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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718864/-cognitive-behavioral-group-therapy-addressing-fear-of-progression-in-cancer-out-patients
#1
Bärbel Rudolph, Alexander Wünsch, Peter Herschbach, Andreas Dinkel
Fear of progression (FoP) is an appropriate, rational response to the real threat of cancer and its treatments. However, patients experiencing elevated, dysfunctional levels of FoP often feel severely distressed and are in need of treatment. We previously conducted a (partly-)randomized controlled study with cancer patients undergoing in-patient rehabilitation and showed that a brief, four-session cognitive-behavioral group therapy significantly reduced dysfunctional FoP. In this report, we describe the adaption of the cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for use with cancer out-patients...
June 29, 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718714/imagining-schizophrenia-without-relapses
#2
Robert B Zipursky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716675/what-we-imagine-is-what-we-do-a-critical-overview-about-mental-imagery-as-a-strategy-to-study-human-defensive-responses
#3
REVIEW
Rosana Shuhama, D Caroline Blanchard, Frederico Guilherme Graeff, Cristina Marta Del-Ben
There is not a single and perfect instinctive behavior to react to threatening situations. However, the study of particular features of these situations suggests the existence of prototypical emotional reactions and associated defensive behaviors. Since all living beings are subjected to common evolutionary pressures, such as predation and conspecific competition, it is plausible that there is conservation of some basic defensive responses in their behavioral repertoire. The choice for approaching or withdrawing from a given situation depends, among others things, on environmental features, including the threat intensity and the distance from the source of the threat...
July 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715495/imagine-the-bright-side-of-life-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-two-types-of-interpretation-bias-modification-procedure-targeting-adolescent-anxiety-and-depression
#4
E L de Voogd, E de Hullu, S Burnett Heyes, S E Blackwell, R W Wiers, E Salemink
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent during adolescence and characterized by negative interpretation biases. Cognitive bias modification of interpretations (CBM-I) may reduce such biases and improve emotional functioning. However, as findings have been mixed and the traditional scenario training is experienced as relatively boring, a picture-based type of training might be more engaging and effective. METHODS: The current study investigated short- and long-term effects (up to 6 months) and users' experience of two types of CBM-I procedure in adolescents with heightened symptoms of anxiety or depression (N = 119, aged 12-18 year)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715182/revisiting-the-helical-cooperativity-of-synthetic-polypeptides-in-solution
#5
Yuan Ren, Ryan Baumgartner, Hailin Fu, Paul van der Schoot, Jianjun Cheng, Yao Lin
Using synthetic polypeptides as a model system, the theories of helix-coil transition were developed into one of the most beautiful and fruitful subjects in macromolecular science. The classic models proposed by Schellman and Zimm-Bragg more than 50 years ago, differ in the assumption on whether the configuration of multiple helical sequences separated by random coil sections is allowed in a longer polypeptide chain. Zimm also calculated the critical chain lengths that facilitate such interrupted helices in different solvent conditions...
July 17, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713311/validation-of-spanish-language-evaluation-instruments-for-body-dysmorphic-disorder-and-the-dysmorphic-concern-construct
#6
Cristina Senín-Calderón, María Valdés-Díaz, Ma M Benítez-Hernández, Ma C Núñez-Gaitán, Salvador Perona-Garcelán, Rafael Martínez-Cervantes, Juan F Rodríguez-Testal
Dysmorphic concern (DC) refers to excessive preoccupation with a slight or imagined defect in physical appearance with social avoidance and behavior directed at controlling the defect in appearance. This study attempted to adapt the factor structure of two instruments that cover the DC construct, the Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination Self-Report (BDDE-SR), to Spanish and establish their psychometric properties. A total of 920 subjects (62.7% women, Mage = 32...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713304/eye-behavior-associated-with-internally-versus-externally-directed-cognition
#7
Mathias Benedek, Robert Stoiser, Sonja Walcher, Christof Körner
What do our eyes do when we are focused on internal representations such as during imagination or planning? Evidence from mind wandering research suggests that spontaneous shifts from externally directed cognition (EDC) to internally directed cognition (IDC) involves oculomotor changes indicative of visual disengagement. In the present study, we investigated potential differences in eye behavior between goal-directed forms of IDC and EDC. To this end, we manipulated the focus of attention (internal versus external) in two demanding cognitive tasks (anagram and sentence generation)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713259/transcallosal-inhibition-during-motor-imagery-analysis-of-a-neural-mass-model
#8
Anna L Mangia, Mauro Ursino, Maurizio Lannocca, Angelo Cappello
The EEG rhythmic activities of the somato-sensory cortex reveal event-related desynchronization (ERD) or event-related synchronization (ERS) in beta band (14-30 Hz) as subjects perform certain tasks or react to specific stimuli. Data reported for imagination of movement support the hypothesis that activation of one sensorimotor area (SMA) can be accompanied by deactivation of the other. In order to improve our understanding of beta ERD/ERS generation, two neural mass models (NMM) of a cortical column taken from Wendling et al...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713232/detection-of-movement-related-cortical-potentials-from-eeg-using-constrained-ica-for-brain-computer-interface-applications
#9
Fatemeh Karimi, Jonathan Kofman, Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting, Dario Farina, Ning Jiang
The movement related cortical potential (MRCP), a slow cortical potential from the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG), has been used in real-time brain-computer-interface (BCI) systems designed for neurorehabilitation. Detecting MPCPs in real time with high accuracy and low latency is essential in these applications. In this study, we propose a new MRCP detection method based on constrained independent component analysis (cICA). The method was tested for MRCP detection during executed and imagined ankle dorsiflexion of 24 healthy participants, and compared with four commonly used spatial filters for MRCP detection in an offline experiment...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712140/pregnancy-and-immune-stimulation-re-imagining-the-fetus-as-parasite-to-understand-age-related-immune-system-changes-in-us-women
#10
Anna C Rivara, Elizabeth M Miller
OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy can increase production of Immunoglobulin E (IgE), an immune response more often directed towards parasite infections. An absence of parasitism makes the US population ideal to test the hypothesis that the maternal immune system recognizes a fetus as a parasite. We predict that total IgE levels are positively associated with a history of pregnancy across all ages of adult women, mirroring patterns of IgE in parasitized populations. METHODS: Reproductive-aged women (n = 2201) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 were analyzed in a cross-sectional design using complex survey regression and multiple imputation to evaluate associations between total IgE levels, pregnancy history, and interactions between age and pregnancy...
July 16, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711591/touching-the-void-first-and-third-person-perspectives-in-two-cases-of-autobiographical-amnesia-linked-to-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#11
Adam Zeman, Marcus Byruck, Peter Tallis, Keith Vossel, Daniel Tranel
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) can be associated with a marked impairment of autobiographical memory. This is occasionally its presenting feature. We describe two individuals with severe epilepsy-associated autobiographical memory loss. Both MB and PT were reassured initially that their memory was intact on the basis of standard neuropsychological tests. Both have written detailed accounts of their symptoms. The key neuropsychological features of their cases are the relative normality of performance on standard memory tests, with preservation of semantic memory for impersonal information, in contrast to a profound amnesia for salient autobiographical episodes and an impoverishment of imaginative scene construction...
July 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710767/rapid-detection-of-%C3%AE-h2av-foci-in-ex-vivo-mms-treated-drosophila-imaginal-discs
#12
Varandt Y Khodaverdian, Mitch McVey
In Drosophila melanogaster, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) created by exposure to gamma or X-ray radiation can be quantified by immunofluorescent detection of phosphorylated histone H2Av (γ-H2Av) foci in imaginal disc tissues. This technique has been less useful for studying DSBs in imaginal discs exposed to DSB-inducing chemicals, since standard protocols require raising larvae in food treated with liquid chemical suspensions. These protocols typically take 3-4 days to complete and result in heterogeneous responses that do not provide information about the kinetics of DSB formation and repair...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708823/notch-dependent-epithelial-fold-determines-boundary-formation-between-developmental-fields-in-the-drosophila-antenna
#13
Hui-Yu Ku, Y Henry Sun
Compartment boundary formation plays an important role in development by separating adjacent developmental fields. Drosophila imaginal discs have proven valuable for studying the mechanisms of boundary formation. We studied the boundary separating the proximal A1 segment and the distal segments, defined respectively by Lim1 and Dll expression in the eye-antenna disc. Sharp segregation of the Lim1 and Dll expression domains precedes activation of Notch at the Dll/Lim1 interface. By repressing bantam miRNA and elevating the actin regulator Enable, Notch signaling then induces actomyosin-dependent apical constriction and epithelial fold...
July 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707639/life-in-unexpected-places-employing-visual-thinking-strategies-in-global-health-training
#14
Jill Allison, Shree Mulay, Monica Kidd
BACKGROUND: The desire to make meaning out of images, metaphor, and other representations indicates higher-order cognitive skills that can be difficult to teach, especially in the complex and unfamiliar environments like those encountered in many global health experiences. Because reflecting on art can help develop medical students' imaginative and interpretive skills, we used visual thinking strategies (VTS) during an immersive 4-week global health elective for medical students to help them construct new understanding of the social determinants of health in a low-resource setting...
January 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707569/imaginative-reinforcement-learning-computational-principles-and-neural-mechanisms
#15
Samuel J Gershman, Jimmy Zhou, Cody Kommers
Imagination enables us not only to transcend reality but also to learn about it. In the context of reinforcement learning, an agent can rationally update its value estimates by simulating an internal model of the environment, provided that the model is accurate. In a series of sequential decision-making experiments, we investigated the impact of imaginative simulation on subsequent decisions. We found that imagination can cause people to pursue imagined paths, even when these paths are suboptimal. This bias is systematically related to participants' optimism about how much reward they expect to receive along imagined paths; providing feedback strongly attenuates the effect...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707195/the-power-of-print-reading-comics-in-the-classroom
#16
Sabine Gabaron
Evidence from neuroscience and psychological studies supporting benefits of print reading over digital reading has recently been discussed in these columns (Perbal 2017 J. Cell Commun. Signal. 11:1-4). In the present commentary, I would like to add my perspective as a Humanities educator, and build upon the idea that print reading results in better comprehension, learning and communication. The argumentation that is presented herein is based on a study performed in a French Comics language class aimed at broadening students' knowledge and experience of graphic novels, and providing them with a cultural representation in the foreign language...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707192/-geriatrics-or-geriatricization-of-medicine-quo-vadis-geriatrics
#17
REVIEW
G F Kolb
This article examines the question whether and how geriatrics will change in the future and whether in view of the demographic changes the trend will go more in the direction of a further expansion of geriatrics or more towards a geriatricization of individual specialist medical fields. The different development of geriatrics in the individual Federal States can only be understood historically and is absolutely problematic against the background of the new hospital remuneration system. Geriatrics is a typical cross-sectional faculty and still has demarcation problems with other faculties but has also not yet clearly defined the core competence...
July 13, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707060/the-psychological-significance-of-play-with-imaginary-companions-in-early-childhood
#18
Tracy R Gleason
Although social play is common to many species, humans are unique in their ability to extract some of the benefits of social play through imagination. For example, in play with imaginary companions (ICs), children often practice skills that might be useful for later adaptive social, relational, and emotional functioning. While play with ICs does not provide the same immediate feedback that play with real others affords, this imagined, quasisocial context allows children to experiment with or rehearse events that might occur in real relationships...
July 13, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702702/-placebo-and-nocebo-how-can-they-be-used-or-avoided
#19
REVIEW
E Hansen, N Zech, K Meissner
The expectations of patients enhance the probability of their occurrence and are thereby the main triggers for inducing placebo and nocebo responses. Strong placebo effects are not only regularly observed in pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical sham treatment in placebo controlled studies but also make a considerable contribution to any real treatment. The accompanying words are essential to ensure maximum impact of drugs and other forms of treatment. They should contain positive expressions instead of negations...
July 12, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701658/drosophila-dock-family-protein-zizimin-involves-in-pigment-cell-differentiation-in-pupal-retinae
#20
Fumito Ozasa, Kazushige Morishita, Ngoc Anh Suong Dang, Seiji Miyata, Hideki Yoshida, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
The dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family proteins are known as one of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), that contribute to cellular signaling processes by activating small G proteins. Although mammalian Zizimin is known to be a GEF for Cdc42 of Rho family small GTPase, its role in vivo is not well understood. Here we studied in vivo function of Drosophila Zizimin (Ziz). Knockdown of Ziz in eye imaginal discs induced the rough eye phenotype accompanied with fusion of ommatidia, loss of bristles and loss of pigments...
July 13, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
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