial scale...
December 5, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931930/urban-dogs-in-rural-areas-human-mediated-movement-defines-dog-populations-in-southern-chile
#8
Federico J Villatoro, Maximiliano A Sepúlveda, Paulina Stowhas, Eduardo A Silva-Rodríguez
Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, euthanasia and vaccination, among others. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely affected by human-mediated dog movement. If immigration is important, then the location of origin of dogs imported by humans will be fundamental to define the spatial scales over which population management and research should apply. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of dog demographic processes in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be labeled as immigrants at multiple spatial scales...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931745/histone-acetylation-regulates-chromatin-accessibility-role-of-h4k16-in-inter-nucleosome-interaction
#9
Ruihan Zhang, Jochen Erler, Jörg Langowski
The N-terminal tail of histone H4 is an indispensable mediator for inter-nucleosome interaction, which is required for chromatin fiber condensation. H4K16 acetylation (H4K16Ac) activates gene transcription by influencing both chromatin structure and interplay with nonhistone proteins. To understand the influence of H4K16Ac on inter-nucleosome interaction, we performed a simulation study for the H4 tail in the context of two nucleosomes in neighboring unit cells in the crystal structure. The binding conformation of H4 tail with/without K16Ac was sampled by replica exchange with solute tempering, and the free energy landscape was explored by metadynamics...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931567/landscape-of-kidney-transplantation-in-patients-with-compensated-liver-disease-results-of-a-survey-of-transplant-surgeons-in-the-united-states
#10
L Sibulesky, R N Hansen, N Leca, C Blosser, A A Rahnemai-Azar, M I Montenovo, A A Dick, R Bakthavatsalam, S Rayhill, R Bhattacharya, J D Reyes
BACKGROUND: The therapeutic options that provide the best long-term outcome for patients who have a combination of end-stage renal disease and compensated cirrhosis are unknown. METHODS: Given the paucity of data and the lack of clinical guidance in this area, a national survey was conducted in the form of an e-mail-based questionnaire addressed to the transplantation surgeons registered with the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. RESULTS: Of the 818 surgeons invited to participate in the survey, 167 (20%) responded...
December 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931558/time-to-shift-from-contemporary-to-high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-in-diagnosis-of-acute-coronary-syndromes
#11
REVIEW
Jamshed J Dalal, C K Ponde, Brian Pinto, C N Srinivas, Joy Thomas, Sunil Kumar Modi, Sanjay Mehta, Suvin Shetty, Manimarane, Bhupen Desai
Early rule-in and rule-out of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) is a challenge. In patients with inconclusive findings on ECG, cardiac biomarkers play a crucial role in the diagnosis. The introduction of the new high-sensitive cardiac troponin test (hs-TnI assay) has changed the landscape of NSTEMI diagnosis. The new hs-TnI assay can detect troponin values at a lower level compared with a contemporary cardiac troponin (cTn) assay. The hs-cTnI assay has a coefficient of variation of ≤10%, well below the 99th percentile value...
November 2016: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931250/tracing-the-origin-of-disseminated-tumor-cells-in-breast-cancer-using-single-cell-sequencing
#12
Jonas Demeulemeester, Parveen Kumar, Elen K Møller, Silje Nord, David C Wedge, April Peterson, Randi R Mathiesen, Renathe Fjelldal, Masoud Zamani Esteki, Koen Theunis, Elia Fernandez Gallardo, A Jason Grundstad, Elin Borgen, Lars O Baumbusch, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Kevin P White, Vessela N Kristensen, Peter Van Loo, Thierry Voet, Bjørn Naume
BACKGROUND: Single-cell micro-metastases of solid tumors often occur in the bone marrow. These disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) may resist therapy and lay dormant or progress to cause overt bone and visceral metastases. The molecular nature of DTCs remains elusive, as well as when and from where in the tumor they originate. Here, we apply single-cell sequencing to identify and trace the origin of DTCs in breast cancer. RESULTS: We sequence the genomes of 63 single cells isolated from six non-metastatic breast cancer patients...
December 9, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930958/protected-areas-and-agricultural-expansion-biodiversity-conservation-versus-economic-growth-in-the-southeast-of-brazil
#13
Mayra Cristina Prado de Moraes, Kaline de Mello, Rogério Hartung Toppa
The conversion of natural ecosystems to agricultural land and urban areas plays a threat to the protected areas and the natural ecosystems conservation. The aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of the agricultural expansion and its impact on the landscape spatial and temporal patterns in a buffer zone of a protected area located in the transition zone between the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The land use and land cover were mapped between 1971 and 2008 and landscape metrics were calculated to provide a spatiotemporal analysis of the forest structure and the expansion of the croplands...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930909/fda-regulation-of-neurological-and-physical-medicine-devices-access-to-safe-and-effective-neurotechnologies-for-all-americans
#14
Leigh Anderson, Patrick Antkowiak, Aden Asefa, Amber Ballard, Tushar Bansal, Ayo Bello, Bernard Berne, Kristen Bowsher, Bennett Blumenkopf, Ian Broverman, Mohamad Bydon, Kuo Chao, Peter Como, Karlene Cork, Ann Costello, Kathryn De Laurentis, Angela DeMarco, Heather Dean, John Doucet, Bradley Dworak, Lisa Epperson, Eric Franca, Naz Ghassemian, Chandramallika Ghosh, Anupama Govindarajan, Jay Gupta, Stacie Gutowski, Robert Herrmann, Michael Hoffmann, William Heetderks, Steven Hsu, Daryl Kaufman, Erin Keegan, Gregg Kittlesen, Kevin Khuu, Hyung Lee, Larry Lo, Ian Marcus, Timothy Marjenin, Binoy Mathews, Sanjay Misra, Vivek Pinto, Vesper Ramos, Samuel Raben, Avena Russell, Devjani Saha, Joonil Seog, Christian Shenouda, Myra Smith, Xiaorui Tang, Kelliann Wachrathit, Jaime Waterhouse, Dhanya Williams, Xiaolin Zheng, Carlos Peña
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ensures that patients in the U.S. have access to safe and effective medical devices. The Division of Neurological and Physical Medicine Devices reviews medical technologies that interface with the nervous system. This article addresses how to navigate the FDA's regulatory landscape to successfully bring medical devices to patients.
December 7, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930684/comparison-of-contaminant-transport-in-agricultural-drainage-water-and-urban-stormwater-runoff
#15
Ehsan Ghane, Andry Z Ranaivoson, Gary W Feyereisen, Carl J Rosen, John F Moncrief
Transport of nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural and urban landscapes to surface water bodies can cause adverse environmental impacts. The main objective of this long-term study was to quantify and compare contaminant transport in agricultural drainage water and urban stormwater runoff. We measured flow rate and contaminant concentration in stormwater runoff from Willmar, Minnesota, USA, and in drainage water from subsurface-drained fields with surface inlets, namely, Unfertilized and Fertilized Fields...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930644/immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-breast-cancer-checkpoint-blockade-cancer-vaccines-and-future-directions-in-combination-immunotherapy
#16
Heather L McArthur, David B Page
Immunotherapy encompasses both vaccines that direct immune responses to tumor-associated antigens, and checkpoint blocking antibodies that inhibit immune system suppression by targeting key pathways mediated by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, programmed death 1 (PD-1), and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Both of these approaches currently are being explored as potential strategies for the treatment of breast cancer. Recent studies suggest that immunotherapy is poised to change the therapeutic landscape for some breast cancers...
November 2016: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929745/an-elaborate-landscape-of-the-human-antibody-repertoire-against-enterovirus-71-infection-is-revealed-by-phage-display-screening-and-deep-sequencing
#17
Zhe Chen, Xianwen Ren, Jian Yang, Jie Dong, Ying Xue, Lilian Sun, Yafang Zhu, Qi Jin
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), primarily in the Asia-Pacific area, that are often associated with complications of severe to fatal neurological symptoms. There are currently no anti-viral therapies or vaccines available for the treatment of EV71 infection. Illustrating human antibody responses neutralizing EV71 infection could potentially provide valuable information for the development of effective therapies and vaccines. Here, we constructed a comprehensive phage display library based on peripheral blood of eight EV71-infected donors and identified 27 EV71-specific human antibodies, of which four have neutralizing activity in in vitro experiments...
December 8, 2016: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929449/reviewing-the-history-of-pandemic-influenza-understanding-patterns-of-emergence-and-transmission
#18
REVIEW
Patrick R Saunders-Hastings, Daniel Krewski
For centuries, novel strains of influenza have emerged to produce human pandemics, causing widespread illness, death, and disruption. There have been four influenza pandemics in the past hundred years. During this time, globalization processes, alongside advances in medicine and epidemiology, have altered the way these pandemics are experienced. Drawing on international case studies, this paper provides a review of the impact of past influenza pandemics, while examining the evolution of our understanding of, and response to, these viruses...
December 6, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929140/acfs-accurate-circrna-identification-and-quantification-from-rna-seq-data
#19
Xintian You, Tim Of Conrad
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a group of single-stranded RNAs in closed circular form. They are splicing-generated, widely expressed in various tissues and have functional implications in development and diseases. To facilitate genome-wide characterization of circRNAs using RNA-Seq data, we present a freely available software package named acfs. Acfs allows de novo, accurate and fast identification and abundance quantification of circRNAs from single- and paired-ended RNA-Seq data. On simulated datasets, acfs achieved the highest F1 accuracy and lowest false discovery rate among current state-of-the-art tools...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928960/research-advances-in-molecular-modeling-in-cyclodextrins
#20
Qianqian Zhao, Weixiang Zhang, Runmiao Wang, Yitao Wang, Defang Ouyang
BACKGROUND: Cyclodextrins (CDs), as one type of the novel pharmaceutical excipients, have been widely used in drug delivery and pharmaceutical industry. Over the past decades, a large amount of molecular modeling studies in CDs were reported for profound understanding of structural, dynamic and energetic features of CDs systems. Thus, this review is focused on qualitative and quantitative analysis of research outputs on molecular modeling in CDs. METHODS: The original data were collected from Web of Science and analyzed by scientific knowledge mapping tools, including Citespace, Science of Science, VOSviewer, GPSvisualizer and Gephi software...
December 8, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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