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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656599/novel-cost-effective-cu-doped-calcium-silicate-nanoparticles-for-bone-fracture-intervention-inherent-bioactivity-and-in-vivo-performance
#1
Mostafa Mabrouk, Shaimaa A ElShebiney, Sayed H Kenawy, Gehan T El-Bassyouni, Esmat Ma Hamzawy
Copper (Cu)-doped calcium silicate nanoparticles were synthesized by a wet precipitation method as economical bone fracture filler. The aim was to improve the overall physicochemical properties, bioactivity, and biological performance of the bone fracture filler prepared herein. The synthesized nanoparticles were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bioactivity of the prepared nanoparticles was investigated after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) by means of inductively coupled plasma (ICP), SEM coupled with energy dispersive X-rays (EDX), and FTIR...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656240/packing-of-muscles-in-the-rabbit-shank-influences-three-dimensional-architecture-of-m-soleus
#2
Carolin Wick, Markus Böl, Florian Müller, Reinhard Blickhan, Tobias Siebert
Isolated and packed muscles (e.g. in the calf) exhibit different three-dimensional muscle shapes. In packed muscles, cross-sections are more angular compared to the more elliptical ones in isolated muscles. As far as we know, it has not been examined yet, whether the shape of the muscle in its packed condition influences its internal arrangement of muscle fascicles and accordingly the contraction behavior in comparison to the isolated condition. To evaluate the impact of muscle packing, we examined the three-dimensional muscle architecture of isolated and packed rabbit M...
April 7, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656108/epoxygenase-inactivation-exacerbates-diet-and-aging-associated-metabolic-dysfunction-resulting-from-impaired-adipogenesis
#3
Antoni Olona, Ximena Terra, Jeong-Hun Ko, Carme Grau-Bové, Montserrat Pinent, Anna Ardevol, Ana Garcia Diaz, Aida Moreno-Moral, Matthew Edin, David Bishop-Bailey, Darryl C Zeldin, Timothy J Aitman, Enrico Petretto, Mayte Blay, Jacques Behmoaras
OBJECTIVE: When molecular drivers of healthy adipogenesis are perturbed, this can cause hepatic steatosis. The role of arachidonic acid (AA) and its downstream enzymatic cascades, such as cyclooxygenase, in adipogenesis is well established. The exact contribution of the P450 epoxygenase pathway, however, remains to be established. Enzymes belonging to this pathway are mainly encoded by the CYP2J locus which shows extensive allelic expansion in mice. Here we aimed to establish the role of endogenous epoxygenase during adipogenesis under homeostatic and metabolic stress conditions...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655892/a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature-indicate-that-hmga2-should-be-added-as-a-disease-gene-for-silver-russell-syndrome
#4
Gloria Sarah Leszinski, Katharina Warncke, Julia Hoefele, Matias Wagner
Patients with Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), a syndromic growth retardation syndrome, usually harbor a maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 or an epimutation at chromosome 11p15. However, to date the genetic cause remains unknown in around 40% of SRS cases, suggesting genetic heterogeneity and involvement of other genes. We present a 4-year-old female patient with the clinical diagnosis of SRS and negative results in common genetic SRS diagnostics. Whole exome sequencing identified a de novo heterozygous 7...
April 12, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655763/sleeping-oxygen-saturation-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-and-the-adaptation-of-postprandial-metabolic-function-in-insulin-sensitive-and-resistant-individuals-without-diabetes
#5
Karin A Garcia, William K Wohlgemuth, Ele Ferrannini, Andrea Mari, Alex Gonzalez, Armando J Mendez, Roberto Bizzotto, Jay S Skyler, Neil Schneiderman, Barry E Hurwitz
AIMS: Sleeping oxygen saturation (SaO2 ) and sleep stage duration have been linked with prediabetic alterations but the pathogenic pathways are not well understood. This study of insulin sensitive and resistant adults examined the effect on postprandial metabolic regulation of repeated mixed-meal challenges of different carbohydrate loading. The aim was to examine whether the relationship between lower sleeping oxygen saturation (SaO2 ) and poorer fasting and postprandial metabolic function may be linked with reduced slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) duration, independent of age, sex and total adiposity...
April 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655398/adult-empathy-possible-gender-differences-in-gene-environment-architecture-for-cognitive-and-emotional-components-in-a-large-italian-twin-sample
#6
Virgilia Toccaceli, Corrado Fagnani, Nancy Eisenberg, Guido Alessandri, Augusto Vitale, Maria Antonietta Stazi
Empathy plays a central role in prosocial behavior and human cooperation. Very few twin researchers have investigated innate and environmental effects in adult empathy, and twin research on gender differences in these effects is sparse. The goal of this study was to examine innate and environmental influences on three components of an empathy scale frequently used with adults - the expression of cognitive (CE), emotional (EE), and social skills (SS) empathy - and to explore gender differences in the influences...
April 15, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653406/introducing-the-risk-aggregation-problem-to-aquifers-exposed-to-impacts-of-anthropogenic-and-geogenic-origins-on-a-modular-basis-using-risk-cells
#7
Ata Allah Nadiri, Sina Sadeghfam, Maryam Gharekhani, Rahman Khatibi, Elham Akbari
Proof-of-concept is presented in this paper to a methodology formulated for indexing risks to groundwater aquifers exposed to impacts of diffuse contaminations from anthropogenic and geogenic origins. The methodology is for mapping/indexing, which refers to relative values but not their absolute values. The innovations include: (i) making use of the Origins-Source-Pathways-Receptors-Consequences (OSPRC) framework; and (ii) dividing a study area into modular Risk (OSPRC) Cells to capture their idiosyncrasies with different origins...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653381/swelling-of-fiber-reinforced-soft-tissues-is-affected-by-fiber-orientation-fiber-stiffness-and-lamella-structure
#8
Bo Yang, Grace D O'Connell
Native and engineered fiber-reinforced tissues are composites comprised of stiff collagen fibers embedded within an extrafibrillar matrix that is capable of swelling by absorbing water molecules. Tissue swelling is important for understanding stress distributions between collagen fibers and extrafibrillar matrix, as well as for understanding mechanisms of tissue failure. The swelling behavior of fiber-reinforced tissues in the musculoskeletal system has been largely attributed to the glycosaminoglycan content...
April 3, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653352/online-molecular-image-repository-and-analysis-system-a-multicenter-collaborative-open-source-infrastructure-for-molecular-imaging-research-and-application
#9
Mahabubur Rahman, Hiroshi Watabe
Molecular imaging serves as an important tool for researchers and clinicians to visualize and investigate complex biochemical phenomena using specialized instruments; these instruments are either used individually or in combination with targeted imaging agents to obtain images related to specific diseases with high sensitivity, specificity, and signal-to-noise ratios. However, molecular imaging, which is a multidisciplinary research field, faces several challenges, including the integration of imaging informatics with bioinformatics and medical informatics, requirement of reliable and robust image analysis algorithms, effective quality control of imaging facilities, and those related to individualized disease mapping, data sharing, software architecture, and knowledge management...
April 4, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653310/a-self-template-and-self-activation-co-coupling-green-strategy-to-synthesize-high-surface-area-ternary-doped-hollow-carbon-microspheres-for-high-performance-supercapacitors
#10
Meng Gao, Jianwei Fu, Minghuan Wang, Kai Wang, Shaomin Wang, Zhiwei Wang, Zhimin Chen, Qun Xu
Development of facile and cost-effective routes to achieve hierarchical porous and heteroatoms-doped carbon architectures is urgently needed for high-performance supercapacitor application. In our study, ternary-doped (nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen) hollow carbon microspheres (NPO-HCSs) are fabricated by one-step pyrolysis of single poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-phloroglucinol) (PCPP) microsphere, which is generated through a facile polymerization between hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene and phloroglucinol at mild conditions...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653212/improving-classification-of-melanocytic-nevi-braf-v600e-expression-associated-with-distinct-histomorphologic-features
#11
Maija Kiuru, Danielle M Tartar, Lihong Qi, Danyang Chen, Lan Yu, Thomas Konia, John D McPherson, William J Murphy, Maxwell A Fung
BACKGROUND: A subset of melanomas carrying a BRAF V600E mutation, the most common targetable mutation in melanoma, arises in association with a melanocytic nevus also harboring a BRAF V600E mutation. The detailed histomorphologic characteristics of BRAF V600E-positive nevi are not systematically documented. OBJECTIVE: To identify histomorphologic features correlating with BRAF V600E status in nevi. METHODS: We retrospectively identified melanocytic nevi from our laboratory reporting system...
April 10, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653054/one-enzyme-to-build-them-all-ring-size-engineered-siderophores-inhibit-swarming-motility-of-vibrio
#12
Sina Rütschlin, Sandra Gunesch, Thomas Boettcher
Bacteria compete for ferric iron by producing siderophores and some microbes engage in piracy by scavenging sidero-phores of their competitors. The macrocyclic hydroxamate siderophore avaroferrin of Shewanella algae inhibits swarm-ing of Vibrio alginolyticus by evading this piracy. Avaroferrin as well as related putrebactin and bisucaberin are produced by the IucC-like synthetases AvbD, PubC, and BibCC. Here, we established that they are capable of synthesizing not only their native product but also other siderophores...
April 13, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652934/the-quest-for-a-non-vector-psyllid-natural-variation-in-acquisition-and-transmission-of-the-huanglongbing-pathogen-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-by-asian-citrus-psyllid-isofemale-lines
#13
El-Desouky Ammar, David G Hall, Saeed Hosseinzadeh, Michelle Heck
Genetic variability in insect vectors is valuable to study vector competence determinants and to select non-vector populations that may help reduce the spread of vector-borne pathogens. We collected and tested vector competency of 15 isofemale lines of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas). CLas is associated with huanglongbing (citrus greening), the most serious citrus disease worldwide. D. citri adults were collected from orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) hedges in Florida, and individual pairs (females and males) were caged on healthy Murraya plants for egg laying...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652908/automatic-lesion-detection-and-segmentation-of-18f-fet-pet-in-gliomas-a-full-3d-u-net-convolutional-neural-network-study
#14
Paul Blanc-Durand, Axel Van Der Gucht, Niklaus Schaefer, Emmanuel Itti, John O Prior
INTRODUCTION: Amino-acids positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly used in the diagnostic workup of patients with gliomas, including differential diagnosis, evaluation of tumor extension, treatment planning and follow-up. Recently, progresses of computer vision and machine learning have been translated for medical imaging. Aim was to demonstrate the feasibility of an automated 18F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine (18F-FET) PET lesion detection and segmentation relying on a full 3D U-Net Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652904/first-night-effect-on-sleep-time-in-dairy-cows
#15
Emma Ternman, Matti Pastell, Laura Hänninen, Sigrid Agenäs, Per P Nielsen
In human sleep studies, the probability of discomfort from the electrodes and the change in environment usually results in first-night recordings being discarded. Sleep recordings from the first night in human subjects often differ in amount of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep and the overall sleep architecture. This study investigated whether recordings of sleep states in dairy cows also show a first-night effect. Non-invasive electrophysiological recordings were carried out on nine cows of the Swedish Red breed during three consecutive 24-hour periods (recording days 1-3)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652810/edge-based-efficient-search-over-encrypted-data-mobile-cloud-storage
#16
Yeting Guo, Fang Liu, Zhiping Cai, Nong Xiao, Ziming Zhao
Smart sensor-equipped mobile devices sense, collect, and process data generated by the edge network to achieve intelligent control, but such mobile devices usually have limited storage and computing resources. Mobile cloud storage provides a promising solution owing to its rich storage resources, great accessibility, and low cost. But it also brings a risk of information leakage. The encryption of sensitive data is the basic step to resist the risk. However, deploying a high complexity encryption and decryption algorithm on mobile devices will greatly increase the burden of terminal operation and the difficulty to implement the necessary privacy protection algorithm...
April 13, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652670/multi-layer-imager-design-for-mega-voltage-spectral-imaging
#17
Marios E Myronakis, Yue-Houng Hu, Rony Fueglistaller, Adam Wang, Paul Baturin, Pascal Huber, Daniel Morf, Josh M Star-Lack, Ross I Berbeco
The architecture of multi-layer imagers (MLIs) can be exploited to provide megavoltage spectral imaging (MVSPI) for specific imaging tasks. In the current work, we investigated bone suppression and gold fiducial contrast enhancement as two clinical tasks which could be improved with spectral imaging. A method based on analytical calculations that enables rapid investigation of MLI component materials and thicknesses was developed and validated against Monte Carlo computations. The figure of merit for task-specific imaging performance was the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the gold fiducial when the CNR of bone was equal to zero after a weighted subtraction of the signals obtained from each MLI layer...
April 13, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652604/an-engineered-human-adipose-collagen-model-for-in-vitro-breast-cancer-cell-migration-studies
#18
Robert David Hume, Lorraine Berry, Stefanie Reichelt, Michael D'Angelo, Jenny Gomm, Ruth Elizabeth Cameron, Christine Watson
Adipocytes are one of the major stromal cell components of the human breast. These cells play a key role in the development of the gland and are implicated in breast tumorigenesis. Frequently, directional stromal collagen I fibres are found surrounding aggressive breast tumours. These fibres enhance breast cancer cell migration and are associated with poor patient prognosis. We sought to recapitulate these stromal components in vitro to provide a 3D model comprising human adipose tissue and anisotropic collagen fibres...
March 8, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652585/a-theory-of-sequence-indexing-and-working-memory-in-recurrent-neural-networks
#19
E Paxon Frady, Denis Kleyko, Friedrich T Sommer
To accommodate structured approaches of neural computation, we propose a class of recurrent neural networks for indexing and storing sequences of symbols or analog data vectors. These networks with randomized input weights and orthogonal recurrent weights implement coding principles previously described in vector symbolic architectures (VSA) and leverage properties of reservoir computing. In general, the storage in reservoir computing is lossy, and cross-talk noise limits the retrieval accuracy and information capacity...
April 13, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652581/a-learning-framework-for-winner-take-all-networks-with-stochastic-synapses
#20
Hesham Mostafa, Gert Cauwenberghs
Many recent generative models make use of neural networks to transform the probability distribution of a simple low-dimensional noise process into the complex distribution of the data. This raises the question of whether biological networks operate along similar principles to implement a probabilistic model of the environment through transformations of intrinsic noise processes. The intrinsic neural and synaptic noise processes in biological networks, however, are quite different from the noise processes used in current abstract generative networks...
April 13, 2018: Neural Computation
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