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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214771/future-oriented-mental-time-travel-in-individuals-with-disordered-gambling
#1
Xavier Noël, Mélanie Saeremans, Charles Kornreich, Nematollah Jaafari, Arnaud D'Argembeau
This study investigated the ability of individuals with disordered gambling to imagine future events. Problem gamblers (n=35) and control participants (n=35) were asked to imagine positive and negative future events for three temporal distances (one week, one year, 5-10years). Then, a variety of phenomenological aspects of their future thoughts (e.g., sensory and contextual details, autonoetic consciousness) were rated. Compared to control subjects, problem gamblers generated fewer positive and negative events across all temporal distances, an impairment that was correlated to verbal fluency scores...
February 16, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211807/two-dimensional-shear-wave-elastography-of-breast-lesions-comparison-of-two-different-systems
#2
Wei-Wei Ren, Xiao-Long Li, Ya-Ping He, Dan-Dan Li, Dan Wang, Chong-Ke Zhao, Xiao-Wan Bo, Bo-Ji Liu, Wen-Wen Yue, Hui-Xiong Xu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of two different shear wave elastography (SWE) techniques in distinguishing malignant breast lesions from benign ones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 2016 to May 2016, a total of 153 breast lesions (mean diameter, 16.8 mm±10.5; range 4.1-90.0 mm) in 153 patients (mean age, 46.4 years±15.1; age range 20-86 years) were separately performed by two different SWE techniques (i.e. T-SWE, Aplio500, Toshiba Medical System, Tochigi, Japan; and S-SWE, the Aixplorer US system, SuperSonic Imagine, Provence, France)...
February 17, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211036/unconscious-phantasy-as-a-structural-principle-and-organizer-of-mental-life-the-evolution-of-a-concept-from-freud-to-klein-and-some-of-her-successors
#3
Heinz Weiss
Starting with Freud's discovery of unconscious phantasy as a means of accessing his patients' internal world, the author discusses the evolution of the concept in the work of Melanie Klein and some of her successors. Whereas Freud sees phantasy as a wish fulfilling imagination, dominated by primary process functioning and kept apart from reality testing, Klein understands phantasies as a structural function and organizer of mental life. From their very beginnings they involve object relations and gradually evolve from primitive body-near experiences to images and symbolic representations...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209948/-digital-technology-in-clinical-surgery-and-rehabilitation
#4
O E Karpov, P S Vetshev, V D Daminov, S A Epifanov, A A Zuev, P D Kuzmin, D A Makhnev
: This article is devoted to a very actual and insufficiently imagine in the literature theme - innovation and digital technologies in clinical surgery and rehabilitation. AIM: To schow posibilities of modern digital and information technologies in clinical practice based on the experience of the Pirogov Center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of experience in the application of innovative technologies, robotic surgery, intraoperative navigation computer, robotic systems in medical rehabilitation, integrated operating room, surgical video communication systems in service of those doing the Pirogov Center for the past 10 years...
2017: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206794/the-devil-is-in-the-details-comparisons-of-episodic-simulations-of-positive-and-negative-future-events
#5
Vannia A Puig, Karl K Szpunar
Over the past decade, psychologists have devoted considerable attention to episodic simulation-the ability to imagine specific hypothetical events. Perhaps one of the most consistent patterns of data to emerge from this literature is that positive simulations of the future are rated as more detailed than negative simulations of the future, a pattern of results that is commonly interpreted as evidence for a positivity bias in future thinking. In the present article, we demonstrate across two experiments that negative future events are consistently simulated in more detail than positive future events when frequency of prior thinking is taken into account as a possible confounding variable and when level of detail associated with simulated events is assessed using an objective scoring criterion...
February 16, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199429/-emotional-processing-theory-and-prolonged-exposure-therapy-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#6
Rafael Kichic, Noelí D'Alessio
Prolonged exposure therapy is a first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. In this article we discuss the theoretical underpinnings and underlying mechanisms of PE, its efficacy and safety. We briefly describe the procedures involved in PE with special emphasis in imaginal exposure. Also, we present examples of efforts to integrate evidence-based treatments that concurrently target PTSD and borderline personality disorder. Next, we review efforts made to adapt the intervention to Hispanics. Finally, obstacles for disseminating and implementing PE are discussed...
March 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197276/percutaneous-coronary-intervention-safety-of-methotrexate-and-its-possible-benefits-on-restenosis-after-bare-metal-stent-deployment
#7
Viviane Gouveia, Dinaldo C Oliveira, Emmanuele Tenorio, Norma Brito, Emanuel Sarinho
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) revolutionized treatment of coronary artery disease. Drug-eluting stents are effective and safe but their cost is high, especially for some countries. The primary objective was to evaluate the safety of methotrexate (MTX) in patients who underwent PCI and the secondary goal was to evaluate the possibility that MTX has an impact on restenosis. METHODS: This was a transversal, prospective and descriptive study that recruited 16 patients in whom PCI was planned...
June 2016: Cardiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196766/projecting-the-self-outside-the-body-body-representations-underlying-proprioceptive-imagery
#8
Nataşa Ganea, Matthew R Longo
Recent research has shown that proprioception relies on distorted representations of body size and shape. By asking participants to localise multiple landmarks on their occluded hand, perceptual maps of hand size and shape can be constructed and compared to actual hand structure. These maps are different from the actual size and shape of the occluded hand, revealing underestimation of finger length and overestimation of hand width. Here we tested whether the same distorted body model underlies proprioceptive imagery (i...
February 11, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195030/extra-terra-incognita-martian-maps-in-the-digital-age
#9
Lisa Messeri
Science and technology studies (STS) and critical cartography are both asking questions about the ontological fixity of maps and other scientific objects. This paper examines how a group of NASA computer scientists who call themselves The Mapmakers conceptualizes and creates maps in service of different commitments. The maps under construction are those of alien Mars, produced through partnerships that NASA has established with Google and Microsoft. With the goal of bringing an experience of Mars to as many people as possible, these maps influence how we imagine our neighbouring planet...
February 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194219/development-of-a-lecithotrophic-pilidium-larva-illustrates-convergent-evolution-of-trochophore-like-morphology
#10
Marie K Hunt, Svetlana A Maslakova
BACKGROUND: The pilidium larva is an idiosyncrasy defining one clade of marine invertebrates, the Pilidiophora (Nemertea, Spiralia). Uniquely, in pilidial development, the juvenile worm forms from a series of isolated rudiments called imaginal discs, then erupts through and devours the larval body during catastrophic metamorphosis. A typical pilidium is planktotrophic and looks like a hat with earflaps, but pilidial diversity is much broader and includes several types of non-feeding pilidia...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192464/specificity-contexts-and-reference-groups-matter-when-assessing-autistic-traits
#11
Morton Ann Gernsbacher, Jennifer L Stevenson, Sebastian Dern
Many of the personality and behavioral traits (e.g., social imperviousness, directness in conversation, lack of imagination, affinity for solitude, difficulty displaying emotions) that are known to be sensitive to context (with whom?) and reference group (according to whom?) also appear in questionnaire-based assessments of autistic traits. Therefore, two experiments investigated the effects of specifying contexts and reference groups when assessing autistic traits in autistic and non-autistic participants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186486/the-shock-of-reality-of-new-nurses
#12
Johannie Roy, Fanny Robichaud
The shock of reality expresses a dissonance between reality what was imagined about the labor world. It is part of the integration process of new nurses that join a health care setting for the first time. This major step, related to the first work experience, places recruits in a state of vulnerability in their new profession. While several retirements are expected among baby boomers, finding solutions to ease the transition to the professional role among younger nurses is crucial. This narrative literature review attempts to answer the following questions : What characterizes the reality shock among new nurses in a context of role transition from student to professional ? CINAHL and MEDLINE databases were consulted in addition to reports issued by the OIIQ...
1, 2016: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186099/the-effect-of-increasing-risk-and-challenge-in-the-school-playground-on-physical-activity-and-weight-in-children-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-play
#13
V L Farmer, S M Williams, J I Mann, G Schofield, J C McPhee, R W Taylor
BACKGROUND: To investigate whether changing the play environment in primary schools to one that includes greater risk and challenge increases physical activity and reduces body mass index (BMI). SUBJECTS/METHODS: A two-year cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 16 New Zealand schools (Years 1-8). Intervention schools (n=8) redesigned their play environments to encourage imaginative and independent free play by increasing opportunities for risk and challenge (e...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184061/imagine-a-universal-solution
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177267/suffering-the-social-scientific-imagination-and-health-wilkinson-iain-kleinman-arthur-a-passion-for-society-how-we-think-about-human-suffering-university-of-california-press-berkeley-ca-2016-304-xiv-pp-paperback-29-95-isbn-9780520287235
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177149/relational-citizenship-supporting-embodied-selfhood-and-relationality-in-dementia-care
#16
Pia Kontos, Karen-Lee Miller, Alexis P Kontos
We draw on findings from a mixed-method study of specialised red-nosed elder-clowns in a long-term care facility to advance a model of 'relational citizenship' for individuals with dementia. Relational citizenship foregrounds the reciprocal nature of engagement and the centrality of capacities, senses, and experiences of bodies to the exercise of human agency and interconnectedness. We critically examine elder-clown strategies and techniques to illustrate how relational citizenship can be supported and undermined at the micro level of direct care through a focus on embodied expressions of creativity and sexuality...
February 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177146/precarity-in-late-life-rethinking-dementia-as-a-frailed-old-age
#17
Amanda Grenier, Liz Lloyd, Chris Phillipson
Approaches to ageing that are organised around productivity, success, and active late life have contributed to views of dementia as an unsuccessful, failed or 'frailed' old age. Operating through dominant frameworks, socio-cultural constructs and organisational practices, the 'frailties' of the body and mind are often used to mark the boundaries of health and illness in late life, and shape responses accordingly. Our concern is that both the taken for granted and the 'imagined' can further marginalise persons who occupy the locations of dementia and disablement...
February 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176650/is-there-a-role-for-epigenetic-enhancement-of-immunomodulatory-approaches-to-cancer-treatment
#18
Kirsty J Flower, Sadaf Ghaem-Maghami, Robert Brown
The efficacy of cancer immunotherapy relies on the ability of the host immune system to recognise the cancer as non-self and eliminate it from the body. Whilst this is an extremely fertile area of medical research, with positive clinical trials showing durable responses, attention must be paid to the subset of patients that do not respond to these treatments. Immune surveillance and immunoediting by the host could itself select for immune-evasive tumour cells during tumour development leading to immunotherapy resistance...
February 5, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176397/a-scientific-theory-of-ars-memoriae-spatial-view-cells-in-a-continuous-attractor-network-with-linked-items
#19
Edmund T Rolls
The art of memory (ars memoriae) used since classical times includes using a well-known scene to associate each view or part of the scene with a different item in a speech. This memory technique is also known as the 'method of loci'. The new theory is proposed that this type of memory is implemented in the CA3 region of the hippocampus where there are spatial view cells in primates that allow a particular view to be associated with a particular object in an event or episodic memory. Given that the CA3 cells with their extensive recurrent collateral system connecting different CA3 cells, and associative synaptic modifiability, form an autoassociation or attractor network, the spatial view cells with their approximately Gaussian view fields become linked in a continuous attractor network...
February 8, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175962/sex-specific-effects-of-posture-on-the-attribution-of-handedness-to-an-imagined-agent
#20
Daniele Marzoli, Chiara Lucafò, Carmine Rescigno, Elena Mussini, Caterina Padulo, Giulia Prete, Anita D'Anselmo, Gianluca Malatesta, Luca Tommasi
In a series of previous studies, we found that when participants were required to imagine another person performing a manual action, they imagined a significantly higher proportion of actions performed with their dominant rather than non-dominant hand, which indicates that shared motor representations between the self and the other are involved also during the imagination of others' actions. Interestingly, the activation of lateralized body-specific motor representations (as indexed by the congruence between the participant's handedness and the imagined person's handedness) appeared to be affected by the visual perspective adopted and participants' handedness...
February 7, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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