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Daisuke Kondoh, Motoki Sasaki, Nobuo Kitamura
Receptor cells of the olfactory epithelium (OE) and vomeronasal organ (VNO) project axons to glomeruli in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), respectively and undergo continuous turnover throughout life. Alpha1-2 fucose (α1-2Fuc) glycan mediates neurite outgrowth and synaptic plasticity and plays important roles in the formation of the olfactory system during development. We previously confirmed the localization of α1-2Fuc glycan in the olfactory system of 3- to 4-month-old mice but whether such localization persists throughout life remains unknown...
March 19, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Weicheng Zhang, Jingyuan Shen, Fengming Gu, Ying Zhang, Wenjuan Wu, Jiachun Weng, Yuexia Liao, Zijing Deng, Qing Yuan, Lu Zheng, Yu Zhang, Weigan Shen
Accumulating evidence implicates monopolar spindle-one-binder protein (MOB)2 as an inhibitor of nuclear-Dbf2-related kinase (NDR) by competing with MOB1 for interaction with NDR1/2. NDR/large tumor suppressor (LATS) kinases may function similarly to yes-associated protein (YAP) kinases and be considered as members of the Hippo core cassette. MOB2 appears to serve roles in cell survival, cell cycle progression, responses to DNA damage and cell motility. However, the underlying mechanisms involved remain unclarified...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Huijun Wang, Mark Fowler, David Messenge, Leon A Terry, Xuelan Gu, Luxian Zhou, Ruimin Liu, Juan Su, Songshan Shi, Jos Eacute Ordaz-Ortiz, Guoping Lian, Mark Berry, Shunchun Wang
Foods of high carbohydrate content such as sucrose or starch increase postprandial blood glucose concentrations. The glucose absorption system in the intestine comprises two components: sodium-dependent glucose transporter-1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). Here five sappanin-type (SAP) homoisoflavonoids were identified as novel potent GLUT2 inhibitors, with three of them isolated from the fibrous roots of Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce. SAP homoisolflavonoids had a stronger inhibitory effect on 25 mM glucose transport (41...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Hiroki Goto, Miki Nishio, Yoko To, Tatsuya Oishi, Yosuke Miyachi, Tomohiko Maehama, Hiroshi Nishina, Haruhiko Akiyama, Tak Wah Mak, Yuma Makii, Taku Saito, Akihiro Yasoda, Noriyuki Tsumaki, Akira Suzuki
Hippo signaling is modulated in response to cell density, external mechanical forces, or rigidity of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The Mps one binder kinase activator (MOB) adaptor proteins are core components of Hippo signaling and have important effects on Yes-associated protein-1 (YAP1) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), which are potent transcriptional regulators. YAP1/TAZ are key contributors to cartilage and bone development but the molecular mechanisms by which the Hippo pathway controls chondrogenesis are largely unknown...
March 6, 2018: Development
Holly Thurston, Sheridan Miyamoto
Child welfare agencies are tasked with investigating allegations of child maltreatment and intervening when necessary. Researchers are turning to the field of predictive analytics to optimize data analysis and data-driven decision making. To demonstrate the utility of statistical algorithms that preceded the current predictive analytics, we used Model Based (MOB) recursive partitioning, a variant of regression analysis known as decision trees, on a dataset of cases and controls with a binary outcome of serious maltreatment (defined as hospitalization or death)...
February 28, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Catherine M Pirkle, Yan Yan Wu, Maria-Victoria Zunzunegui, José Fernando Gómez
OBJECTIVE: Conceptual models underpinning much epidemiological research on ageing acknowledge that environmental, social and biological systems interact to influence health outcomes. Recursive partitioning is a data-driven approach that allows for concurrent exploration of distinct mixtures, or clusters, of individuals that have a particular outcome. Our aim is to use recursive partitioning to examine risk clusters for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, in order to identify vulnerable populations...
March 1, 2018: BMJ Open
Kenna D S Lehmann, Tracy M Montgomery, Sarah M MacLachlan, Jenna M Parker, Olivia S Spagnuolo, Kelsey J VandeWetering, Patrick S Bills, Kay E Holekamp
Understanding the factors that facilitate the emergence of cooperation among organisms is central to the study of social evolution. Spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta frequently cooperate to mob lions Panthera leo , approaching the lions as a tightknit group while vocalizing loudly in an attempt to overwhelm them and drive them away. Whereas cooperative mobbing behavior has been well documented in birds and some mammals, to our knowledge it has never been described during interactions between 2 apex predators. Using a 27-year dataset, we characterize lion-hyena encounters, assess rates of mobbing behavior observed during these interactions, and inquire whether mobbing results in successful acquisition of food...
June 2017: Current Zoology
Grazyna Lietzau, William Davidsson, Claes-Göran Östenson, Fausto Chiazza, David Nathanson, Hiranya Pintana, Josefin Skogsberg, Thomas Klein, Thomas Nyström, Vladimer Darsalia, Cesare Patrone
Recent data suggest that olfactory deficits could represent an early marker and a pathogenic mechanism at the basis of cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, research is needed to further characterize olfactory deficits in diabetes, their relation to cognitive decline and underlying mechanisms.The aim of this study was to determine whether T2D impairs odour detection, olfactory memory as well as neuroplasticity in two major brain areas responsible for olfaction and odour coding: the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and the piriform cortex (PC), respectively...
February 23, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Palani R Jothi, Kunio Yubuta, Boniface P T Fokwa
Most nanomaterials, such as transition metal carbides, phosphides, nitrides, chalcogenides, etc., have been extensively studied for their various properties in recent years. The similarly attractive transition metal borides, on the contrary, have seen little interest from the materials science community, mainly because nanomaterials are notoriously difficult to synthesize. Herein, a simple, general synthetic method toward crystalline transition metal boride nanomaterials is proposed. This new method takes advantage of the redox chemistry of Sn/SnCl2 , the volatility and recrystallization of SnCl2 at the synthesis conditions, as well as the immiscibility of tin with boron, to produce crystalline phases of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metal nanoborides with different morphologies (nanorods, nanosheets, nanoprisms, nanoplates, nanoparticles, etc...
February 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
Meng-Ting Sun, Zhi-Man Yang, Shan-Fei Fu, Xiao-Lei Fan, Rong-Bo Guo
Methane in exhaust gas from biogas upgrading process, which is a greenhouse gas, could cause global warming. The biofilter with immobilized methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) is a promising approach for methane removal, and the selections of inoculated MOB culture and support material are vital for the biofilter. In this work, five MOB consortia were enriched at different methane concentrations. The MOB-20 consortium enriched at the methane concentration of 20.0% (v/v) was then immobilized on sponge and two particle sizes of volcanic rock in biofilters to remove methane in exhaust gas from biogas upgrading process...
February 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Paul M Candy, Tania S Waghorn, Chris M Miller, Siva Ganesh, Dave M Leathwick
A replicated field trial was conducted to measure the effect on liveweight gain of failing to adequately control anthelmintic resistant populations of Cooperia oncophora and to determine whether populations, and hence production losses, increased with time. Eight mobs of 10 Friesian-Hereford calves were run on independent farmlets from January to December, over each of two years. All mobs were routinely treated with a pour-on formulation of eprinomectin every six weeks, which controlled parasites other than Cooperia...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
R Alvarado-Martínez, R G Paredes
One of the regions that constantly produces neurogenesis in the adult brain is the subventricular zone (SVZ), whose new cells migrate to the olfactory bulbs (OB). When the females regulate the copulatory events (paced mating) the number of new cells in the SVZ increases, as well as those observed in the OB 15 days later. However, no changes were observed in the number of cells 45 days after the females paced the sexual interaction. Constant sensory stimulation is an important promoter of cell survival in the OB circuit...
February 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Guillam E McIvor, Victoria E Lee, Alex Thornton
Social learning is often assumed to help young animals respond appropriately to potential threats in the environment. We brought wild, juvenile jackdaws briefly into captivity to test whether short exposures to conspecific vocalizations are sufficient to promote anti-predator learning. Individuals were presented with one of two models-a stuffed fox representing a genuine threat, or a toy elephant simulating a novel predator. Following an initial baseline presentation, juveniles were trained by pairing models with either adult mobbing calls, indicating danger, or contact calls suggesting no danger...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Carla Treloar, Max Hopwood, Elena Cama, Veronica Saunders, L Clair Jackson, Melinda Walker, Catriona Ooi, Ashley Ubrihien, James Ward
BACKGROUND: Deadly Liver Mob (DLM) is a peer-driven, incentivised health promotion program aimed at increasing understanding of hepatitis C, promoting harm reduction in relation to injecting drug use, and linking participants to screening for hepatitis C, other blood borne viruses and sexually transmissible infections among Aboriginal people in Western Sydney, NSW. This paper presents the evaluation of a pilot study examining the acceptability of the program as a first step of a scalability assessment...
February 1, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Jan Zrimec, Aleš Lapanje
Horizontal gene transfer via plasmid conjugation enables antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to spread among bacteria and is a major health concern. The range of potential transfer hosts of a particular conjugative plasmid is characterised by its mobility (MOB) group, which is currently determined based on the amino acid sequence of the plasmid-encoded relaxase. To facilitate prediction of plasmid MOB groups, we have developed a bioinformatic procedure based on analysis of the origin-of-transfer (oriT), a merely 230 bp long non-coding plasmid DNA region that is the enzymatic substrate for the relaxase...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Masayuki Furuya, Junichi Kikuta, Sayumi Fujimori, Shigeto Seno, Hiroki Maeda, Mai Shirazaki, Maki Uenaka, Hiroki Mizuno, Yoriko Iwamoto, Akito Morimoto, Kunihiko Hashimoto, Takeshi Ito, Yukihiro Isogai, Masafumi Kashii, Takashi Kaito, Shinsuke Ohba, Ung-Il Chung, Alexander C Lichtler, Kazuya Kikuchi, Hideo Matsuda, Hideki Yoshikawa, Masaru Ishii
Bone homeostasis is regulated by communication between bone-forming mature osteoblasts (mOBs) and bone-resorptive mature osteoclasts (mOCs). However, the spatial-temporal relationship and mode of interaction in vivo remain elusive. Here we show, by using an intravital imaging technique, that mOB and mOC functions are regulated via direct cell-cell contact between these cell types. The mOBs and mOCs mainly occupy discrete territories in the steady state, although direct cell-cell contact is detected in spatiotemporally limited areas...
January 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Christina Meinert, Marc Schürmann, Jan-Eike Domeyer, Anja Poehlein, Rolf Daniel, Alexander Steinbüchel
3,3'-Thiodipropionic acid (TDP) is used as an additive in food and cosmetic industry and as precursor substrate for biotechnical polythioester production. Its catabolism was investigated in Variovorax paradoxus TBEA6 previous to this study. It was reported that the insertion of the transposon Tn5::mob into a gene showing high homology to flavin-dependent oxidoreductases (fox) resulted in impaired growth with TDP. Therefore, it was assumed that the initial cleavage of TDP is catalyzed by an FAD-dependent oxidoreductase (Fox, VPARA_05580)...
January 17, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Daniel Benten, Yasmin Behrang, Ludmilla Unrau, Victoria Weissmann, Gerrit Wolters-Eisfeld, Susanne Burdak-Rothkamm, Felix R Stahl, Martin Anlauf, Patricia Grabowski, Markus Möbs, Jan Dieckhoff, Bence Sipos, Martina Fahl, Corinna Eggers, Daniel Perez, Maximilian Bockhorn, Jakob R Izbicki, Ansgar W Lohse, Joerg Schrader
Clinical options for systemic therapy of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are limited. Development of new drugs requires suitable representative in vitro and in vivo model systems. So far, the unavailability of a human model with a well-differentiated phenotype and typical growth characteristics has impaired pre-clinical research in NET. Herein, we establish and characterize a lymph node-derived cell line (NT-3) from a male patient with well-differentiated pancreatic NET. Neuroendocrine differentiation and tumor biology was compared to existing NET cell lines BON and QGP-1...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Maria Pais de Carvalho, Daniela Pinto, Melissa Gorayeb, Jorge Jacinto
Background Botulinum toxin type-A (BoNTA) is a recognized treatment for upper limb spasticity (ULS) after stroke, but there aren't many studies analyzing its effect in shoulder muscles. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of BoNTA injections for ULS, when shoulder muscles are included. Methods A cross-sectional study. Data from clinical forms of outpatients, treated at a Rehabilitation Center (2001-2016). Analyzes: goals of treatment; demographic characteristics/goal; treatment success, using Goal Attainment Scaling...
January 11, 2018: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
Varinia Rodríguez Campo, Tatiana Paravic Klijn
OBJECTIVE: to determine the perception of verbal abuse and mobbing and the associated factors of paramedic technicians (nursing assistants) and professionals (nurses, midwives, kinesiologists) in the pre-hospital care areas of three regions in the south of Chile. METHODS: descriptive and correlational study was performed within the professional community and a two-stage sample of the paramedic technician population in three regions. The questionnaire "workplace violence in the health sector" (spanish version) was applied after signing the informed consent...
January 8, 2018: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
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