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Xiang-Fan Chen, Xiao-Li Li, Jin-Xin Liu, Jing Xu, Yan-Yan Zhao, Min Yang, Yan Zhang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to study the osteo-preservative effects of captopril, an inhibitor on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), on bone mass, micro-architecture and histomorphology as well as the modulation of captopril on skeletal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and regulators for bone metabolism in mice with bilateral orchidectomy. METHODS: The orchidectomized (ORX) mice were orally administered with vehicle or captopril at low dose (10 mg/kg) and high dose (50 mg/kg) for six weeks...
February 7, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Tomohiro Yamazaki, Sylvie Souquere, Takeshi Chujo, Simon Kobelke, Yee Seng Chong, Archa H Fox, Charles S Bond, Shinichi Nakagawa, Gerard Pierron, Tetsuro Hirose
A class of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has architectural functions in nuclear body construction; however, specific RNA domains dictating their architectural functions remain uninvestigated. Here, we identified the domains of the architectural NEAT1 lncRNA that construct paraspeckles. Systematic deletion of NEAT1 portions using CRISPR/Cas9 in haploid cells revealed modular domains of NEAT1 important for RNA stability, isoform switching, and paraspeckle assembly. The middle domain, containing functionally redundant subdomains, was responsible for paraspeckle assembly...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Cell
Giorgio Nicolí, Michael Sven Ferguson, Clemens Rössler, Alexander Wolfertz, Gianni Blatter, Thomas Ihn, Klaus Ensslin, Christian Reichl, Werner Wegscheider, Oded Zilberberg
Scalable architectures for quantum information technologies require one to selectively couple long-distance qubits while suppressing environmental noise and cross talk. In semiconductor materials, the coherent coupling of a single spin on a quantum dot to a cavity hosting fermionic modes offers a new solution to this technological challenge. Here, we demonstrate coherent coupling between two spatially separated quantum dots using an electronic cavity design that takes advantage of whispering-gallery modes in a two-dimensional electron gas...
June 8, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Wenwen Zhang, Chao Ye, Ke Zheng, Jiajia Zhong, Yuzhao Tang, Yimin Fan, Markus J Buehler, Shengjie Ling, David L Kaplan
Tensan silk, a natural fiber produced by the Japanese oak silk moth (Antherea yamamai, abbreviated to A. yamamai), features superior characteristics, such as compressive elasticity and chemical resistance, when compared to the more common silk produced from the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori (B. mori). In this study, the "structure-property" relationships within A. yamamai silk are disclosed from the different structural hierarchies, confirming the outstanding toughness as dominated by the unique mesoscale fibrillar architectures...
June 22, 2018: ACS Nano
Yifu Yu, Yanmei Shi, Bin Zhang
The rational synthesis of advanced nanomaterials with well-defined structures has been intensively studied due to the remarkable properties and intriguing applications of the formed materials. Recently, inorganic-organic hybrids have been widely adopted as precursors for chemical transformations toward the preparation of diverse nanomaterials. Specifically, inorganic and organic species with nano/molecule/atom-scale distribution serve as self-templates and sacrificial agents, respectively, endowing the products with controlled morphologies, band gaps, defects, and spatial architectures...
June 22, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
J Op de Beeck, N Labyedh, A Sepúlveda, V Spampinato, A Franquet, T Conard, P M Vereecken, U Celano
Next generation Li-ion batteries require improved energy densities, power output and safety to satisfy the demands of emerging technologies. All solid state 3D thin-film batteries (ASB) based on nanoionics are considered as frontrunners to enable all this. In order to facilitate the introduction of this new architecture, a homogeneous electrochemical activity and a high ionic diffusivity of the electrodes is key. However, nanometer-resolved techniques to probe structural, electrical and electrochemical properties of the battery components are still limited...
June 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Vernon Lawhern, Amelia Solon, Nicholas Waytowich, Stephen M Gordon, Chou Hung, Brent J Lance
OBJECTIVE: Brain computer interfaces (BCI) enable direct communication with a computer, using neural activity as the control signal. This neural signal is generally chosen from a variety of well-studied electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. For a given BCI paradigm, feature extractors and classifiers are tailored to the distinct characteristics of its expected EEG control signal, limiting its application to that specific signal. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), which have been used in computer vision and speech recognition to perform automatic feature extraction and classification, have successfully been applied to EEG-based BCIs; however, they have mainly been applied to single BCI paradigms and thus it remains unclear how these architectures generalize to other paradigms...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Xue Wang, Yapeng He, Yali Ma, Junmin Liu, Yunling Liu, Zhen-An Qiao, Qisheng Huo
We report the design and realization of yolk-shell structured nanospheres with periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) nanospheres or noble metal nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica shells via a selective etching method. These architectures have well controlled structure, size and morphology. The yolk-shell structured PMO@SiO2 nanoparticles can be precisely functionalized with different catalytic functionalities, even incompatible acidic and basic groups: the PMO core with amino (-NH2) groups and the mesoporous silica shell with sulfonic acid (-SO3H) groups...
June 22, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Michal Assaf, Liron Rabany, Luis Zertuche, Laura Bragdon, David Tolin, John Goethe, Gretchen Diefenbach
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) might be effective in treating generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Cognitive models of GAD highlight the role of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) in precipitating and maintaining worry, and it has been hypothesized that patients with GAD exhibit decision-making deficits under uncertain conditions. Improving understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits associated with IU may lead to the identification of novel rTMS treatment targets and optimization of treatment parameters...
June 21, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Roumei Xing, Fang Liu, Yiqing Yang, Xueqin Cui, Tongtong Wang, Ling Xie, Yongliang Zhao, Lei Fang, Tingfang Yi, Biao Zheng, Mingyao Liu, Huaqing Chen
GPR54 is highly expressed in the central nervous system and plays a crucial role in pubertal development. However, GRP54 is also expressed in the immune system, implying possible immunoregulatory functions. Here we investigated the role of GPR54 in T cell and immune tolerance. GPR54 deficiency led to an enlarged thymus, an increased number of thymocytes, and altered thymic micro-architecture starting around puberty, indicating GPR54 function in T-cell development through its regulatory effect on the gonadal system...
June 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Jennifer N Todd, Shylaja Srinivasan, Toni I Pollin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on knowledge the role of genetics in youth-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D). RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence in youth of T2D, once thought to be exclusively a disease of adults, has increased by over 35% since 2001. Youth with T2D tend to have higher rates of complications, more aggressive disease, with more rapid loss of beta-cell function and a less favorable response to treatment than adults. Obesity is the most important risk factor for T2D, and the rise in childhood overweight and obesity appears responsible for the dramatic increase in T2D in youth...
June 22, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Meifang Qi, Zijuan Li, Chunmei Liu, Wenyan Hu, Luhuan Ye, Yilin Xie, Yili Zhuang, Fei Zhao, Wan Teng, Qi Zheng, Zhenjun Fan, Lin Xu, Zhaobo Lang, Yiping Tong, Yijing Zhang
Genetic diversity in plants is remarkably high. Recent whole genome sequencing (WGS) of 67 rice accessions recovered 10,872 novel genes. Comparison of the genetic architecture among divergent populations or between crops and wild relatives is essential for obtaining functional components determining crucial traits. However, many major crops have gigabase-scale genomes, which are not well-suited to WGS. Existing cost-effective sequencing approaches including re-sequencing, exome-sequencing and restriction enzyme-based methods all have difficulty in obtaining long novel genomic sequences from highly divergent population with large genome size...
June 21, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Yuichiro Tsuchiya
Strigolactones (SLs) are plant hormones associated with diverse developmental processes including plant architecture and stress responses. SLs are exuded to the soil as an ecological signal to attract symbiotic arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi. This ecological mechanism is also used by parasitic plants to detect the presence of host plants and initiate germination. The functional diversity of SLs makes the SL biology so wide that single methodology can barely comprehend. This review describes the theoretical and practical aspects of the design of small-molecule probes that have been used to elucidate the functions of SLs...
June 21, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Joeri J Meijsen, Alexandros Rammos, Archie Campbell, Caroline Hayward, David J Porteous, Ian J Deary, Riccardo E Marioni, Kristin K Nicodemus
Motivation: The genomic architecture of human complex diseases is thought to be attributable to single markers, polygenic components and epistatic components. No study has examined the ability of tree-based methods to detect epistasis in the presence of a polygenic signal. We sought to apply decision tree-based methods, C5.0 and logic regression, to detect epistasis under several simulated conditions, varying strength of interaction and linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure. We, then applied the same methods to the phenotype of educational attainment in a large population cohort...
June 19, 2018: Bioinformatics
Carla I M Santos, Inês F A Mariz, Sandra N Pinto, Gil Gonçalves, Igor Bdikin, Paula A A P Marques, Maria Graça P M S Neves, José M G Martinho, Ermelinda M S Maçôas
Carbon nanodots (Cdots) are now emerging as promising nonlinear fluorophores for applications in biological environments. A thorough and systematic approach to the two-photon induced emission of Cdots that could provide design guidelines to control their nonlinear emission properties is still missing. In this work, we address the nonlinear optical spectroscopy of Cdots prepared by controlled chemical cutting of graphene oxide (GO). The two-photon absorption in the 700-1000 nm region and the corresponding emission spectrum are carefully investigated...
June 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Ana Paula Zen Petisco Fiore, Pedro de Freitas Ribeiro, Alexandre Bruni-Cardoso
Cells from prokaryota to the more complex metazoans cease proliferating at some point in their lives and enter a reversible, proliferative-dormant state termed quiescence. The appearance of quiescence in the course of evolution was essential to the acquisition of multicellular specialization and compartmentalization and is also a central aspect of tissue function and homeostasis. But what makes a cell cease proliferating even in the presence of nutrients, growth factors, and mitogens? And what makes some cells "wake up" when they should not, as is the case in cancer? Here, we summarize and discuss evidence showing how microenvironmental cues such as those originating from metabolism, extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and arrangement, neighboring cells and tissue architecture control the cellular proliferation-quiescence decision, and how this complex regulation is corrupted in cancer...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Tianyi Yan, Wenhui Wang, Liu Yang, Kewei Chen, Rong Chen, Ying Han
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has a preclinical phase that can last for decades prior to clinical dementia onset. Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is regarded as the last preclinical AD stage prior to the development of amnestic mild cognitive decline (aMCI) and AD dementia (d-AD). The analysis of brain structural networks based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has identified the so-called 'rich club', a set of cortical regions highly connected to each other, with other regions referred to as peripheral. It has been reported that rich club architecture is affected by regional atrophy and connectivity, which are reduced in patients with aMCI and d-AD...
2018: Theranostics
Jie Wu, Qian Wu, Loïc Pagès, Yeqing Yuan, Xiaolei Zhang, Mingwei Du, Xiaoli Tian, Zhaohu Li
Background: In order to efficiently determine genotypic differences in rooting patterns of crops, novel hardware and software are needed simultaneously to characterize dynamics of root development. Results: We describe a prototype robotic monitoring platform-the RhizoChamber-Monitor for analyzing growth patterns of plant roots automatically. The RhizoChamber-Monitor comprises an automatic imaging system for acquiring sequential images of roots which grow on a cloth substrate in custom rhizoboxes, an automatic irrigation system and a flexible shading arrangement...
2018: Plant Methods
Davide Ippolito, Riccardo Inchingolo, Luigi Grazioli, Silvia Girolama Drago, Michele Nardella, Marco Gatti, Riccardo Faletti
Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the liver is an important tool for the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions and for assessment of diffuse liver disease, having several intrinsic characteristics, represented by high soft tissue contrast, avoidance of ionizing radiation or iodinated contrast media, and more recently, by application of several functional imaging techniques ( i.e ., diffusion-weighted sequences, hepatobiliary contrast agents, perfusion imaging, magnetic resonance (MR)-elastography, and radiomics analysis)...
June 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Peiman Xu, Jingwei Li, Jiaxian Luo, Licheng Wei, Dawei Zhang, Dan Zhou, Weiming Xu, Dingsheng Yuan
Earth-abundant and efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for both hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are highly significant for renewable energy systems. However, the performance of existing electrocatalysts is usually restricted by the low electroic conductivity and the limited amount of exposed active sites. In this work, (Fe0.2 Ni0.8 )0.96 S tubular spheres supported on Ni foam have been prepared by a sulfuration of FeNi layered double hydroxide spheres grown on Ni foam...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
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