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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143888/-the-art-of-insulin-treatment-diabetes-insulin-and-the-1920s
#1
Kirsten E Gardner
Soon after the discovery of insulin in the early 1920s, the popular press celebrated the miraculous discovery. Although insulin had no curative effect on the chronic state of diabetes, it was frequently heralded as a "cure." This paper examines how the discovery of insulin intersected with the rise of diabetic technology and the transfer of medical technology to the home setting. By analyzing diabetic manuals written for patients and physicians, letters exchanged between patient and physician, medical journals, magazines and newspapers, I trace how patients learned about insulin and more significantly how patients adopted measurement technologies designed to allow better home administration of insulin...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143719/microbial-protein-targets-towards-understanding-and-intervention
#2
Paul W Denny
The rise of antimicrobial resistance, coupled with a lack of industrial focus on antimicrobial discovery over preceding decades, has brought the world to a crisis point. With both human and animal health set to decline due to increased disease burdens caused by near untreatable microbial pathogens, there is an urgent need to identify new antimicrobials. Central to this is the elucidation of new, robustly validated, drug targets. Informed by industrial practice and concerns, the use of both biological and chemical tools in validation is key...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141951/selector-genes-display-tumor-cooperation-and-inhibition-in-drosophila-epithelium-in-a-developmental-context-dependent-manner
#3
Ram Prakash Gupta, Anjali Bajpai, Pradip Sinha
During animal development, selector genes determine identities of body segments and those of individual organs. Selector genes are also misexpressed in cancers, although their contributions to tumor progression per se remain poorly understood. Using a model of cooperative tumorigenesis, we show that gain of selector genes results in tumor cooperation, but in only select developmental domains of the wing, haltere and eye-antennal imaginal discs of Drosophila larva. Thus, the field selector, Eyeless (Ey), and the segment selector, Ultrabithorax (Ubx), readily cooperate to bring about neoplastic transformation of cells displaying somatic loss of the tumor suppressor, Lgl, but in only those developmental domains that express the homeo-box protein, Homothorax (Hth), and/or the Zinc-finger protein, Teashirt (Tsh)...
November 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140120/imaging-and-imagination
#4
Ron R Allison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137582/the-effectiveness-of-regional-anaesthesia-before-and-after-the-introduction-of-a-dedicated-regional-anaesthesia-service-incorporating-a-block-room
#5
A Chin, L Heywood, P Iu, A M Pelecanos, M J Barrington
Dedicated regional anaesthesia services incorporating block rooms and/or block teams may facilitate theatre efficiency and improve training in regional anaesthesia. Currently, it is unknown if a dedicated regional anaesthesia service improves the effectiveness of regional anaesthesia. In November 2013, the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital established a dedicated regional anaesthesia service comprising a block team and a block room. Pre-intervention (conventional model of care) registry data was retrospectively compared with post-intervention (dedicated regional anaesthesia service) audit data, with regard to pain and opioid requirement in the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU)...
November 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136310/brain-networks-of-the-imaginative-mind-dynamic-functional-connectivity-of-default-and-cognitive-control-networks-relates-to-openness-to-experience
#6
Roger E Beaty, Qunlin Chen, Alexander P Christensen, Jiang Qiu, Paul J Silvia, Daniel L Schacter
Imagination and creative cognition are often associated with the brain's default network (DN). Recent evidence has also linked cognitive control systems to performance on tasks involving imagination and creativity, with a growing number of studies reporting functional interactions between cognitive control and DN regions. We sought to extend the emerging literature on brain dynamics supporting imagination by examining individual differences in large-scale network connectivity in relation to Openness to Experience, a personality trait typified by imagination and creativity...
November 14, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131991/enhanced-mental-imagery-and-intact-perceptual-organization-in-schizotypal-personality-disorder
#7
Rebeka Maróthi, Szabolcs Kéri
According to a widely held view, psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia are characterized by a vague boundary between the perception of the external world and the inner imagery of persons, objects, and events. In this study, we addressed the perception-imagery debate in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). Thirty individuals with SPD and 30 matched healthy subjects completed a lateral masking task. Participants were asked to detect a low-contrast Gabor patch flanked by two collinear Gabor masks. In the perceptual task, the masks were physically present, whereas in the imagery task, participants only imagined the masks...
November 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130061/episodic-future-thinking-mechanisms-and-functions
#8
Daniel L Schacter, Roland G Benoit, Karl K Szpunar
Episodic future thinking refers to the capacity to imagine or simulate experiences that might occur in one's personal future. Cognitive, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging research concerning episodic future thinking has accelerated during recent years. This article discusses research that has delineated cognitive and neural mechanisms that support episodic future thinking as well as the functions that episodic future thinking serves. Studies focused on mechanisms have identified a core brain network that underlies episodic future thinking and have begun to tease apart the relative contributions of particular regions in this network, and the specific cognitive processes that they support...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128938/liver-fibrosis-noninvasive-assessment-using-supersonic-shear-imaging-and-fib4-index-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Hirohito Takeuchi, Katsutoshi Sugimoto, Hisashi Oshiro, Kunio Iwatsuka, Shin Kono, Yu Yoshimasu, Yoshitaka Kasai, Yoshihiro Furuichi, Kentaro Sakamaki, Takao Itoi
PURPOSE: Shear wave elastography (SWE) has been validated in chronic hepatitis C and B; however, limited data are available in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of SWE and FIB4 index for the diagnosis of fibrosis in a cohort of consecutive patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD, and to evaluate the effects of other histologic parameters on SWE measurement. METHODS: Written informed consent was obtained from all patients, and this study was approved by our internal review board and ethics committee...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127667/-the-rack-of-his-imagination-literature-and-the-psychotic-experience
#10
Daniel Philippe Mason
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124777/coherence-in-the-visual-imagination
#11
Michael O Vertolli, Matthew A Kelly, Jim Davies
An incoherent visualization is when aspects of different senses of a word (e.g., the biological "mouse" vs. the computer "mouse") are present in the same visualization (e.g., a visualization of a biological mouse in the same image with a computer tower). We describe and implement a new model of creating contextual coherence in the visual imagination called Coherencer, based on the SOILIE model of imagination. We show that Coherencer is able to generate scene descriptions that are more coherent than SOILIE's original approach as well as a parallel connectionist algorithm that is considered competitive in the literature on general coherence...
November 10, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121551/trans-generational-transmission-of-altered-phenotype-resulting-from-flubendiamide-induced-changes-in-apoptosis-in-larval-imaginal-discs-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Saurabh Sarkar, Salma Khatun, Moumita Dutta, Sumedha Roy
The eye and wing morphology of Drosophila melanogaster maintain unique, stable pattern of genesis from larval eye and wing imaginal discs. Increased apoptosis in cells of eye and wing discs was found to be associated with flubendiamide (fluoride containing insecticide) exposure (at the range 0.25-10μg/mL) in D. melanogaster larvae. The chemical fed larvae on attaining adulthood revealed alterations in morphology and symmetry of their compound eyes and wings through scanning electron microscopy. Nearly 40% and 30% of flies (P generation) demonstrated alterations in eyes and wings respectively...
November 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120290/the-business-of-desire-russian-bars-in-amman-jordan
#13
Lenka Beňová
This paper discusses the type of work migrant women from the former Eastern European countries perform in nightclubs in Amman, Jordan. The fieldwork for this qualitative study was conducted in 2010 and is based on in-depth interviews with 13 women. The topic is approached from the perspective of describing women's choices and journeys to this work. It juxtaposes the sexualised nature of their work with their yearning for a "normal" family life, which they imagine, yet know, is impossible to achieve with the men they meet in their workplaces...
October 2017: Reproductive Health Matters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119828/a-pilot-study-of-children-s-physical-activity-levels-during-imagination-based-mobile-games
#14
James W Patten, Grace Iarocci, Nis Bojin
This research looked at Biba: a suite of mobile games intended to get kids back out to playgrounds and engaging in more moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Year after year, annual national surveys report a general decline in physical activity amongst children and a corresponding increase in screen time. Further to this, time spent outside by children has been reported to be on the decline since the 1980s. Recent work has suggested that in order to 'maintain the outdoor recreation participation of children across America, park and recreation professionals may need to embrace the expanding role of technology'...
September 2017: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119756/-the-opponent-you-do-not-just-imagine-the-case-of-falconara-marittima-marche-region-central-italy
#15
Loris Calcina
Falconara Marittima (Marche Region, Central Italy) is declared to be an area at high risk of environmental crisis, due to the presence of a refinery plant. In 2004, Marche Region funded an epidemiological survey to assess atmospheric risks linked to the refinery. This survey was conducted by the Italian National Cancer Institute of Milan, and citizens actively contributed. An excess for leukaemias and an increase in non-Hodgkin lymphomas were showed. These results were confirmed also by the Regional Environmental Protection Agency and the Regional Health Authority...
September 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118403/quantitative-text-feature-analysis-of-autobiographical-interview-data-prediction-of-episodic-details-semantic-details-and-temporal-discounting
#16
J Peters, A Wiehler, U Bromberg
Autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking (i.e. the capacity to project oneself into an imaginary future) are typically assessed using the Autobiographical Interview (AI). In the AI, subjects are provided with verbal cues (e.g. "your wedding day") and are asked to freely recall (or imagine) the cued past (or future) event. Narratives are recorded, transcribed and analyzed using an established manual scoring procedure (Levine et al., 2002). Here we applied automatic text feature extraction methods to a relatively large (n = 86) set of AI data...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117239/novel-viruses-in-salivary-glands-of-mosquitoes-from-sylvatic-cerrado-midwestern-brazil
#17
Andressa Zelenski de Lara Pinto, Michellen Santos de Carvalho, Fernando Lucas de Melo, Ana Lúcia Maria Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais Ribeiro, Renata Dezengrini Slhessarenko
Viruses may represent the most diverse microorganisms on Earth. Novel viruses and variants continue to emerge. Mosquitoes are the most dangerous animals to humankind. This study aimed at identifying viral RNA diversity in salivary glands of mosquitoes captured in a sylvatic area of Cerrado at the Chapada dos Guimarães National Park, Mato Grosso, Brazil. In total, 66 Culicinae mosquitoes belonging to 16 species comprised 9 pools, subjected to viral RNA extraction, double-strand cDNA synthesis, random amplification and high-throughput sequencing, revealing the presence of seven insect-specific viruses, six of which represent new species of Rhabdoviridae (Lobeira virus), Chuviridae (Cumbaru and Croada viruses), Totiviridae (Murici virus) and Partitiviridae (Araticum and Angico viruses)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116983/-rising-to-the-level-of-your-incompetence-exploring-what-physicians-self-assessment-of-their-performance-reveals-about-the-impact-of-the-imposter-syndrome-in-medicine
#18
Kori A LaDonna, Shiphra Ginsburg, Christopher Watling
PURPOSE: Mistakes are ubiquitous in medicine; when confronted by error, physicians may experience anxiety, guilt, and self-doubt. Feedback may be useful for navigating these feelings, but only if it matches a physician's self-assessment; self-doubt and the imposter syndrome are examples of inaccurate self-assessments that may affect receptivity to feedback. The impact of real or imagined underperformance on seemingly competent physicians is poorly understood. This study aimed to develop a deeper understanding in order to identify strategies to support all physicians who struggle...
November 7, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116660/increased-hippocampus-to-ventromedial-prefrontal-connectivity-during-the-construction-of-episodic-future-events
#19
Karen L Campbell, Kevin P Madore, Roland G Benoit, Preston P Thakral, Daniel L Schacter
Both the hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) appear to be critical for episodic future simulation. Damage to either structure affects one's ability to remember the past and imagine the future, and both structures are commonly activated as part of a wider core network during future simulation. However, the precise role played by each of these structures and, indeed, the direction of information flow between them during episodic simulation, is still not well understood. In this study, we scanned participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they imagined future events in response to object cues...
November 8, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116230/the-fruits-of-imagination
#20
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Nature Plants
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