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Olivier Beauchet, Cyrille P Launay, Harmehr Sekhon, Jennifer Gautier, Julia Chabot, Elise J Levinoff, Gilles Allali
BACKGROUND: Assessment of changes in higher levels of gait control with aging is important to better understand age-related gait instability, with the perspective to improve the screening of individuals at risk for falls. The comparison between actual Timed Up and Go test (aTUG) and its imagined version (iTUG) is a simple clinical way to assess age-related changes in gait control. The modulations of iTUG performances by body positions and motor imagery (MI) strategies with normal aging have not been evaluated yet...
2018: PloS One
Roey Schurr, Mor Nitzan, Ruth Eliahou, Laurent Spinelli, Margitta Seeck, Olaf Blanke, Shahar Arzy
In mental time travel (MTT) one is "traveling" back-and-forth in time, remembering, and imagining events. Despite intensive research regarding memory processes in the hippocampus, it was only recently shown that the hippocampus plays an essential role in encoding the temporal order of events remembered, and therefore plays an important role in MTT. Does it also encode the temporal relations of these events to the remembering self? We asked patients undergoing pre-surgical evaluation with depth electrodes penetrating the temporal lobes bilaterally toward the hippocampus to project themselves in time to a past, future, or present time-point, and then make judgments regarding various events...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Bojie Cong, Shizue Ohsawa, Tatsushi Igaki
Epithelial cancer tissues often possess polyploid giant cells, which are thought to be highly oncogenic. However, the mechanisms by which polyploid giant cells are generated in tumor tissues and how such cells contribute to tumor progression remain elusive. We previously noticed in Drosophila imaginal epithelium that cells mutant for the endocytic gene rab5 exhibit enlarged nuclei. Here we find that mutations in endocytic 'neoplastic tumor-suppressor' genes, such as rab5, vps25, erupted, or avalanche result in generation of polyploid giant cells...
March 14, 2018: Oncogene
Mihaela Kelemen, Emma Surman, Lisa Dikomitis
BACKGROUND: A significant challenge in Patient and Public Involvement and Engagement (PPIE) in health research is to include a wide range of opinions and experiences, including from those who repeatedly find themselves at the margins of society. OBJECTIVE: To contribute to the debate around PPIE by introducing a bottom-up methodology: cultural animation (CA). Cultural Animation is an arts-based methodology of knowledge co-production and community engagement which employs a variety of creative and participatory exercises to help build trusting relationships between diverse participants (expert and non-experts) and democratize the process of research...
March 12, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
Matthew L Stanley, Brenda W Yang, Felipe De Brigard
In a recent study, Kouchaki and Gino (2016) suggest that memory for unethical actions is impaired, regardless of whether such actions are real or imagined. However, as we argue in the current study, their claim that people develop "unethical amnesia" confuses two distinct and dissociable memory deficits: one affecting the phenomenology of remembering and another affecting memory accuracy. To further investigate whether unethical amnesia affects memory accuracy, we conducted three studies exploring unethical amnesia for imagined ethical violations...
March 12, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Lisa Haushofer
In the nineteenth century, food and diet became central to a public health increasingly focused on individual behavior and on the cost of sickness. Because of its potential to impact the economic uptake of food inside individual bodies, digestion became a crucial site of physiological investigation in this context. Out of physiological research on digestion emerged a group of medicinal food products based on digestive enzymes (then referred to as digestive ferments), so-called artificially digested foods. The paper examines the creation and significance of these products, focusing on the case of Benger's Food...
February 24, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
Hae Kyoung Jung, Ah Young Park, Kyung Hee Ko, Jieun Koh
This study was performed to compare the diagnostic performance of power Doppler ultrasound (US) and a new microvascular Doppler US technique (AngioPLUS; SuperSonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France) for differentiating benign and malignant breast masses. Power Doppler US and AngioPLUS findings were available in 124 breast masses with confirmed pathologic results (benign, 80 [64.5%]; malignant, 44 [35.5%]). The diagnostic performance of each tool was calculated to distinguish benign from malignant masses using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and compared...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Sara Konrath, Brian P Meier, Brad J Bushman
Empathy involves feeling compassion for others and imagining how they feel. In this article, we develop and validate the Single Item Trait Empathy Scale (SITES), which contains only one item that takes seconds to complete. In seven studies (N=5,724), the SITES was found to be both reliable and valid. It correlated in expected ways with a wide variety of intrapersonal outcomes. For example, it is negatively correlated with narcissism, depression, anxiety, and alexithymia. In contrast, it is positively correlated with other measures of empathy, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and agreeableness...
April 2018: Journal of Research in Personality
Peter Nagy, Ruth Wylie, Joey Eschrich, Ed Finn
Reflecting the dangers of irresponsible science and technology, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein quickly became a mythic story that still feels fresh and relevant in the twenty-first century. The unique framework of the Frankenstein myth has permeated the public discourse about science and knowledge, creating various misconceptions around and negative expectations for scientists and for scientific enterprises more generally. Using the Frankenstein myth as an imaginative tool, we interviewed twelve scientists to explore how this science narrative shapes their views and perceptions of science...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Vasily Mikhaïlovitch Smirnov, Christina Zeitz, Nagasamy Soumittra, Isabelle Audo, Sabine Defoort-Dhellemmes
INTRODUCTION: CABP4-related retinal dysfunction is a cone-rod synaptic transmission disorder with electronegative electroretinogram (ERG) waveform. It is a rare retinal dysfunction that can be classified into the incomplete form of congenital stationary night blindness. Absent foveal reflex and overall foveal thinning were previously reported, but in most cases the fundus appearance was described as nearly normal. We report here peculiar macular changes in a patient of French ancestry harbouring CABP4 mutations...
March 10, 2018: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Maria Fuller, Anthony H Futerman
Cholesterol, sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids are critical constituents of the brain, subserving neuronal membrane architecture and providing a platform for biochemical processes essential for proper neurodevelopment and function. When lysosomal defects arise in a lipid metabolic pathway, it is therefore easy to imagine that neurological decline will transpire, however for deficits in non-lipid pathways, this becomes harder to envisage. Here we suggest the working hypothesis that neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders might manifest as primary and/or secondary disorders of lipid metabolism...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Cristina Molnar, Beatriz Estrada, Jose F de Celis
Extracellular regulated kinase (Erk) activity is required during neural development for the specification of cell fates in neuroblasts and neuronal lineages, and also regulates several aspects of the activity and survival of mature neurons. The activation of Erk is regulated at multiple levels by kinases and phosphatases that alter its phosphorylation state and by other proteins that regulate its subcellular localization. Here we find that tay bridge (tay), a negative regulator of Erk in Drosophila imaginal discs, is required in the motoneurons to regulate the number and size of neuromuscular synapses in these cells...
March 9, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
K-D Sievert, D-L Dräger, F-M Köhn, S Milerski, C Protzel, O W Hakenberg
Penile cancer is often an obvious visual diagnosis but histologic verification should be obtained prior to treatment. The clinical examination should determine the tumor stage and whether it has infiltrated the cavernous bodies and/or the urethra and it should adequately assess the inguinal lymph nodes. Preoperative imaging of the lesion is only indicated in equivocal cases. Curative treatment requires the complete removal of the primary tumor and all metastatic lymph nodes. Lymph node management is the key prognostic factor in the treatment of penile cancer...
March 9, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Sahanika Ratnayake, David Merry
Mindfulness exercises are presented as being compatible with almost any spiritual, religious or philosophical beliefs. In this paper, we argue that they in fact involve imagining and conceptualising rather striking and controversial claims about the self, and the self's relationship to thoughts and feelings. For this reason, practising mindfulness exercises is likely to be in tension with many people's core beliefs and values, a tension that should be treated as a downside of therapeutic interventions involving mindfulness exercises, not unlike a side effect...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
(no author information available yet)
Dr Naomi Harvey , a zoologist, describes how she has learnt to deal with her anticipatory grief.
March 10, 2018: Veterinary Record
Solveig L Hansen
In the traditions of narrative ethics and casuistry, stories have a well-established role. Specifically, illness narratives provide insight into patients' perspectives and histories. However, because they tend to see fiction as an aesthetic endeavour, practitioners in these traditions often do not realize that fictional stories are valuable moral sources of their own. In this paper I employ two arguments to show the mutual relationship between bioethics and fiction, specifically, science fiction. First, both discourses use imagination to set a scene and determine a perspective...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Michael M Bannert, Andreas Bartels
Color is special among basic visual features in that it can form a defining part of objects that are engrained in our memory. Whereas most neuroimaging research on human color vision has focused on responses related to external stimulation, the present study investigated how sensory-driven color vision is linked to subjective color perception induced by object imagery. We recorded fMRI activity in male and female volunteers during viewing of abstract color stimuli that were red, green, or yellow in half of the runs...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Luis F C Maschi, Alex S R Pinto, Rodolfo I Meneguette, Alexandro Baldassin
With the advent of the Internet of Things, billions of objects or devices are inserted into the global computer network, generating and processing data at a volume never imagined before. This paper proposes a way to collect and process local data through a data fusion technology called summarization. The main feature of the proposal is the local data fusion, through parameters provided by the application, ensuring the quality of data collected by the sensor node. In the evaluation, the sensor node was compared when performing the data summary with another that performed a continuous recording of the collected data...
March 7, 2018: Sensors
Anna Katarzyna Wrońska, Mieczysława Irena Boguś, Emilia Włóka, Michalina Kazek, Agata Kaczmarek, Katarzyna Zalewska
The entomopathogenic fungus Conidiobolus coronatus produces enzymes that may hydrolyze the cuticle of Galleria mellonella. Of these enzymes, elastase activity was the highest: this figure being 24 times higher than NAGase activity 553 times higher than chitinase activity and 1844 times higher than lipase activity. The present work examines the differences in the hydrolysis of cuticles taken from larvae, pupae and adults (thorax and wings), by C. coronatus enzymes. The cuticles of the larvae and adult thorax were the most susceptible to digestion by proteases and lipases...
2018: PloS One
Helen Convey, Janet Holt, Barbara Summers
AIMS: This study explored the feasibility of using Construal Level Theory to analyse proxy decision maker thinking about a hypothetical ethical dilemma, relating to a person who has dementia. BACKGROUND: Proxy decision makers make decisions on behalf of individuals who are living with dementia when dementia affects that individual's decision making ability. Ethical dilemmas arise because there is a need to balance the individual's past and contemporary values and views...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
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