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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215749/steady-state-centrifugal-input-via-the-lateral-olfactory-tract-modulates-spontaneous-activity-in-the-rat-main-olfactory-bulb
#1
Neil C Ford, Edwin R Griff
Mitral and tufted cells in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) of anesthetized rats exhibit vigorous spontaneous activity, action potentials produced in the absence of odor stimuli. The central hypothesis of this paper is that tonic activity of centrifugal input to the MOB modulates the spontaneous activity of MOB neurons. The spontaneous activity of centrifugal fibers causes a baseline of steady-state neurotransmitter release, and odor stimulation produces transient changes in the resulting spontaneous activity...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209346/reliability-of-tms-phosphene-threshold-estimation-toward-a-standardized-protocol
#2
Chiara Mazzi, Silvia Savazzi, Arman Abrahamyan, Manuela Ruzzoli
BACKGROUND: Phosphenes induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are a subjectively described visual phenomenon employed in basic and clinical research as index of the excitability of retinotopically organized areas in the brain. OBJECTIVE: Phosphene threshold estimation is a preliminary step in many TMS experiments in visual cognition for setting the appropriate level of TMS doses; however, the lack of a direct comparison of the available methods for phosphene threshold estimation leaves unsolved the reliability of those methods in setting TMS doses...
February 2, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206950/use-of-pellet-guns-for-crowd-control-in-kashmir-how-lethal-is-non-lethal
#3
Siddarth David
The use of pellet guns during the recent unrest in Kashmir as a method of crowd control has been questioned because of several deaths and numerous injuries. Across the world, these rubber pellets have been shown to inflict serious injuries, permanent disability, and death. The volatility of mob violence, inaccuracies in aim of the pellets, over-use of the pellet guns, and the perception of their harmlessness enhances the destructive potential of these so-called non-lethal weapons. There is also the larger ethical question whether any form of pain, however minimal, could be inflicted to control violent crowds...
December 13, 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195538/a-question-of-ethics-not-nationalism-author-s-response
#4
Siddarth David
The aim of the comment "Use of pellet guns for crowd control in Kashmir: How lethal is 'non-lethal'?" was neither to disparage the armed forces, nor recommend counterinsurgency strategies, nor support any particular community or group. It sought to raise discussions around the question pointed out by the responder himself, namely, "the ethical point of view" on the use of pellet guns in controlling violent mobs. The author also feels that the question is not so much about "favouring" the protestors or the security forces, but whether an instrument that causes significant fatalities and morbidities among bystanders should continue to be used as a method of crowd control...
January 27, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183853/mark4-inhibits-hippo-signaling-to-promote-proliferation-and-migration-of-breast-cancer-cells
#5
Emad Heidary Arash, Ahmed Shiban, Siyuan Song, Liliana Attisano
The Hippo pathway is a critical regulator of tissue size, and aberrations in pathway regulation lead to cancer. MST1/2 and LATS1/2 kinases comprise the core of the pathway that, in association with adaptor proteins SAV and MOB, functions in a sequential manner to phosphorylate and inhibit the transcription factors YAP and TAZ. Here we identify mammalian MARK family members as activators of YAP/TAZ. We show that depletion of MARK4 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells results in the loss of nuclear YAP/TAZ and decreases the expression of YAP/TAZ targets...
February 9, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150487/structural-insights-into-the-regulation-of-hippo-signaling
#6
Leah Cairns, Thao Tran, Jennifer M Kavran
During development, the Hippo pathway regulates the balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis to control organ size. Appropriate Hippo signaling is associated with stem cell maintenance, while inappropriate signaling can result in tumorigenesis and cancer. Cellular and genetic investigations have identified core components and determined that complex formation and protein phosphorylation are crucial regulatory events. The recent spate of high-resolution structures of Hippo pathway components have begun to reveal the molecular mechanisms controlling these events, including the molecular determinates of complex formation between YAP and TEAD, the role of phosphorylation in controlling complex formation by Mob, and the conformational changes accompanying Mst1/2 kinase domain activation...
February 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134445/interventions-for-prevention-of-bullying-in-the-workplace
#7
REVIEW
Patricia A Gillen, Marlene Sinclair, W George Kernohan, Cecily M Begley, Ans G Luyben
BACKGROUND: Bullying has been identified as one of the leading workplace stressors, with adverse consequences for the individual employee, groups of employees, and whole organisations. Employees who have been bullied have lower levels of job satisfaction, higher levels of anxiety and depression, and are more likely to leave their place of work. Organisations face increased risk of skill depletion and absenteeism, leading to loss of profit, potential legal fees, and tribunal cases. It is unclear to what extent these risks can be addressed through interventions to prevent bullying...
January 30, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120820/dna-copy-number-changes-define-spatial-patterns-of-heterogeneity-in-colorectal-cancer
#8
Soulafa Mamlouk, Liam Harold Childs, Daniela Aust, Daniel Heim, Friederike Melching, Cristiano Oliveira, Thomas Wolf, Pawel Durek, Dirk Schumacher, Hendrik Bläker, Moritz von Winterfeld, Bastian Gastl, Kerstin Möhr, Andrea Menne, Silke Zeugner, Torben Redmer, Dido Lenze, Sascha Tierling, Markus Möbs, Wilko Weichert, Gunnar Folprecht, Eric Blanc, Dieter Beule, Reinhold Schäfer, Markus Morkel, Frederick Klauschen, Ulf Leser, Christine Sers
Genetic heterogeneity between and within tumours is a major factor determining cancer progression and therapy response. Here we examined DNA sequence and DNA copy-number heterogeneity in colorectal cancer (CRC) by targeted high-depth sequencing of 100 most frequently altered genes. In 97 samples, with primary tumours and matched metastases from 27 patients, we observe inter-tumour concordance for coding mutations; in contrast, gene copy numbers are highly discordant between primary tumours and metastases as validated by fluorescent in situ hybridization...
January 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116549/run-hide-or-fight-anti-predation-strategies-in-endangered-red-nosed-cuxi%C3%A3%C2%BA-chiropotes-albinasus-pitheciidae-in-southeastern-amazonia
#9
Adrian A Barnett, João M Silla, Tadeu de Oliveira, Sarah A Boyle, Bruna M Bezerra, Wilson R Spironello, Eleonore Z F Setz, Rafaela F Soares da Silva, Samara de Albuquerque Teixeira, Lucy M Todd, Liliam P Pinto
Although primate predation is rarely observed, a series of primate anti-predation strategies have been described. Energetic costs of such strategies can vary from high-cost mobbing, via less costly alarm calling, to low-cost furtive concealment. Here we report the anti-predation strategies of red-nosed cuxiú, Chiropotes albinasus, based on direct observations from four study sites in southeastern Brazilian Amazonia. Over a collective period of 1255 fieldwork hours, we observed nine direct interactions between raptors (all potential predators) and red-nosed cuxiús...
January 23, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103800/chmob2-binds-to-chcbk1-and-promotes-virulence-and-conidiation-of-the-fungal-pathogen-colletotrichum-higginsianum
#10
Johannes Schmidpeter, Marlis Dahl, Jörg Hofmann, Christian Koch
BACKGROUND: Mob family proteins are conserved between animals, plants and fungi and are essential for the activation of NDR kinases that control crucial cellular processes like cytokinesis, proliferation and morphology. RESULTS: We identified a hypomorphic allele of ChMOB2 in a random insertional mutant (vir-88) of the hemibiotrophic ascomycete fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum. The mutant is impaired in conidiation, host penetration and virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana...
January 19, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087337/tunicamycin-impairs-olfactory-learning-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#11
Jia Tong, Fumino Okutani, Yoshihiro Murata, Mutsuo Taniguchi, Toshiharu Namba, Yu-Jie Wang, Hideto Kaba
Tunicamycin (TM) induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inhibits N-glycosylation in cells. ER stress is associated with neuronal death in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and most patients complain of the impairment of olfactory recognition. Here we examined the effects of TM on aversive olfactory learning and the underlying synaptic plasticity in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). Behavioral experiments demonstrated that the intrabulbar infusion of TM disabled aversive olfactory learning without affecting short-term memory...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078388/high-stocking-density-controls-phillyrea-angustifolia-in-mediterranean-grasslands
#12
François Mesléard, Nicole Yavercovski, Gaétan Lefebvre, Loic Willm, Anne Bonis
Extensive grazing applied in the form of low instantaneous pressure over a long period is a widespread management practice in protected areas. However this kind of stocking method does not always achieve the expected results, in particular because it fails to limit colonization by woody plants.This is the case in the relict xero-halophytic grasslands of the northern Mediterranean coastal region, subjected to widespread colonization by the shrub Phillyrea angustifolia despite the presence of extensive grazing...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036236/ensemble-perception-of-dynamic-emotional-groups
#13
Elric Elias, Michael Dyer, Timothy D Sweeny
Crowds of emotional faces are ubiquitous, so much so that the visual system utilizes a specialized mechanism known as ensemble coding to see them. In addition to being proximally close, members of emotional crowds, such as a laughing audience or an angry mob, often behave together. The manner in which crowd members behave-in sync or out of sync-may be critical for understanding their collective affect. Are ensemble mechanisms sensitive to these dynamic properties of groups? Here, observers estimated the average emotion of a crowd of dynamic faces...
February 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035889/naive-juveniles-are-more-likely-to-become-breeders-after-witnessing-predator-mobbing
#14
Michael Griesser, Toshitaka N Suzuki
Responding appropriately during the first predatory attack in life is often critical for survival. In many social species, naive juveniles acquire this skill from conspecifics, but its fitness consequences remain virtually unknown. Here we experimentally demonstrate how naive juvenile Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus) derive a long-term fitness benefit from witnessing knowledgeable adults mobbing their principal predator, the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis). Siberian jays live in family groups of two to six individuals that also can include unrelated nonbreeders...
January 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031800/functional-traits-determine-heterospecific-use-of-risk-related-social-information-in-forest-birds-of-tropical-south-east-asia
#15
Fangyuan Hua, Ding Li Yong, Muhammad Nazri Janra, Liza M Fitri, Dewi Prawiradilaga, Kathryn E Sieving
In birds and mammals, mobbing calls constitute an important form of social information that can attract numerous sympatric species to localized mobbing aggregations. While such a response is thought to reduce the future predation risk for responding species, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence to support this hypothesis. One way to test the link between predation risk reduction and mobbing attraction involves testing the relationship between species' attraction to mobbing calls and the functional traits that define their vulnerability to predation risk...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017895/mobbing-among-care-workers-in-nursing-homes-a-cross-sectional-secondary-analysis-of-the-swiss-nursing-homes-human-resources-project
#16
Myriam Tong, René Schwendimann, Franziska Zúñiga
BACKGROUND: As a category of bullying, mobbing is a form of violence in the workplace that damages the employing organization as well as the targeted employee. In Europe, the overall prevalence of mobbing in healthcare is estimated at 4%. However, few studies have explored mobbing among long-term care workers. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the frequency of mobbing in Swiss nursing homes and its relationships with care workers' (i.e. registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, assistant nurse, nurse aide) health status, job satisfaction, and intention to leave, and to explore the work environment as a contributing factor to mobbing...
December 15, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009385/a-study-on-mobbing-in-maritime-field-a-case-study-in-the-turkish-maritime-industry
#17
Serdar Kum, Yildiray Ertas
Nowadays, there are many reasons for people to be stressful and restless in their working environments. One of the reasons leading to this situation is known as "mobbing". The term "mobbing" means "bullying of an individual by a group". It usually happens among employees. The main effects of mobbing are the generation of stress and reduction of employee performance at work. In general, research shows that mobbing is particularly common in the public sector. The aim of this research is to understand the frequency of mobbing on employees in the Turkish maritime industry as a case study...
2016: International Maritime Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005146/-diagnostics-of-drug-hypersensitivity-reactions
#18
REVIEW
C Möbs, W Pfützner
Drug hypersensitivity reactions comprise approximately 25% of all adverse drug reactions and can be classified into allergic and pseudoallergic drug reactions. Immediate type anaphylactic and delayed type rash reactions of various clinical patterns can be distinguished, depending on the pathogenesis and clinical symptoms. The diagnostic work-up encompasses a thorough but also focused evaluation of the medical history, skin tests and when indicated challenge tests. Furthermore, in vitro tests, such as basophil activation tests and T cell assays not only add valuable additional information but can also yield decisive results for the diagnosis, especially in cases of severe drug reactions or reactions which cannot be further clarified by provocation tests...
December 22, 2016: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003347/olfactory-bulb-deep-short-axon-cells-mediate-widespread-inhibition-of-tufted-cell-apical-dendrites
#19
Shawn D Burton, Greg LaRocca, Annie Liu, Claire E J Cheetham, Nathaniel N Urban
: In the main olfactory bulb (MOB), the first station of sensory processing in the olfactory system, GABAergic interneuron signaling shapes principal neuron activity to regulate olfaction. Lack of known selective markers for MOB interneurons has strongly impeded cell type-selective investigation of interneuron function, however. Here, we identify the first selective marker of glomerular layer-projecting deep short-axon cells (GL-dSACs) and systematically investigate the structure, abundance, intrinsic physiology, feedforward sensory input, neuromodulation, synaptic output, and functional role of GL-dSACs in the mouse MOB circuit...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989579/plasma-palmitoylethanolamide-pea-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-impaired-coronary-function
#20
Alessandra Quercioli, Federico Carbone, Aldo Bonaventura, Luca Liberale, Zoltan Pataky, Aurélien Thomas, Sébastien Lenglet, Estelle Lauer, Alain Golay, Franco Dallegri, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Thomas H Schindler, Fabrizio Montecucco
BACKGROUND: Among endocannabinoid (EC)-related mediators, Oleoyl-ethanolamide (OEA) and Palmitoyl-ethanolamide (PEA), two endogenous PPARα agonists with lipolytic and anti-inflammatory action, respectively, are being actively investigated. Here, we assessed the potential association between plasma levels of PEA and OEA and coronary function in a cohort including normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese (MOB) individuals. METHODS: Myocardial perfusion and endothelium-related myocardial blood flow (MBF) responses to cold pressor test (CPT) and during pharmacological vasodilation with dipyridamole were measured with (13)N-ammonia positron emission tomography/computed tomography...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
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