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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331440/the-effect-of-bilateral-eye-movements-versus-no-eye-movements-on-sexual-fantasies
#1
Ross M Bartels, Leigh Harkins, Samantha C Harrison, Nikki Beard, Anthony R Beech
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bilateral eye-movements (EMs) and visual mental imagery both require working memory resources. When performed together, they compete for these resources, which can cause various forms of mental imagery to become impaired (e.g., less vivid). This study aimed to examine whether EMs impair sexual fantasies (a form of mental imagery) in the same manner. METHODS: Eighty undergraduates (40 males, 40 females) took part in four counterbalanced conditions: (1) EMs and an experience-based sexual fantasy; (2) EMs and an imagination-based sexual fantasy; (3) experience-based sexual fantasy only; and (4) imagination-based sexual fantasy only...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330097/learning-situated-emotions
#2
Lauren A M Lebois, Christine D Wilson-Mendenhall, W Kyle Simmons, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Lawrence W Barsalou
From the perspective of constructivist theories, emotion results from learning assemblies of relevant perceptual, cognitive, interoceptive, and motor processes in specific situations. Across emotional experiences over time, learned assemblies of processes accumulate in memory that later underlie emotional experiences in similar situations. A neuroimaging experiment guided participants to experience (and thus learn) situated forms of emotion, and then assessed whether participants tended to experience situated forms of the emotion later...
January 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329510/the-predictive-value-of-hunger-score-on-gastric-evacuation-after-oral-intake-of-carbohydrate-solution
#3
Qiu Weiji, Li Shitong, Luo Yu, Hua Tianfang, Kong Ning, Zhang Lina
BACKGROUND: Surgical patients are asked to fast for a sufficient duration to ensure that the amount of residual liquid in the stomach is within the safe range, thereby reducing the risk of gastric reflux perioperatively. The authors hypothesized that subjective hunger numerical rating scale (NRS) score could also help assess the process of gastric emptying and determine the amount of fluid remaining in the stomach. METHODS: The current study consisted of healthy volunteers recruited by advertisement and mutual introduction...
January 12, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327652/acquisition-of-a-mental-strategy-to-control-a-virtual-tail-via-brain-computer-interface
#4
Ayaka Fujisawa, Shoko Kasuga, Takaharu Suzuki, Junichi Ushiba
The objective of the present study was to clarify the variation in and properties of mental images and policies used to regulate specific image selection when learning to control a brain-computer interface. Healthy volunteers performed a reaching task with a virtually generated monkey tail-like object on a computer monitor by regulating event-related desynchronization (ERD) on the buttock area of the sensorimotor cortex as recorded by electroencephalogram (EEG). Participants were instructed to find a free image by which the tail was well controlled...
January 12, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325140/optimism-for-the-future-in-younger-and-older-adults
#5
Kelly A Durbin, Sarah J Barber, Maddalena Brown, Mara Mather
Objectives: Research has suggested that older adults are less optimistic about their future than younger adults; however, a limitation of prior studies is that younger and older adults were forecasting to different ages and stages of life. To address this, we investigated whether there are age differences in future optimism when people project to the exact same age. We also tested whether optimism differs when projecting one's own future versus another person's future. Method: Participants were 285 younger and 292 older adults recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk...
January 9, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324886/changes-in-network-connectivity-during-motor-imagery-and-execution
#6
Yun Kwan Kim, Eunhee Park, Ahee Lee, Chang-Hwan Im, Yun-Hee Kim
BACKGROUND: Recent studies of functional or effective connectivity in the brain have reported that motor-related brain regions were activated during motor execution and motor imagery, but the relationship between motor and cognitive areas has not yet been completely understood. The objectives of our study were to analyze the effective connectivity between motor and cognitive networks in order to define network dynamics during motor execution and motor imagery in healthy individuals. Second, we analyzed the differences in effective connectivity between correct and incorrect responses during motor execution and imagery using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) of electroencephalography (EEG) data...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323506/demand-characteristics-in-episodic-future-thinking-delay-discounting-and-healthy-eating
#7
Jillian M Rung, Gregory J Madden
Steep delay discounting, or rapid devaluation of future outcomes, is one mechanism that can account for the chronic selection of smaller-sooner over larger-later outcomes; that is, impulsive choice. Because steep delay discounting is correlated with maladaptive behavior, researchers have explored methods for reducing discounting. One empirically supported method is episodic future thinking (EFT), or vividly imagining one's future before completing the discounting task. However, EFT procedures may include demand characteristics, which could account for some its beneficial effects...
January 11, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322583/motor-imagery-training-kinesthetic-imagery-strategy-and-inferior-parietal-fmri-activation
#8
Florent Lebon, Ulrike Horn, Martin Domin, Martin Lotze
Motor imagery (MI) is the mental simulation of action frequently used by professionals in different fields. However, with respect to performance, well-controlled functional imaging studies on MI training are sparse. We investigated changes in fMRI representation going along with performance changes of a finger sequence (error and velocity) after MI training in 48 healthy young volunteers. Before training, we tested the vividness of kinesthetic and visual imagery. During tests, participants were instructed to move or to imagine moving the fingers of the right hand in a specific order...
January 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322168/patient-preferences-for-surgery-or-antibiotics-for-the-treatment-of-acute-appendicitis
#9
Alexis L Hanson, Ross D Crosby, Marc D Basson
Importance: Studies have compared surgical with nonsurgical therapy for acute uncomplicated appendicitis, but none of these studies have a patient-centered perspective. Objectives: To evaluate how patients might choose between surgical and nonsurgical therapy for acute uncomplicated appendicitis and to identify targets to make antibiotic treatment more appealing. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study comprised an online survey and an in-person sensitivity analysis survey...
January 10, 2018: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313947/personality-traits-are-associated-with-cortical-development-across-adolescence-a-longitudinal-structural-mri-study
#10
Lia Ferschmann, Anders M Fjell, Margarete E Vollrath, Håkon Grydeland, Kristine B Walhovd, Christian K Tamnes
How personality traits relate to structural brain changes in development is an important but understudied question. In this study, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), estimated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were investigated in 99 participants aged 8-19 years. Follow-up MRI data were collected after on average 2.6 years for 74 individuals. The Big Five personality traits were related to longitudinal regional CT or SA development, but limited cross-sectional relations were observed. Conscientiousness, emotional stability, and imagination were associated with more age-expected cortical thinning over time...
January 4, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313391/re-imagining-occupational-therapy-clients-as-communities-presenting-the-community-centred-practice-framework
#11
Nerida Hyett, Amanda Kenny, Virginia Dickson-Swift
BACKGROUND: Occupational therapists' are increasingly working with communities and providing services at the community level. There is, however, a lack of conceptual frameworks to guide this work. AIM: The aim of this article is to present a new conceptual framework for community-centered practice in occupational therapy. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The conceptual framework was developed from qualitative multi-case research on exemplars of community participation...
January 9, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313293/management-of-care-transition-and-hospital-discharge
#12
Amedeo Zurlo, Giovanni Zuliani
Current demographic and epidemiological trends highlight a growing task in surgical departments by elderly patients, characterized by high prevalence of comorbidity, complexity, and functional disability. Of consequence, discharge of an elderly patient must be considered in a new cultural perspective and should be imagined as a well-structured process starting from admission to surgical department and finishing with the patient discharge in a setting able to support her/him in the best possible way. The lack of a suitable discharge planning and of a proper transition program in the elderly subjects increases the risk of quick re-admission and may negatively affect the functional and the status quality of life of patients and caregivers...
January 8, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310545/the-imagined-empire-balloon-enlightenments-in-revolutionary-europe
#13
Leslie Tomory
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2018: Ambix
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309617/synergistic-effect-of-fertilizer-and-plant-material-combinations-on-the-development-of-aedes-aegypti-diptera-culicidae-and-anopheles-gambiae-diptera-culicidae-mosquitoes
#14
Frédéric Darriet
Chemical fertilizers are used everywhere, which often pollute the breeding sites of mosquitoes. In this laboratory study, the consequences on Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles gambiae (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) of water-containing plant matter (PM) alone, or in association with an NPK type of fertilizer (PM+NPK), were evaluated. To obtain a 20% imaginal emergence of An. gambiae (IEt20), the bioassays carried out with PM have evidenced that its larvae need four times as much food as for Ae...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309536/the-neural-specificity-of-movement-preparation-during-actual-and-imagined-movements
#15
Florent Lebon, Célia Ruffino, Ian Greenhouse, Ludovica Labruna, Richard B Ivry, Charalambos Papaxanthis
Current theories consider motor imagery, the mental representation of action, to have considerable functional overlap with the processes involved in actual movement preparation and execution. To test the neural specificity of motor imagery, we conducted a series of 3 experiments using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We compared changes in corticospinal excitability as people prepared and implemented actual or imagined movements, using a delayed response task in which a cue indicated the forthcoming response...
January 4, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309251/women-interact-more-comfortably-and-intimately-with-gay-men-but-not-straight-men-after-learning-their-sexual-orientation
#16
Eric M Russell, William Ickes, Vivian P Ta
Research suggests that the development of close, opposite-sex friendships is frequently impeded by men's often one-sided sexual attraction to women. But what if this element were removed? The current research tested the hypothesis that women engage in more comfortable and intimate interactions with a gay (but not a straight) man immediately after discovering his sexual orientation. In two studies, female participants engaged in imagined or actual initial interactions with either a straight man or a gay man...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309170/-in-honour-of-asclepius-and-orpheus-ten-years-of-activities-on-the-popularization-of-connections-between-medicine-and-music
#17
Tin Nadarević, Vesna Štefanac Nadarević
Art is defined as the expression or application of the human creative skill and imagination, producing works to be appreciated primarily for their beauty or emotional power. "Ars medica" and "Ars musica" represent two concepts which have been mutually intertwined since the ancient times. Through history, many extraordinary physicians have shown talent towards making and performing music. Guided by the passion for medicine and music, since 2006 the students from the University of Rijeka, Faculty of Medicine have founded an informal group named "In honour of Asclepius and Orpheus" under the aegis of the Croatian Scientific Society for the History of Health Culture...
December 2017: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306967/identification-of-tarsal-less-peptides-from-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#18
Guangli Cao, Yongchang Gong, Xiaolong Hu, Min Zhu, Zi Liang, Lixu Huang, Lei Yu, Jian Xu, Kun Li, Mian Sahib Zar, Renyu Xue, Chengliang Gong
The polycistronic and non-canonical gene tarsal-less (tal, known as pri) was reported to be required for embryonic and imaginal development in Drosophila; however, there are few reports of the tal gene in the silkworm Bombyx mori. Here, we cloned a tal-like (Bmtal) gene, and a sequence analysis showed that the Bmtal cDNA (1661 bp) contains five small open reading frames (smORFs) (A1, A2, A3, A4, and B) that encode short peptides of 11-12 (A1-A4) amino acid residues containing an LDPTG(E)L(Q)(V)Y motif that is conserved in Drosophila Tal, as well as a 32-amino-acid B peptide...
January 6, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305820/authoring-the-identity-of-learner-before-doctor-in-the-figured-world-of-medical-school
#19
Evangeline Stubbing, Esther Helmich, Jennifer Cleland
INTRODUCTION: Students enter the 'figured world' of medical school with preconceptions of what it means to be a doctor. The meeting of these early preconceptions and their newly developing identities can create emotional tensions. The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of how such tensions were experienced and managed. Using figured worlds as a theoretical framework we explored students' interactions of preconceptions with their newly developing professional identities in their first year at medical school...
January 5, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304725/patient-perceived-barriers-and-facilitators-to-the-implementation-of-a-medication-review-in-primary-care-a-qualitative-thematic-analysis
#20
Mirella Carolin Uhl, Christiane Muth, Ferdinand Michael Gerlach, Goentje-Gesine Schoch, Beate Sigrid Müller
BACKGROUND: Although polypharmacy can cause adverse health outcomes, patients often know little about their medication. A regularly conducted medication review (MR) can help provide an overview of a patient's medication, and benefit patients by enhancing their knowledge of their drugs. As little is known about patient attitudes towards MRs in primary care, the objective of this study was to gain insight into patient-perceived barriers and facilitators to the implementation of an MR. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study with a convenience sample of 31 patients (age ≥ 60 years, ≥3 chronic diseases, taking ≥5 drugs/d); in Hesse, Germany, in February 2016...
January 5, 2018: BMC Family Practice
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