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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931235/monoclonal-antibody-protects-against-acinetobacter-baumannii-infection-by-enhancing-bacterial-clearance-and-evading-sepsis
#1
Travis B Nielsen, Paul Pantapalangkoor, Brian M Luna, Kevin W Bruhn, Jun Yan, Ken Dekitani, Sarah Hsieh, Brandon Yeshoua, Bryan Pascual, Evgeny Vinogradov, Kristine M Hujer, T Nicholas Domitrovic, Robert A Bonomo, Thomas A Russo, Magda Lesczcyniecka, Thomas Schneider, Brad Spellberg
Background: Extremely drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most commonly encountered, highly resistant pathogens requiring novel therapeutic interventions. Methods: We developed C8, a monoclonal antibody (mAb), by immunizing mice with sublethal inocula of a hypervirulent XDR clinical isolate. Results: C8 targets capsular carbohydrate on the bacterial surface, enhancing opsonophagocytosis. Treating with a single dose of C8 as low as 0...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931214/baicalin-alleviates-radiation-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-primary-type-ii-alveolar-epithelial-cells-via-tgf-%C3%AE-and-erk-gsk3%C3%AE-signaling-pathways
#2
Jinhua Lu, Yazhen Zhong, Zechen Lin, Xianlei Lin, Zhaohui Chen, Xuping Wu, Nan Wang, Haiqiao Zhang, Siyu Huang, Yuan Zhu, Yuanyuan Wang, Shengyou Lin
BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy is commonly used to treat thoracic malignancies. However, it may lead to severe lung pneumonitis and ultimately fibrosis. Irradiation has been reported to increase epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC), which play an important role in pulmonary fibrosis. The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and ERK/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) pathways are critically involved in radiation-induced EMT. In the present study, we investigated whether baicalin was a novel therapeutic candidate for radiation-induced EMT in type II AEC...
September 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931212/temozolomide-resistant-human-brain-tumor-stem-cells-are-susceptible-to-recombinant-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-and-double-deleted-vaccinia-virus-in-vitro
#3
Bin Jiang, Xueqing Lun, Xiaoguang Hao, Yihua Wang, Xin Yin, Dezhang Huang, Wei He, Zhigang Wang
BACKGROUND: Malignant glioma still has a poor prognosis and remains incurable. Although temozolomide (TMZ) has demonstrated antitumor activity, its use recently has been halted because of some patients' resistance to this drug. New treatments are desperately needed. An oncolytic virus (virotherapy) is being developed as a novel cancer therapy. We have previously reported that recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV-ΔM51) and double deleted Vaccinia Virus (vvDD) infected and killed glioma cell lines in vitro and prolonged survival in animal glioma models...
September 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931159/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-transformer-gene-from-bactrocera-cucurbitae-diptera-tephritidae
#4
Ya Luo, Santao Zhao, Jiahui Li, Peizheng Li, Rihui Yan
transformer (tra) is a switch gene of sex determination in many insects, particularly in Dipterans. However, the sex determination pathway in Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), a very destructive pest on earth, remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, we have isolated and characterized one female-specific and two male-specific transcripts of the tra gene (Bcutra) of B. cucurbitae. The genomic structure of Bcutra has been determined and the presence of multiple conserved Transformer (TRA)/TRA-2 binding sites in Bcutra has been found...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931060/isolated-positive-anti-ss-b-autoantibodies-are-not-related-to-clinical-features-of-systemic-autoimmune-diseases-results-from-a-routine-population-survey
#5
Sabine Jardel, Nicole Fabien, Arnaud Hot, Sandra Vukusic, Jacques Tebib, Vincent Cottin, Pascal Sève, Maurice Laville, Alexandre Belot, Isabelle Durieu, Lorna Garnier, Frédéric Coutant, Quitterie Reynaud, Jean Christophe Lega
OBJECTIVE: To assess in clinical practice the frequency and diagnosis associated with the SS-B-positive/SS-A negative autoantibody profile. METHODS: We analyzed a one-year consecutive population of 624 patients referred by clinicians to the immunology laboratory to investigate anti-SS-A and/or anti-SS-B autoantibodies, who were detected using luminex technology. Data were analyzed for patients with isolated anti-SS-B autoantibodies. The clinical characteristics and diagnosis of connective tissue diseases (CTD) were retrieved according to the international criteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931058/molecular-characterization-of-neisseria-meningitidis-isolates-recovered-from-11-19-year-old-meningococcal-carriers-in-salvador-brazil
#6
Ana Rafaela Silva Simões Moura, Cécilia Batmalle Kretz, Italo Eustáquio Ferreira, Amélia Maria Pithon Borges Nunes, José Cássio de Moraes, Mitermayer Galvão Reis, Alan John Alexander McBride, Xin Wang, Leila Carvalho Campos
Characterization of meningococci isolated from the pharynx is essential towards understanding the dynamics of meningococcal carriage and disease. Meningococcal isolates, collected from adolescents resident in Salvador, Brazil during 2014, were characterized by multilocus sequence typing, genotyping or whole-genome sequencing. Most were nongroupable (61.0%), followed by genogroups B (11.9%) and Y (8.5%). We identified 34 different sequence types (STs), eight were new STs, distributed among 14 clonal complexes (cc), cc1136 represented 20...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931053/identification-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-metagenome-derived-l-lysine-decarboxylase-gene-from-subtropical-soil-microorganisms
#7
Jie Deng, Hua Gao, Zhen Gao, Huaxian Zhao, Ying Yang, Qiaofen Wu, Bo Wu, Chengjian Jiang
L-lysine decarboxylase (LDC, EC 4.1.1.18) is a key enzyme in the decarboxylation of L-lysine to 1,5-pentanediamine and efficiently contributes significance to biosynthetic capability. Metagenomic technology is a shortcut approach used to obtain new genes from uncultured microorganisms. In this study, a subtropical soil metagenomic library was constructed, and a putative LDC gene named ldc1E was isolated by function-based screening strategy through the indication of pH change by L-lysine decarboxylation. Amino acid sequence comparison and homology modeling indicated the close relation between Ldc1E and other putative LDCs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931045/effect-of-extracytoplasmic-function-sigma-factors-on-autoaggregation-hemagglutination-and-cell-surface-properties-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#8
Kazutaka Fujise, Yuichiro Kikuchi, Eitoyo Kokubu, Kazuko Okamoto-Shibayama, Kazuyuki Ishihara
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a bacterium frequently isolated from chronic periodontal lesions and is involved in the development of chronic periodontitis. To colonize the gingival crevice, P. gingivalis has to adapt to environmental stresses. Microbial gene expression is regulated by transcription factors such as those in two-component systems and extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors. ECF sigma factors are involved in the regulation of environmental stress response genes; however, the roles of individual ECF sigma factors are largely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931025/the-clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-enteric-fever-in-cambodia-2008-2015
#9
Laura M F Kuijpers, Thong Phe, Chhun H Veng, Kruy Lim, Sovann Ieng, Chun Kham, Nizar Fawal, Laetitia Fabre, Simon Le Hello, Erika Vlieghe, François-Xavier Weill, Jan Jacobs, Willy E Peetermans
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever remains a major public health problem in low resource settings and antibiotic resistance is increasing. In Asia, an increasing proportion of infections is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, which for a long time was assumed to cause a milder clinical syndrome compared to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective chart review study was conducted of 254 unique cases of blood culture confirmed enteric fever who presented at a referral adult hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia between 2008 and 2015...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930997/using-in-vivo-and-tissue-and-cell-explant-approaches-to-study-the-morphogenesis-and-pathogenesis-of-the-embryonic-and-perinatal-aorta
#10
Ashish Misra, Zhonghui Feng, Jiasheng Zhang, Zhi-Yin Lou, Daniel M Greif
The aorta is the largest artery in the body. The aortic wall is composed of an inner layer of endothelial cells, a middle layer of alternating elastic lamellae and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and an outer layer of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix. In contrast to the widespread study of pathological models (e.g., atherosclerosis) in the adult aorta, much less is known about the embryonic and perinatal aorta. Here, we focus on SMCs and provide protocols for the analysis of the morphogenesis and pathogenesis of embryonic and perinatal aortic SMCs in normal development and disease...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930995/stereotactic-atlas-guided-laser-capture-microdissection-of-brain-regions-affected-by-traumatic-injury
#11
Harris A Weisz, Deborah R Boone, Stacy L Sell, Helen L Hellmich
The ability to isolate specific brain regions of interest can be impeded in tissue disassociation techniques that do not preserve their spatial distribution. Such techniques also potentially skew gene expression analysis because the process itself can alter expression patterns in individual cells. Here we describe a laser capture microdissection (LCM) method to selectively collect specific brain regions affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI) by using a modified Nissl (cresyl violet) staining protocol and the guidance of a rat brain atlas...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930993/confocal-imaging-of-neuropeptide-y-phluorin-a-technique-to-visualize-insulin-granule-exocytosis-in-intact-murine-and-human-islets
#12
Madina Makhmutova, Tao Liang, Herbert Gaisano, Alejandro Caicedo, Joana Almaça
Insulin secretion plays a central role in glucose homeostasis under normal physiological conditions as well as in disease. Current approaches to study insulin granule exocytosis either use electrophysiology or microscopy coupled to the expression of fluorescent reporters. However most of these techniques have been optimized for clonal cell lines or require dissociating pancreatic islets. In contrast, the method presented here allows for real time visualization of insulin granule exocytosis in intact pancreatic islets...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930992/a-cell-culture-model-of-resistance-arteries
#13
Lauren A Biwer, Christophe Lechauve, Sheri Vanhoose, Mitchell J Weiss, Brant E Isakson
The myoendothelial junction (MEJ), a unique signaling microdomain in small diameter resistance arteries, exhibits localization of specific proteins and signaling processes that can control vascular tone and blood pressure. As it is a projection from either the endothelial or smooth muscle cell, and due to its small size (on average, an area of ~1 µm(2)), the MEJ is difficult to study in isolation. However, we have developed a cell culture model called the vascular cell co-culture (VCCC) that allows for in vitro MEJ formation, endothelial cell polarization, and dissection of signaling proteins and processes in the vascular wall of resistance arteries...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930975/streamlined-single-cell-tcr-isolation-and-generation-of-retroviral-vectors-for-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-expression-of-human-tcrs
#14
Maran L Sprouse, Gabriele Blahnik, Thomas Lee, Natalie Tully, Pinaki Benarjee, Eddie A James, Maria J Redondo, Matthew L Bettini, Maria Bettini
Although, several methods for sequencing of paired T cell receptor (TCR) alpha and beta chains from single T cells have been developed, none so far have been conducive to downstream in vivo functional analysis of TCR heterodimers. We have developed an improved protocol based on a two-step multiplex-nested PCR, which results in a PCR product that spans entire variable regions of a human TCR alpha and beta chains. By identifying unique restriction sites and incorporating them into the PCR primers, we have made the PCR product compatible with direct sub-cloning into the template retroviral vector...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930865/presence-of-human-herpesvirus-6b-in-the-pancreas-of-subjects-with-and-without-type-1-diabetes
#15
Maja Ericsson, Oskar Skog
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) A and B in human pancreata and to search for signs of active infection in this organ of subjects with and without type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Pancreata from brain-dead organ donors with and without T1D were examined for the presence of HHV6 genomic sequences by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transcripts by reverse transcriptase-PCR, and protein by immunohistochemistry...
September 19, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930669/a-highly-specific-escherichia-coli-qpcr-and-its-comparison-with-existing-methods-for-environmental-waters
#16
David I Walker, Jonathan McQuillan, Michael Taiwo, Rachel Parks, Craig A Stenton, Hywel Morgan, Matthew C Mowlem, David N Lees
The presence of Escherichia coli in environmental waters is considered as evidence of faecal contamination and is therefore commonly used as an indicator in both water quality and food safety analysis. The long period of time between sample collection and obtaining results from existing culture based methods means that contamination events may already impact public health by the time they are detected. The adoption of molecular based methods for E. coli could significantly reduce the time to detection. A new quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay was developed to detect the ybbW gene sequence, which was found to be 100% exclusive and inclusive (specific and sensitive) for E...
August 25, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930577/exosome-enrichment-by-ultracentrifugation-and-size-exclusion-chromatography
#17
Yong Qin Koh, Fatema B Almughlliq, Kanchan Vaswani, Hassendrini N Peiris, Murray D Mitchell
Exosomes are a subset of extracellular vesicles (EVs) that have important roles in intercellular communication. They contain and carry bioactive molecules within their membranes which are delivered to target cells. Reproducible isolation and enrichment of these exosomes will aid in evaluation of cellular communication. We present an approach that involved the pre-processing of plasma, combined with ultracentrifugation (UC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to isolate EVs and subsequently enrich exosomes...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930560/structural-and-molecular-biology-of-psp94-its-significance-in-prostate-pathophysiology
#18
Jenifer H Anklesaria, Deepa R Mhatre, Smita D Mahale
Prostate secretory protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94), primarily found in the prostatic secretion, was originally isolated and purified from human seminal plasma. PSP94 has several putative biological functions and is considered a marker of prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we review the structural-functional relationships of PSP94, address its fungicidal activity and role as an inhibitor of sperm motility and protection from female immune surveillance, and review its role in tumor suppression. We also review the diagnostic assays that are developed for PSP94 for use in the diagnosis of PCa and use of such tests in the differential diagnosis of PCa from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930548/l-name-improves-doxycycline-and-ml-7-cardioprotection-from-oxidative-stress
#19
Iwona Bil-Lula, Anna Krzywonos-Zawadzka, Jolanta Sawicka, Dariusz Bialy, Magdalena Wawrzynska, Mieczyslaw Wozniak, Grzegorz Sawicki
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mediated degradation of myosin light chain 1 (MLC1) and troponin I (TnI) contributes to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Modifications of MLC1 triggered by oxidative stress are mediated by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and MMP-2. Previous studies have shown that inhibiting both MLCK and MMP-2 protects against I/R injury. Here, we hypothesized that the addition of NOS inhibitor (L-NAME) at subprotective concentration to the mixture of subprotective concentrations of ML-7 and doxycycline (Doxy), will increase a synergistic cardioprotection of Doxy and ML-7 during I/R...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930535/leader-sequences-of-coronavirus-are-altered-during-infection
#20
Li Liu, Wei Chen
The life cycle of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) involves a unique process called discontinuous transcription by which a set of 3' coterminal subgenomic mRNAs (sgmRNA) with identical 5' leader sequences can be generated. The current study demonstrates that the replication intermediates of minus strand of subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) can be readily recovered from SARS-CoV infected cells. A novel sgmRNA (M-1) was identified as a short version of membrane (M) gene. Transcriptional regulatory sequences (TRS) of SARS-CoV and Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV) sgmRNAs contain a species specific core element (CE)...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
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