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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909591/mobbing-exposure-of-anaesthesiology-residents-in-turkey
#1
Gülnihal Aykut, Esra Mercanoğlu Efe, Selcan Bayraktar, Sinem Şentürk, İrem Başeğmez, Özlem Özkumit, Elmas Kabak, Belgin Yavaşçaoğlu, Hülya Bilgin
OBJECTIVE: In recent years, psychological problems that are caused by working conditions, like burn out syndrome, are more commonly observed. In our study, we aimed to evaluate mobbing exposure, factors causing mobbing and precautions for mobbing in residency students who are educated in anaesthesiology and reanimation clinics in Turkey. METHODS: After obtaining consent from the ethics committee, we sent our questionnaires to the secretariats of the departments by postal mail...
August 2016: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903776/social-bond-strength-influences-vocally-mediated-recruitment-to-mobbing
#2
Julie M Kern, Andrew N Radford
Strong social bonds form between individuals in many group-living species, and these relationships can have important fitness benefits. When responding to vocalizations produced by groupmates, receivers are expected to adjust their behaviour depending on the nature of the bond they share with the signaller. Here we investigate whether the strength of the signaller-receiver social bond affects response to calls that attract others to help mob a predator. Using field-based playback experiments on a habituated population of wild dwarf mongooses (Helogale parvula), we first demonstrate that a particular vocalization given on detecting predatory snakes does act as a recruitment call; receivers were more likely to look, approach and engage in mobbing behaviour than in response to control close calls...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902696/interglomerular-connectivity-within-the-canonical-and-gc-d-necklace-olfactory-subsystems
#3
Cedric R Uytingco, Adam C Puche, Steven D Munger
The mammalian main olfactory system contains several subsystems that differ not only in the receptors they express and the glomerular targets they innervate within the main olfactory bulb (MOB), but also in the strategies they use to process odor information. The canonical main olfactory system employs a combinatorial coding strategy that represents odorant identity as a pattern of glomerular activity. By contrast, the "GC-D/necklace" olfactory subsystem-formed by olfactory sensory neurons expressing the receptor guanylyl cyclase GC-D and their target necklace glomeruli (NGs) encircling the caudal MOB-is critical for the detection of a small number of semiochemicals that promote the acquisition of food preferences...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902689/using-intrinsic-flavoprotein-and-nad-p-h-imaging-to-map-functional-circuitry-in-the-main-olfactory-bulb
#4
Cedric R Uytingco, Adam C Puche, Steven D Munger
Neurons exhibit strong coupling of electrochemical and metabolic activity. Increases in intrinsic fluorescence from either oxidized flavoproteins or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) [NAD(P)H] in the mitochondria have been used as an indicator of neuronal activity for the functional mapping of neural circuits. However, this technique has not been used to investigate the flow of olfactory information within the circuitry of the main olfactory bulb (MOB). We found that intrinsic flavoprotein fluorescence signals induced by electrical stimulation of single glomeruli displayed biphasic responses within both the glomerular (GL) and external plexiform layers (EPL) of the MOB...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891115/methanotrophy-under-versatile-conditions-in-the-water-column-of-the-ferruginous-meromictic-lake-la-cruz-spain
#5
Kirsten Oswald, Corinne Jegge, Jana Tischer, Jasmine Berg, Andreas Brand, María R Miracle, Xavier Soria, Eduardo Vicente, Moritz F Lehmann, Jakob Zopfi, Carsten J Schubert
Lakes represent a considerable natural source of methane to the atmosphere compared to their small global surface area. Methanotrophs in sediments and in the water column largely control methane fluxes from these systems, yet the diversity, electron accepting capacity, and nutrient requirements of these microorganisms have only been partially identified. Here, we investigated the role of electron acceptors alternative to oxygen and sulfate in microbial methane oxidation at the oxycline and in anoxic waters of the ferruginous meromictic Lake La Cruz, Spain...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844056/hyperpolarization-activated-currents-and-subthreshold-resonance-in-granule-cells-of-the-olfactory-bulb
#6
Ruilong Hu, Katie A Ferguson, Christina B Whiteus, Dimphna H Meijer, Ricardo C Araneda
An important contribution to neural circuit oscillatory dynamics is the ongoing activation and inactivation of hyperpolarization-activated currents (Ih). Network synchrony dynamics play an important role in the initial processing of odor signals by the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). In the mouse olfactory bulb, we show that Ih is present in granule cells (GCs), the most prominent inhibitory neuron in the olfactory bulb, and that Ih underlies subthreshold resonance in GCs. In accord with the properties of Ih, the currents exhibited sensitivity to changes in extracellular K(+) concentration and ZD7288 (4-ethylphenylamino-1,2-dimethyl-6-methylaminopyrimidin chloride), a blocker of Ih...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829698/referential-calls-coordinate-multi-species-mobbing-in-a-forest-bird-community
#7
Toshitaka N Suzuki
Japanese great tits (Parus minor) use a sophisticated system of anti-predator communication when defending their offspring: they produce different mobbing calls for different nest predators (snake versus non-snake predators) and thereby convey this information to conspecifics (i.e. functionally referential call system). The present playback experiments revealed that these calls also serve to coordinate multi-species mobbing at nests; snake-specific mobbing calls attracted heterospecific individuals close to the sound source and elicited snake-searching behaviour, whereas non-snake mobbing calls attracted these birds at a distance...
2016: Journal of Ethology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797986/ambulance-smartphone-tool-for-field-triage-of-ruptured-aortic-aneurysms-filtr-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-validation-of-diagnostic-accuracy
#8
Thomas L Lewis, Rachael T Fothergill, Alan Karthikesalingam
INTRODUCTION: Rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) carries a considerable mortality rate and is often fatal. rAAA can be treated through open or endovascular surgical intervention and it is possible that more rapid access to definitive intervention might be a key aspect of improving mortality for rAAA. Diagnosis is not always straightforward with up to 42% of rAAA initially misdiagnosed, introducing potentially harmful delay. There is a need for an effective clinical decision support tool for accurate prehospital diagnosis and triage to enable transfer to an appropriate centre...
October 24, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770477/ige-and-allergen-specific-immunotherapy-induced-igg4-recognize-similar-epitopes-of-bet%C3%A2-v%C3%A2-1-the-major-allergen-of-birch-pollen
#9
Nicole Groh, Christian Seutter von Loetzen, Brinda Subbarayal, Christian Möbs, Lothar Vogel, Andreas Hoffmann, Kay Fötisch, Anna Koutsouridou, Stefanie Randow, Elke Völker, Andreas Reuter, Paul Rösch, Stefan Vieths, Wolfgang Pfützner, Barbara Bohle, Dirk Schiller
BACKGROUND: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen generates Bet v 1-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G4 which blocks IgE-mediated hypersensitivity mechanisms. Whether IgG4 specific for Bet v1a competes with IgE for identical epitopes or whether novel epitope specificities of IgG4 antibodies are developed is under debate. OBJECTIVE: We sought to analyze the epitope specificities of IgE and IgG4 antibodies from sera of patients who received AIT. METHODS: 15 sera of patients (13/15 received AIT) with Bet v 1a-specific IgE and IgG4 were analyzed...
October 22, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754889/the-zebrafish-homologs-of-set-i2pp2a-oncoprotein-expression-patterns-and-insights-into-their-physiological-roles-during-development
#10
Iliana Serifi, Eleni Tzima, Katerina Soupsana, Zoe Karetsou, Dimitris Beis, Thomais Papamarcaki
The oncoprotein SET/I2PP2A participates in various cellular mechanisms such as transcription, cell cycle regulation and cell migration. SET is also an inhibitor of the serine/threonine phosphatase PP2A, which is involved in the regulation of cell homeostasis. In zebrafish there are two paralogous set genes that encode Seta (269 aa) and Setb (275 aa) proteins which share 94% identity. We show here that seta and set b are similarly expressed in the eye, the otic vesicle, the brain and the lateral line system, as indicated by in situ hybridization labeling...
October 17, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742272/two-year-experience-of-the-organ-donation-week-of-the-federal-university-of-health-sciences-of-porto-alegre-brazil
#11
B Dal Pupo, M Zanon, A W Tech, L V Cruz, M Cornelli, C do Valle Pereira, J Bertoglio, C Acosta, P Perusato, A J C Monteiro, G Marinho, A P S Souza, C D Garcia
BACKGROUND: Today, Brazil is the second country of the world in number of transplants. Nonetheless, waiting lists are getting longer. This lack of organs occurs mostly because of people's reduced knowledge about the donation process. With the aim of changing this scenario, in 2013 and 2014, "Organ Donation Week" events were held at the Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre. METHODS: During the 2 years, documentaries followed by a cycle of debates with experts in this area were exhibited...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738383/threat-sensitive-anti-predator-defence-in-precocial-wader-the-northern-lapwing-vanellus-vanellus
#12
Natalia Królikowska, Jakub Szymkowiak, Rebecca Anne Laidlaw, Lechosław Kuczyński
Birds exhibit various forms of anti-predator behaviours to avoid reproductive failure, with mobbing-observation, approach and usually harassment of a predator-being one of the most commonly observed. Here, we investigate patterns of temporal variation in the mobbing response exhibited by a precocial species, the northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus). We test whether brood age and self-reliance, or the perceived risk posed by various predators, affect mobbing response of lapwings. We quantified aggressive interactions between lapwings and their natural avian predators and used generalized additive models to test how timing and predator species identity are related to the mobbing response of lapwings...
2016: Acta Ethologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731374/exercise-training-alleviates-hypoxia-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-the-lymphocytes-of-sedentary-males
#13
Hsing-Hua Tsai, Shao-Chiang Chang, Cheng-Hsien Chou, Tzu-Pin Weng, Chih-Chin Hsu, Jong-Shyan Wang
This study elucidates how interval and continuous exercise regimens affect the mitochondrial functionality of lymphocytes under hypoxic stress. Sixty healthy sedentary males were randomly assigned to engage in either high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 3 min intervals at 80% and 40% VO2max, n = 20) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, sustained 60% VO2max, n = 20) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks or were assigned to a control group that did not receive exercise intervention (n = 20)...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723310/application-of-carbohydrate-templated-asymmetric-diels-alder-reaction-to-the-syntheses-of-ent-penicillones-a-and-b
#14
Chia-Hao Weng, Day-Shin Hsu, Chun-Chen Liao
Total syntheses of ent-penicillones A (ent-1) and B (ent-2) from 3,5-dimethylcatechol (3) were accomplished in ten and nine synthetic steps, respectively. A carbohydrate-templated asymmetric intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of a masked o-benzoquinone (MOB) 9 and an aqueous acid-catalyzed intramolecular aldol reaction are the key synthetic steps. In addition, the absolute configurations of the bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-one core obtained from the per-O-benzylated alpha-D-glucopyranosyl as a carbohydrate template in the intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of MOBs were revised...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709234/early-nutritional-follow-up-after-discharge-prevents-deterioration-of-adl-functions-in-malnourished-independent-geriatric-patients-who-live-alone-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
J L Pedersen, P U Pedersen, E M Damsgaard
OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of two nutritional follow-up interventions with regard to preventing short-term deterioration in ADL, and to compare their effects on physical function, emotional health, and health-related quality of life. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial with two intervention groups and one control group, and a follow-up period of eight weeks. SETTING: Intervention in the participants' homes after discharge from hospital...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699517/modified-overlap-method-using-knotless-barbed-sutures-mobs-for-intracorporeal-esophagojejunostomy-after-totally-laparoscopic-gastrectomy
#16
Sang-Yong Son, Long-Hai Cui, Ho-Jung Shin, Cheulsu Byun, Hoon Hur, Sang-Uk Han, Yong Kwan Cho
BACKGROUND: Compared to end-to-side anastomosis with a circular stapler, the overlap method is favored for intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy because it facilitates handling of the stapler, even in narrow spaces, and wider anastomosis. However, it associates with technical difficulties during anastomosis, including difficult traction on the esophageal stump that necessitates stay sutures. Here, we introduce a new modified overlap method that employs knotless barbed sutures (MOBS) and report the outcomes of our case series...
October 3, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686623/non-specific-alarm-calls-trigger-mobbing-behavior-in-hainan-gibbons-nomascus-hainanus
#17
Huaiqing Deng, Kai Gao, Jiang Zhou
Alarm calls are important defensive behaviors. Here, we report the acoustic spectrum characteristics of alarm calls produced by Hainan gibbons (Nomascus hainanus) inhabiting Bawangling National Nature Reserve in Hainan, China. Analysis of call data collected from 2002-2014 shows that alarm calls are emitted by all family group members, except infants. Alarm behavior included simple short alarming calls (7-10 min) followed by longer variable-frequency mobbing calls lasting 5-12 min. The duration of individual alarming and mobbing calls was 0...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645100/diversity-of-methane-oxidizing-bacteria-in-soils-from-hot-lands-of-medolla-italy-featured-by-anomalous-high-temperatures-and-biogenic-co2-emission
#18
Martina Cappelletti, Daniele Ghezzi, Davide Zannoni, Bruno Capaccioni, Stefano Fedi
"Terre Calde di Medolla" (TCM) (literally, "Hot Lands of Medolla") refers to a farming area in Italy with anomalously high temperatures and diffuse emissions of biogenic CO2, which has been linked to CH4 oxidation processes from a depth of 0.7 m to the surface. We herein assessed the composition of the total bacterial community and diversity of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in soil samples collected at a depth at which the peak temperature was detected (0.6 m). Cultivation-independent methods were used, such as: i) a clone library analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and pmoA (coding for the α-subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase) gene, and ii) Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting...
September 17, 2016: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634308/occurrence-and-biosynthesis-of-3-mercaptopropionic-acid-in-methanocaldococcus-jannaschii
#19
Kylie D Allen, Robert H White
In a non-targeted analysis of thiol-containing compounds in the hyperthermophilic methanogen Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, we discovered three unexpected metabolites: 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), 2-hydroxy-4-mercaptobutyric acid (HMBA) and 4-mercapto-2-oxobutyric acid (MOB). HMBA and MOB have never been reported as natural products, while MPA is highly prevalent in aquatic environments as a result of biotic and abiotic processing of sulfur-containing compounds. This report provides evidence that HMBA and MOB are part of a biosynthetic pathway to generate MPA in M...
October 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628203/activation-of-%C3%AE-noradrenergic-receptors-enhances-rhythmic-bursting-in-mouse-olfactory-bulb-external-tufted-cells
#20
Fu-Wen Zhou, Hong-Wei Dong, Matthew Ennis
The main olfactory bulb (MOB) receives a rich noradrenergic innervation from the nucleus locus coeruleus. Despite the well-documented role of norepinephrine and β-adrenergic receptors in neonatal odor preference learning, identified cellular physiological actions of β-receptors in the MOB have remained elusive. β-Receptors are expressed at relatively high levels in the MOB glomeruli, the location of external tufted (ET) cells that exert an excitatory drive on mitral and other cell types. The present study investigated the effects of β-receptor activation on the excitability of ET cells with patch-clamp electrophysiology in mature mouse MOB slices...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
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