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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821136/discovery-of-enzymatically-depolymerized-heparins-capable-of-treating-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-injury-and-fibrosis-in-mice
#1
Yishu Yan, Shanshan Du, Yang Ji, Nan Su, Yi Wang, Xiang Mei, Wenming Zhu, Dong He, Yuan Lu, Chong Zhang, Xin-Hui Xing
Heparin has recently been shown to slow down idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) process and improve survival of patients in some cases. To improve the anti-IPF function while minimizing their side effects, we developed heparin libraries with different structures depolymerized by single or combined heparinases, and systematically screened the efficacy of the different heparins for treatment of Bleomycin-induced pulmonary injury and fibrosis using mice model. Then we characterized the structural properties of the components capable of treating pulmonary injury and fibrosis by use of chip-based amide hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC)-fourier transform (FT)-ESI-MS, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820895/identification-of-leishmania-donovani-antigen-in-circulating-immune-complexes-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-subjects-for-diagnosis
#2
Fauzia Jamal, Pushkar Shivam, Sarita Kumari, Manish Kumar Singh, Abul Hasan Sardar, Pushpanjali, Selvasankar Murugesan, Shyam Narayan, Anil Kumar Gupta, Krishna Pandey, V N R Das, Vahab Ali, Sanjiva Bimal, Pradeep Das, Shubhankar K Singh
The unreliability of most of the existing antibody-based diagnostic kits to discriminate between active and treated VL cases, relapse situation and reinfection are a major hurdle in controlling the cases of Kala-azar in an endemic area. An antigen targeted diagnostic approaches can be an attractive strategy to overcome these problems. Hence, this study was focused on identifying the Leishmania antigens, lies in circulating immune complex (CICs), can be used for diagnostic as well as prognostic purposes. The present study was conducted on peripheral blood samples of 115 human subjects, based on isolation of CICs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818314/comparison-of-disaggregative-effect-of-a-type-egcg-dimer-and-egcg-monomer-on-the-preformed-bovine-insulin-amyloid-fibrils
#3
Rong-Zu Nie, Wei Zhu, Jin-Ming Peng, Zhen-Zhen Ge, Chun-Mei Li
In the present study, the disruptive effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and A-type dimeric epigallocatechin-3-gallate (A-type EGCG dimer) on the preformed bovine insulin amyloid fibrils were studied by several biophysical methods including thioflavin-T (ThT) fluorescence assay, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic (ANS) fluorescence assay, Congo red (CR) binding assay, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Bradford assay. Our results demonstrated that A-type EGCG dimer showed significantly more potential disaggregative effects on the bovine insulin amyloid fibrils than EGCG...
July 31, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799436/immunotherapy-based-approaches-in-myelofibrosis
#4
Lucia Masarova, Srdan Verstovsek, Hagop Kantarjian, Naval Daver
Aberrant regulation of the immune system with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines contributes to disease pathophysiology in myelofibrosis (MF). Therapeutic options for MF associated anemia, thrombocytopenia, and bone marrow fibrosis remain limited. Areas covered: This review focuses on immune based therapies in MF, including immunomodulatory imide drugs (IMiDs), interferons, monoclonal antibodies and targeted agents (SL-401), and checkpoint inhibitors. Published literature was reviewed using available databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus) and web pages (clinicaltrials...
August 11, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794932/screening-of-neem-extracts-for-microbial-anti-chaperone-activity-by-employing-in-vitro-enzyme-refolding-assay
#5
Jyoti M Patki, Priyanka Shah
Microbial heat shock proteins (Hsps) play an important role in pathogenesis and development of resistance to existing drugs. New compounds that target microbial molecular chaperones have the potential of combating the challenge of anti-microbial resistance. The present study was aimed at assessing the employment of in vitro enzyme refolding assay to detect anti-chaperone activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts. Protein extracts of thermotolerant Escherichia coli cells were used as a source of Hsps or chaperones...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782502/society-for-maternal-fetal-medicine-smfm-consult-series-43-hepatitis-c-in-pregnancy-screening-treatment-and-management
#6
Brenna L Hughes, Charlotte M Page, Jeffrey A Kuller
In the United States, 1-2.5% of pregnant women are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), which carries an approximately 5% risk of transmission from mother to infant. HCV can be transmitted to the infant in utero or during the peripartum period, and infection during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including fetal growth restriction and low birth weight. The purpose of this document is to discuss the current evidence regarding HCV in pregnancy and to provide recommendations on screening, treatment, and management of this disease during pregnancy...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764040/quantitative-analysis-of-species-specificity-of-two-anti-parvalbumin-antibodies-for-detecting-southern-hemisphere-fish-species-demonstrating-strong-phylogenetic-association
#7
Ji Liang, Chui Choo Tan, Steve L Taylor, Joseph L Baumert, Andreas L Lopata, N Alice Lee
This study aimed to develop a novel approach to determine the correlation between the parvalbumin (PAV) contents and their corresponding immunoreactivity (detectability) in southern hemisphere fish species. The immuno-detected PAV contents of the test fish species were estimated by a quantitative SDS-PAGE. A quantitative Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) was formatted to assess relative immunoreactivity of PAV. Sixteen species (forty-three percent) displayed a positive correlation with the anti-cod PAV polyclonal antibody, but no correlation with the anti-carp PAV monoclonal antibody...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754559/enzymatic-cleavage-promotes-disassembly-of-gii-3-norovirus-virus-like-particles-and-its-binding-to-salivary-histo-blood-group-antigens
#8
Yuqi Huo, Wenhui Wang, Lijun Zheng, Xuhui Chen, Shuo Shen, Mingchen Wang
In this study, we found that addition of fecal extract significantly promoted the binding of GII.3 NoV VLPs to salivary HBGAs. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that major capsid proteins (VP1) were cleaved into two major bands with molecular weights of 26 and 31kD, respectively. Pretreatment of fecal extract by boiling or addition of protease inhibitor cocktail or type specific protease inhibitor (leupeptin and aprotinin) during incubation all decreased VP1 cleavage and its binding to salivary HBGAs. Trypsin digestion led to cleavage of VP1 and promoted its binding to HBGAs, suggesting that the active enzyme(s) might be trypsin or trypsin-like enzymes...
July 25, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749735/the-discovery-mechanisms-and-evolutionary-impact-of-anti-crisprs
#9
Adair L Borges, Alan R Davidson, Joseph Bondy-Denomy
Bacteria and archaea use CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems to defend themselves from infection by bacteriophages (phages). These RNA-guided nucleases are powerful weapons in the fight against foreign DNA, such as phages and plasmids, as well as a revolutionary gene editing tool. Phages are not passive bystanders in their interactions with CRISPR-Cas systems, however; recent discoveries have described phage genes that inhibit CRISPRCas function. More than 20 protein families, previously of unknown function, have been ascribed anti-CRISPR function...
July 27, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737831/royal-jelly-lipophilic-fraction-induces-antiproliferative-effects-on-sh-sy5y-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#10
Angelo Gismondi, Eleonora Trionfera, Lorena Canuti, Gabriele Di Marco, Antonella Canini
Royal jelly (RJ) is one the most important bee product because it strongly influences the larval development in the hive, including the queen bee. In literature, RJ is known for its antioxidant, immunoregulatory, antifungal, antibiotical, erythropoietic, hypoglycemic, anticholesteremic, antithyroidic, anti-osteoporotic and estrogenic properties. However, it is surprising how rare the scientific evidence about RJ antineoplastic capacity are. That being said, we investigated, for the first time, the in vitro bioactivity of six different RJs on the growth of three different mammalian cell lines: immortalized murine myoblasts (C2C12), human prostate cancer (PC3) and human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y)...
July 24, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736551/differential-phenotypes-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-and-t-regulatory-cells-and-cytokine-levels-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-subjects-compared-to-mild-alzheimer-diseased-patients
#11
Aurélie Le Page, Hugo Garneau, Gilles Dupuis, Eric H Frost, Anis Larbi, Jacek M Witkowski, Graham Pawelec, Tamàs Fülöp
Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia although the underlying cause(s) remains unknown at this time. However, neuroinflammation is believed to play an important role and suspected contributing immune parameters can be revealed in studies comparing patients at the stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to healthy age-matched individuals. A network of immune regulatory cells including regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) maintains immune homeostasis but there are very few data on the role of these cells in AD...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734823/evaluation-of-early-administration-of-simvastatin-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-delirium-in-critically-ill-patients-undergoing-mechanical-ventilation-modus-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#12
Valerie J Page, Annalisa Casarin, E Wesley Ely, Xiao Bei Zhao, Cliona McDowell, Lynn Murphy, Daniel F McAuley
BACKGROUND: Delirium in critically ill patients is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Neuroinflammation might be an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of delirium, and since simvastatin has anti-inflammatory properties it might reduce delirium. We aimed to establish whether early treatment with simvastatin would decrease the time that survivors of critical illness spent in delirium or coma. METHODS: We undertook this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in a general adult intensive care unit (ICU) in Watford General Hospital (Watford, UK)...
July 19, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715978/the-role-of-efflux-pumps-in-tuberculosis-treatment-and-their-promise-as-a-target-in-drug-development-unraveling-the-black-box
#13
Lindsey H M Te Brake, Gerjo J de Knegt, Jurriaan E de Steenwinkel, Teunis J P van Dam, David M Burger, Frans G M Russel, Reinout van Crevel, Jan B Koenderink, Rob E Aarnoutse
Insight into drug transport mechanisms is highly relevant to the efficacious treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Major problems in TB treatment are related to the transport of antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs across human and mycobacterial membranes, affecting the concentrations of these drugs systemically and locally. Firstly, transporters located in the intestines, liver, and kidneys all determine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-TB drugs, with a high risk of drug-drug interactions in the setting of concurrent use of antimycobacterial, antiretroviral, and antidiabetic agents...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701697/peptidomics-of-an-in-vitro-digested-%C3%AE-gal-carrying-protein-revealed-ige-reactive-peptides
#14
D Apostolovic, M Krstic, J Mihailovic, M Starkhammar, T Cirkovic Velickovic, C Hamsten, M van Hage
The mammalian carbohydrate galactose-α1,3-galactose (α-Gal) causes a novel form of food allergy, red meat allergy, where patients experience severe allergic reactions several hours after red meat consumption. Here we explored gastric digestion of α-Gal glycoproteins using an in vitro model. Bovine thyroglobulin (BTG), a typical α-Gal carrying glycoprotein, was digested with pepsin. The resulting peptides were characterised by SDS PAGE, immunoblot and ImmunoCAP using sera from 20 red meat allergic patients...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699096/hepatitis-c-cascade-of-care-among-pregnant-women-on-opioid-agonist-pharmacotherapy-attending-a-comprehensive-prenatal-program
#15
Kimberly Page, Lawrence Leeman, Steven Bishop, Sandra Cano, Ludmila N Bakhireva
Background Given the large increases in opioid use among pregnant women and associations with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, screening pregnant women who are on (opioid agonist) pharmacotherapy for HCV infection has potential to inform medical care for these mothers as well as their newborns. We investigated the HCV testing cascade among pregnant women on pharmacotherapy in order to describe exposure and infection rates and to identify opportunities that would improve care. Methods Secondary analyses of laboratory results were performed for HCV testing, including anti-HCV, viremia (RNA) and genotype...
July 11, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698149/gelatin-modified-lipid-nanoparticles-for-anti-viral-drug-delivery
#16
Joshy K S, Snigdha S, Nandakumar Kalarikkal, Laly A Pothen, Sabu Thomas
The major challenges to clinical application of zidovudine are its moderate aqueous solubility and relative short half-life and serious side effects due to frequent administrations. We investigated the preparation of zidovudine-loaded nanoparticles based on lipids which were further modified with the polymer gelatin. Formulation and stability of the modified nanoparticles were analysed from the physico-chemical characterizations. The interactions of nanoparticles with blood components were tested by haemolysis and aggregation studies...
July 8, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697990/avian-antibodies-igy-against-trypanosoma-cruzi-purification-and-characterization-studies
#17
Thirssa H Grando, Matheus D Baldissera, Mariângela F de Sá, Guilherme do Carmo, Bianca Carolina Z Porto, Gisele S V Aguirre, Maria Isabel de Azevedo, Francielli P K de Jesus, Janio M Santurio, Michele R Sagrillo, Lenita Moura Stefani, Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro
Trypanosoma cruzi is a flagellated protozoan belonging to the Trypanosomatidae family, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Currently, there is neither a licensed vaccine nor effective treatment, characterizing an unmet clinical need. The IgY refers to the egg yolk immunoglobulin (Y=yolk) and its production and use are subjects of many studies due to the diversity of its diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Several researchers have shown that the use of specific IgY may prevent and/or control infectious and parasitic diseases...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693129/identification-of-anti-tumor-components-from-toad-venom
#18
Fei Gao, Xiangjun Wang, Zhao Li, Aicun Zhou, Evelyn Tiffany-Castiglioni, Lijun Xie, Yongchang Qian
Secretion of granular glands from the skin of amphibians is a fascinating resource of active substances, particularly for cancer therapy in clinical practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine. A variety of anti-tumor peptides have been isolated from different toads and frogs; however, no anti-tumor peptides are reported in toad venom of Bufo gargarizans. Firstly, soluble fraction from fresh toad venom (FTV) was compared with that from dried toad venom (DTV), using HPLC analysis. It was revealed that FTV has a different HPLC chromatography compared with DTV...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690100/arginase-purified-from-endophytic-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-ih2-induce-apoptosis-through-both-cell-cycle-arrest-and-mmp-loss-in-human-leukemic-hl-60%C3%A2-cells
#19
Islam Husain, Kiran Bala, Abubakar Wani, Ubaid Makhdoomi, Fayaz Malik, Anjana Sharma
Arginase is a therapeutic enzyme for arginine-auxotrophic cancers but their low anticancer activity, less proteolytic tolerance and shorter serum half-life are the major shortcomings. In this study, arginase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa IH2 was purified to homogeneity and estimated as 75 kDa on native-PAGE and 37 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Arginase showed optimum activity at pH 8 and temperature 35 °C. Mn(2+) and Mg(2+) ions enhanced arginase activity while, Li(+), Cu(2+), and Al(3+) ions reduced arginase activity...
July 6, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684323/role-of-purified-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-binding-protein-%C3%AE-gbp-from-paratelphusa-hydrodromus-and-their-anti-inflammatory-antioxidant-and-antibiofilm-properties
#20
Arokiadhas Iswarya, Mahalingam Anjugam, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan
β- 1, 3-glucan binding protein (β-GBP), a pattern recognition protein (PRP), plays a critical role in triggering the innate immune response by detecting β-glucan found on the surface of microbes. In the present study, β-GBP was purified from the haemolymph of rice field crab Paratelphusa hydrodromus by affinity column chromatography. The monomeric protein Ph-β-GBP appeared as a single band with a molecular weight of approximately 95 kDa in SDS-PAGE analysis and its purity was determined to be 89% by HPLC...
July 3, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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