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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911399/tools-to-study-the-role-of-architectural-protein-hmgb1-in-the-processing-of-helix-distorting-site-specific-dna-interstrand-crosslinks
#1
Anirban Mukherjee, Karen M Vasquez
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is a non-histone architectural protein that is involved in regulating many important functions in the genome, such as transcription, DNA replication, and DNA repair. HMGB1 binds to structurally distorted DNA with higher affinity than to canonical B-DNA. For example, we found that HMGB1 binds to DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), which covalently link the two strands of the DNA, cause distortion of the helix, and if left unrepaired can cause cell death. Due to their cytotoxic potential, several ICL-inducing agents are currently used as chemotherapeutic agents in the clinic...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911318/the-correlation-between-inflammatory-biomarkers-and-polygenic-risk-score-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Angharad R Morgan, Samuel Touchard, Caroline O'Hagan, Rebecca Sims, Elisa Majounie, Valentina Escott-Price, Lesley Jones, Julie Williams, B Paul Morgan
Plasma biomarkers to aid the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) or to monitor disease progression have long been sought and continue to be widely studied. Biomarkers that correlate with AD polygenic risk score, a measure of the polygenic architecture of the disease and highly predictive of AD status, would be excellent candidates. Therefore, we undertook a preliminary study to assess the association of plasma inflammatory biomarkers with an overall AD polygenic risk score as well as with an inflammation-specific AD polygenic risk score in a sample set of 93 AD cases...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911039/para-sulfonato-calix-n-arenes-inhibit-amyloid-beta-peptide-fibrillation-and-reduce-amyloid-cytotoxicity
#3
Ziyuan Wang, Shipeng Tao, Xiaoyan Dong, Yan Sun
Amyloid β-peptides (Aβ) fibrillation is a major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Inhibition of Aβ fibrillation is thus considered as an effective strategy for AD prevention and treatment. Here we show that para-sulfonato-calix[n]arenes (SC[n]A, n=4, 6, 8), a class of amphiphilic calixarene derivatives, can bind to Aβ42 through nonspecific and multipoint hydrophobic interactions. Their binding leads to a pronounced delay in β-sheet adoption and formation of multiple secondary structures of the peptide, accompanied by changes at the level of the fibrillary architecture...
December 2, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910743/decoding-the-polyphyletic-flexibility-of-allosteric-modular-networks-progress-and-perspectives
#4
Yanan Yu, Zhong Wang, Yongyan Wang
Advances in identifying architecture of modules and elucidating their modes of action are gradually improving the decoding of complex relationships between phenotypic robustness and genotypic networks. However, approaches to detecting modules have largely focused on identifying modules in static graphs. In this review, we attempt to reveal the mechanism of polyphyletic architectural transformation based on modular boundary evolutions and different oscillating factors. With the rapid progress in probing into the detailed structural model of modular networks, flexible modular organization manifests a key adaptive balancing ability of allosterically regulating or reconstructing intermodular and intramodular states to uncover the novel biological alterations beyond engineering properties...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910673/implementation-of-the-new-multichannel-x-mode-edge-density-profile-reflectometer-for-the-icrf-antenna-on-asdex-upgrade
#5
D E Aguiam, A Silva, V Bobkov, P J Carvalho, P F Carvalho, R Cavazzana, G D Conway, O D'Arcangelo, L Fattorini, H Faugel, A Fernandes, H Fünfgelder, B Gonçalves, L Guimarais, G De Masi, L Meneses, J M Noterdaeme, R C Pereira, G Rocchi, J M Santos, A A Tuccillo, O Tudisco
A new multichannel frequency modulated continuous-wave reflectometry diagnostic has been successfully installed and commissioned on ASDEX Upgrade to measure the plasma edge electron density profile evolution in front of the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) antenna. The design of the new three-strap ICRF antenna integrates ten pairs (sending and receiving) of microwave reflectometry antennas. The multichannel reflectometer can use three of these to measure the edge electron density profiles up to 2 × 10(19) m(-3), at different poloidal locations, allowing the direct study of the local plasma layers in front of the ICRF antenna...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910517/flexible-architecture-of-data-acquisition-firmware-based-on-multi-behaviors-finite-state-machine
#6
Pasquale Arpaia, Pasquale Cimmino
A flexible firmware architecture for different kinds of data acquisition systems, ranging from high-precision bench instruments to low-cost wireless transducers networks, is presented. The key component is a multi-behaviors finite state machine, easily configurable to both low- and high-performance requirements, to diverse operating systems, as well as to on-line and batch measurement algorithms. The proposed solution was validated experimentally on three case studies with data acquisition architectures: (i) concentrated, in a high-precision instrument for magnetic measurements at CERN, (ii) decentralized, for telemedicine remote monitoring of patients at home, and (iii) distributed, for remote monitoring of building's energy loss...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910512/high-efficiency-integrated-readout-circuit-for-single-photon-avalanche-diode-arrays-in-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging
#7
G Acconcia, A Cominelli, I Rech, M Ghioni
In recent years, lifetime measurements by means of the Time Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) technique have led to a significant breakthrough in medical and biological fields. Unfortunately, the many advantages of TCSPC-based approaches come along with the major drawback of a relatively long acquisition time. The exploitation of multiple channels in parallel could in principle mitigate this issue, and at the same time it opens the way to a multi-parameter analysis of the optical signals, e.g., as a function of wavelength or spatial coordinates...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910244/total-syntheses-of-sarcandrolide%C3%A2-j-and-shizukaol%C3%A2-d-lindenane-sesquiterpenoid-4-2-dimers
#8
Changchun Yuan, Biao Du, Heping Deng, Yi Man, Bo Liu
The syntheses of members of a family of lindenane sesquiterpenoid [4+2] dimers led to the total syntheses of sarcandrolide J and shizukaol D. Inspired by a modified biosynthetic pathway, a cascade featuring furan formation/alkene isomerization/Diels-Alder cycloaddition was devised to construct the congested polycyclic architecture of the target molecules with the correct stereochemistry. This study presents a pioneering synthetic entry to this family of natural products and paves the way for fully exploring their biological functions...
December 2, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910110/runs-of-homozygosity-current-knowledge-and-applications-in-livestock
#9
REVIEW
E Peripolli, D P Munari, M V G B Silva, A L F Lima, R Irgang, F Baldi
This review presents a broader approach to the implementation and study of runs of homozygosity (ROH) in animal populations, focusing on identifying and characterizing ROH and their practical implications. ROH are continuous homozygous segments that are common in individuals and populations. The ability of these homozygous segments to give insight into a population's genetic events makes them a useful tool that can provide information about the demographic evolution of a population over time. Furthermore, ROH provide useful information about the genetic relatedness among individuals, helping to minimize the inbreeding rate and also helping to expose deleterious variants in the genome...
December 1, 2016: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909803/evolutionary-origin-of-endochondral-ossification-the-transdifferentiation-hypothesis
#10
REVIEW
Fret Cervantes-Diaz, Pedro Contreras, Sylvain Marcellini
The vertebrate endoskeleton results from the piecemeal assembly of bone and cartilage as well as additional types of calcified extracellular matrices produced by seemingly hybrid cell types of intermediate phenotypes between osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Hence, shedding light on the emergence and subsequent diversification of skeletal tissues represents a major challenge in vertebrate evolutionary developmental biology. A 150-year-old debate in the field was recently solved by lineage tracing experiments demonstrating that, during mouse endochondral bone development, a subset of chondrocytes evades apoptosis and transdifferentiate into osteoblasts at the chondro-osseous junction...
December 1, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909798/the-loading-of-condensin-in-the-context-of-chromatin
#11
REVIEW
Xavier Robellet, Vincent Vanoosthuyse, Pascal Bernard
The packaging of DNA into chromosomes is a ubiquitous process that enables living organisms to structure and transmit their genome accurately through cell divisions. In the three kingdoms of life, the architecture and dynamics of chromosomes rely upon ring-shaped SMC (Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes) condensin complexes. To understand how condensin rings organize chromosomes, it is essential to decipher how they associate with chromatin filaments. Here, we use recent evidence to discuss the role played by nucleosomes and transcription factors in the loading of condensin at transcribed genes...
December 1, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909400/the-demise-of-the-synapse-as-the-locus-of-memory-a-looming-paradigm-shift
#12
Patrick C Trettenbrein
Synaptic plasticity is widely considered to be the neurobiological basis of learning and memory by neuroscientists and researchers in adjacent fields, though diverging opinions are increasingly being recognized. From the perspective of what we might call "classical cognitive science" it has always been understood that the mind/brain is to be considered a computational-representational system. Proponents of the information-processing approach to cognitive science have long been critical of connectionist or network approaches to (neuro-)cognitive architecture, pointing to the shortcomings of the associative psychology that underlies Hebbian learning as well as to the fact that synapses are practically unfit to implement symbols...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909395/reversal-learning-in-humans-and-gerbils-dynamic-control-network-facilitates-learning
#13
Christian Jarvers, Tobias Brosch, André Brechmann, Marie L Woldeit, Andreas L Schulz, Frank W Ohl, Marcel Lommerzheim, Heiko Neumann
Biologically plausible modeling of behavioral reinforcement learning tasks has seen great improvements over the past decades. Less work has been dedicated to tasks involving contingency reversals, i.e., tasks in which the original behavioral goal is reversed one or multiple times. The ability to adjust to such reversals is a key element of behavioral flexibility. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying contingency-reversal tasks. We first conduct experiments with humans and gerbils to demonstrate memory effects, including multiple reversals in which subjects (humans and animals) show a faster learning rate when a previously learned contingency re-appears...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909301/genetic-architecture-and-evolution-of-the-s-locus-supergene-in-primula-vulgaris
#14
Jinhong Li, Jonathan M Cocker, Jonathan Wright, Margaret A Webster, Mark McMullan, Sarah Dyer, David Swarbreck, Mario Caccamo, Cock van Oosterhout, Philip M Gilmartin
Darwin's studies on heterostyly in Primula described two floral morphs, pin and thrum, with reciprocal anther and stigma heights that promote insect-mediated cross-pollination. This key innovation evolved independently in several angiosperm families. Subsequent studies on heterostyly in Primula contributed to the foundation of modern genetic theory and the neo-Darwinian synthesis. The established genetic model for Primula heterostyly involves a diallelic S locus comprising several genes, with rare recombination events that result in self-fertile homostyle flowers with anthers and stigma at the same height...
December 2, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909245/heterochromatin-aggregation-during-dna-elimination-in-tetrahymena-is-facilitated-by-a-prion-like-protein
#15
Kensuke Kataoka, Kazufumi Mochizuki
Regulated aggregations of prion and prion-like proteins play physiological roles in various biological processes. However, their structural roles in the nucleus are poorly understood. Here, we show that the prion-like protein Jub6p is involved in the regulation of chromatin structure in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila Jub6p forms SDS-resistant aggregates when it is ectopically expressed in vegetative cells and binds to RNA in vitro. Jub6p is a heterochromatin component and is important for the formation of heterochromatin bodies during the process of programmed DNA elimination...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909154/towards-a-novel-modular-architecture-for-cern-radiation-monitoring
#16
Hamza Boukabache, Michel Pangallo, Gael Ducos, Nicola Cardines, Antonio Bellotta, Ciarán Toner, Daniel Perrin, Doris Forkel-Wirth
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) has the legal obligation to protect the public and the people working on its premises from any unjustified exposure to ionising radiation. In this context, radiation monitoring is one of the main concerns of the Radiation Protection Group. After 30 y of reliable service, the ARea CONtroller (ARCON) system is approaching the end of its lifecycle, which raises the need for new, more efficient radiation monitors with a high level of modularity to ensure better maintainability...
November 30, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909003/the-cytoarchitecture-of-domain-specific-regions-in-human-high-level-visual-cortex
#17
Kevin S Weiner, Michael A Barnett, Simon Lorenz, Julian Caspers, Anthony Stigliani, Katrin Amunts, Karl Zilles, Bruce Fischl, Kalanit Grill-Spector
A fundamental hypothesis in neuroscience proposes that underlying cellular architecture (cytoarchitecture) contributes to the functionality of a brain area. However, this hypothesis has not been tested in human ventral temporal cortex (VTC) that contains domain-specific regions causally involved in perception. To fill this gap in knowledge, we used cortex-based alignment to register functional regions from living participants to cytoarchitectonic areas in ex vivo brains. This novel approach reveals 3 findings...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908931/filling-the-tank-keeping-antitumor-t-cells-metabolically-fit-for-the-long-haul
#18
REVIEW
Greg M Delgoffe
Discoveries in tumor immunology and subsequent clinical advances in cancer immunotherapy have revealed that the immune system is not oblivious to tumor progression but heavily interacts with developing neoplasia and malignancy. A major factor preventing immune destruction is the establishment of a highly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), which provides architecture to the tumor, supports indirect means of immunosuppression such as the recruitment of tolerogenic cells like regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and represents a zone of metabolically dearth conditions...
December 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908666/molecular-cloning-and-expression-analysis-of-five-heat-shock-protein-70-hsp70-family-members-in-lateolabrax-maculatus-with-vibrio-harveyi-infection
#19
Ying-Li Han, Cong-Cong Hou, Chen Du, Jun-Quan Zhu
Heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70s) are molecular chaperones that aid in protection against environmental stress. In this study, we cloned and characterized five members of the HSP70 family (designated as HSPa1a, HSC70-1, HSC70-2, HSPa4 and HSPa14) from Lateolabrax maculatus using rapid amplification cDNA ends (RACE). Multiple sequence alignment and structural analysis revealed that all members of the HSP70 family had a conserved domain architecture, with some distinguishing features unique to each HSP70. Quantitative real-time (qPCR) analysis revealed that all members of the HSP70 family were ubiquitously and differentially expressed in all major types of tissues, including testicular tissue...
November 28, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908587/higher-nocturnal-systolic-blood-pressure-in-patients-with-restless-legs-syndrome-compared-with-patients-with-insomnia
#20
Mariusz Sieminski, Kamil Chwojnicki, Markku Partinenen
BACKGROUND: There is evidence linking restless legs syndrome (RLS) with increased blood pressure (BP), but the mechanism of this relation remains unclear. Is the BP increased due to some features of RLS or to deterioration of sleep caused by RLS? This study compared values of nocturnal BP in patients with RLS and patients with insomnia. If increased BP in RLS is a consequence of disordered sleep, then it should be similar to increased BP in insomnia. METHODS: Polysomnographic recordings of patients admitted to a sleep center with RLS or insomnia were analyzed...
November 1, 2016: Sleep Medicine
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