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Caterina Vizzardelli, Miriam Gindl, Simone Roos, Christian Möbs, Birgit Nagl, Felix Zimmann, Veronika Sexl, Lukas Kenner, Alina Neunkirchner, Gerhard J Zlabinger, Winfried F Pickl, Wolfgang Pfützner, Barbara Bohle
BACKGROUND: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) induces specific blocking antibodies (Ab) which are claimed to prevent IgE-mediated reactions to allergens. Additionally, AIT modulates cellular responses to allergens, e.g. by desensitizing effector cells, inducing regulatory T and B lymphocytes and immune deviation. It is still enigmatic which of these mechanisms mediate(s) clinical tolerance. We sought to address the role of AIT-induced blocking Ab separately from cellular responses in a chimeric human/mouse model of respiratory allergy...
November 21, 2017: Allergy
Olawale Olufemi Adelowo, Serena Caucci, Omowunmi Abosede Banjo, Ozioma Chinyere Nnanna, Eunice Olubunmi Awotipe, Florence Bosede Peters, Obasola Ezekiel Fagade, Thomas U Berendonk
Untreated wastewater is a risk factor for the spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment. However, little is known about the contribution of untreated wastewater to the burden of antibiotic resistance in the Nigerian environment. In this study, a total of 143 ceftazidime-/cefpodoxime-resistant bacteria isolated from untreated wastewater and untreated wastewater-contaminated surface and groundwater in Nigeria were screened for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, integrons and integron gene cassettes by PCR...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Chrysanthi Skevaki, Christoph Hudemann, Mikhail Matrosovich, Christian Möbs, Sinu Paul, Andreas Wachtendorf, Bilal Alashkar Alhamwe, Daniel P Potaczek, Stefanie Hagner, Diethard Gemsa, Holger Garn, Alessandro Sette, Harald Renz
BACKGROUND: The hygiene hypothesis is the leading concept to explain the current asthma epidemic, which is built on the observation that a lack of bacterial contact early in life induces allergic Th2 immune responses. OBJECTIVE: Since little is known about the contribution of respiratory viruses in this context, we evaluated the effect of prior influenza-infection on the development of allergic asthma. METHODS: Mice were infected with influenza and once recovered, subjected to an ovalbumin or house dust mite-induced experimental asthma protocol...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Zechao Zhuang, Yong Li, Zilan Li, Fan Lv, Zhiquan Lang, Kangning Zhao, Liang Zhou, Lyudmila Moskaleva, Shaojun Guo, Liqiang Mai
Moderate proton adsorption on metallic catalysts is a prerequisite for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, precisely tuning the proton adsorption without perturbing metallicity still remains a formidable challenge. Herein, we fabricate an ingenious Schottky catalyst based on metal-semiconductor junction principles. When selecting metallic MoB as a paradigm, the introduction of n-type semiconductive g-C3N4 induces a vigorous charge transfer across the MoB/g-C3N4 Schottky junction, and increases the local electron density in MoB surface, proved by multiple spectroscopic techniques...
November 8, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Marianela Santoyo-Zedillo, Wendy Portillo, Raúl G Paredes
The possibility to control the rate of sexual stimulation that the female rat receives during a mating encounter (pacing) increases the number of newborn neurons that reach the granular layer of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). If females mate repeatedly, the increase in the number of neurons is observed in other regions of the AOB and in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). It has also been shown that paced mating induces a reward state mediated by opioids. There is also evidence that opioids modulate neurogenesis...
2017: PloS One
Thi Nhung Tran, Do-Gun Kim, Seok-Oh Ko
While biogenic manganese oxide (BMO) generated via the oxidation of Mn(II) by the Mn-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) have received attention, the relative roles of biological activity by MOB themselves were not clearly investigated. In this study, the synergistic effects of BMO and MOB Pseudomonas putida strain MnB1 on the degradation of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) was investigated. Experiments with BMO in the presence of P. putida MnB1 showed 15-fold higher removal than that with BMO alone, suggesting that EE2 degradation was mediated by the biological activity of MOB as well as abiotic reaction by BMO...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Sili Chen, Jianfei Chen, Sha Chang, Hao Yi, Dawei Huang, Shuguang Xie, Qingwei Guo
Both aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) organisms can be important methane sinks in a wetland. However, the influences of the vegetation type on aerobic MOB and n-damo communities in wetland, especially in constructed wetland, remain poorly understood. The present study investigated the influences of the vegetation type on both aerobic MOB and n-damo organisms in a constructed urban landscape wetland. Sediments were collected from eight sites vegetated with different plant species...
October 28, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Woo-Ram Lee, Changkyun Im, Chin Su Koh, Jun-Min Kim, Hyung-Cheul Shin, Jong-Mo Seo
Long-term electrode implant is a challenge for successful brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). It is well known that electrocorticography (ECoG) using flexible planar electrodes is more suitable for long-term implants than intracortical neural recordings using penetrative electrodes. In this study, we propose a convex-shaped, PDMS-parylene hybrid multi-electrode array for long-term stable ECoG recording on the brain or the spinal cord. The electrode array consists of 10 gold recording sites which show impedance values between 50 and 70 kOhm at 1 kHz with a diameter of 100 μm...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Suhartono Suhartono, Mary C Savin, Edward E Gbur
Transmissible plasmids and integrons may play important roles in the persistence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria throughout aquatic environment by accumulating antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). Class 1 and class 2 integron (intI), mobilization (mob), sulfamethoxazole resistance (sul), and trimethoprim resistance (dfr) genes were PCR-amplified and confirmed through DNA sequencing following plasmid extraction from 139 antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli. E. coli had previously been recovered from wastewater treatment plant effluent and receiving stream water in Northwest Arkansas and isolates had expressed resistance to one to six antibiotics...
October 23, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Samer Bazzi, Emale El-Darzi, Tina McDowell, Helmout Modjtahedi, Satvinder Mudan, Marcel Achkar, Charles Akle, Humam Kadara, Georges M Bahr
Heat-killed (HK) Mycobacterium obuense (NCTC13365) is currently being evaluated in the clinic as an immunotherapeutic agent for cancer treatment. Yet, the molecular underpinnings underlying immunomodulatory properties of HK M. obuense are still largely undefined. To fill this void, we sought to perform immunophenotyping, chemokine/cytokine release analysis and genome-wide characterization of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) in which monocytes were originally isolated from healthy donors and differentiated by HK M...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Andrew J Ritchey, R Barry Ruback
From 1882 to 1926, lynch mobs in Georgia killed 514 victims in 410 separate events. Based on a new comprehensive dataset, this study examined characteristics of the mobs related to the level of the atrocity of the violence in the lynchings. Consistent with prior research, the size of the crowd was a stable predictor of level of atrocity. However, in contrast to two prior studies, results did not uniformly support the self-attention perspective. Instead, the findings were more consistent with the concept that situational norms were the important mechanism behind collective violence, particularly because the violence used in a lynching event reflected the violence used in nearby lynchings...
September 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Carmela Gómez, David Jimeno, Alberto Fernández-Medarde, Rósula García-Navas, Nuria Calzada, Eugenio Santos
Various parameters of neurogenesis were analyzed in parallel in the two neurogenic areas (the Dentate Gyrus[DG] and the Subventricular Zone[SVZ]/Rostral Migratory Stream[RMS]/Main Olfactory Bulb[MOB] neurogenic system) of adult WT and KO mouse strains for the Ras-GRF1/2 genes (Ras-GRF1-KO, Ras-GRF2-KO, Ras-GRF1/2-DKO). Significantly reduced numbers of doublecortin[DCX]-positive cells were specifically observed in the DG, but not the SVZ/RMS/MOB neurogenic region, of Ras-GRF2-KO and Ras-GRF1/2-DKO mice indicating that this novel Ras-GRF2-dependent phenotype is spatially restricted to a specific neurogenic area...
September 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Prosenjit Pyne, Masrure Alam, Wriddhiman Ghosh
Molecular mechanisms of chemolithotrophic tetrathionate oxidation are not clearly understood. Here we used transposon(Tn5-mob)-insertion mutagenesis to search for novel tetrathionate oxidation genes in the facultatively chemolithoautotrophic betaproteobacterium Advenella kashmirensis that not only oxidizes tetrathionate, but also produces the same as an intermediate during thiosulfate oxidation. Genome-wide random insertion of Tn5-mob occurred at a frequency of one per 10(4) donor E. coli cells. A library of 8000 transconjugants yielded five tetrathionate-oxidation-impaired mutants, of which, the one named Ak_Tn_16 was studied here in detail...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
Yuechao Liu, Ying Xing, Li Cai
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related mortality in the world, with more than 1 million deaths per year, accounting for about one fifth of all cancer deaths worldwide. Over the past years, lung cancer treatment has been based on surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapies, and immunotherapy, but the improvement is not very perfect. Therefore, it has become clear that additional therapeutic strategies are urgently required to provide an improved survival benefit for patients. In recent years, Hippo signaling pathway has become a popular direction in the field of cancer research...
September 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Tiago Falótico, Michele P Verderane, Olívia Mendonça-Furtado, Noemi Spagnoletti, Eduardo B Ottoni, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Patrícia Izar
Snakes present a hazard to primates, both as active predators and by defensive envenomation. This risk might have been a selective pressure on the evolution of primate visual and cognitive systems, leading to several behavioral traits present in human and non-human primates, such as the ability to quickly learn to fear snakes. Primates seldom prey on snakes, and humans are one of the few primate species that do. We report here another case, the wild capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus), which preys on snakes...
September 16, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Irina Grass, Franziska Briest, Dagmar Sedding, Markus Möbs, Friederike Christen, Joana Benecke, Karolin Fuchs, Daniel Kaemmerer, Stefanie Mende, Jörg Sänger, Almut Kunze, Christina Geisler, Helma Freitag, Florentine Lewens, Lina Worpenberg, Sara Iwaszkiewicz, Britta Siegmund, Wolfgang Walther, Michael Hummel, Patricia Grabowski
<br>Background/Aims: The tumor suppressor p53 is rarely mutated in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NEN) but they frequently show a strong expression of p53 negative regulators, rendering these tumors excellent targets for a p53 recovery therapy. Therefore, we analyzed the mechanisms of a p53 recovery therapy on intestinal neuroendocrine tumors in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: By western blot and immunohistochemistry, we found that in GEP-NEN biopsy material overexpression of MDM2 was present in intestinal NEN...
September 14, 2017: Neuroendocrinology
Ahmed Sarwar, Simli Srivastava, Chris Chu, Alan Machin, Emil H Schemitsch, Habiba Bougherara, Zahra S Bagheri, Radovan Zdero
This is the first study to quantify the measurement error due to the physical thickness of Fujifilm for several material combinations relevant to orthopaedics. Theoretical and experimental analyses were conducted for cylinder-on-flat indentation over a series of forces (750 and 3000 N), cylinder diameters (0 to 80 mm), and material combinations (metal-on-metal, MOM; metal-on-polymer, MOP; metal-on-bone, MOB). For the scenario without Fujifilm, classic Hertzian theory predicted the true line-type contact width as WO = {(8FDcyl)/(πLcyl)[(1 - νcyl(2))/Ecyl + (1 - νflat(2))/Eflat]}(1/2), where F is compressive force, Dcyl is cylinder diameter, Lcyl is cylinder length, νcyl and νflat are cylinder and flat Poisson's ratios, and Ecyl and Eflat are cylinder and flat elastic moduli...
2017: BioMed Research International
Roberta Ribas Pena, Daniel de Castro Medeiros, Leonardo de Oliveira Guarnieri, Julio Boriollo Guerra, Vinícius Rezende Carvalho, Eduardo Mazoni Andrade Marçal Mendes, Grace Schenatto Pereira, Márcio Flávio Dutra Moraes
The brain oscillations may play a critical role in synchronizing neuronal assemblies in order to establish appropriate sensory-motor integration. In fact, studies have demonstrated phase-amplitude coupling of distinct oscillatory rhythms during cognitive processes. Here we investigated whether olfacto-hippocampal coupling occurs when mice are detecting familiar odors located in a spatially restricted area of a new context. The spatial olfactory task (SOT) was designed to expose mice to a new environment in which only one quadrant (target) contains odors provided by its own home-cage bedding...
November 5, 2017: Neuroscience
Chiharu Tsuji, Takahiro Tsuji, Andrew Allchorne, Gareth Leng, Mike Ludwig
In the main olfactory system, odours are registered at the main olfactory epithelium, then processed at the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and subsequently by the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), the piriform cortex (PC) and the cortical amygdala. Previously, we reported populations of vasopressin neurons in different areas of the rat olfactory system, including the MOB, accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) and the AON and showed that these are involved in the coding of social odour information. Utilizing immunohistochemistry and a transgenic rat in which an enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene is expressed in vasopressin neurons (eGFP-vasopressin), we show here a population of vasopressin neurons in the PC...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Gilbert Le Goff, David Damiens, Abdoul-Hamid Ruttee, Laurent Payet, Cyrille Lebon, Jean-Sébastien Dehecq, Martin Geier, Louis-Clément Gouagna
Determining the abundance and distribution of male mosquitoes in the wild and establishing species seasonality in candidate pilot sites is of particular interest with respect to the use of the sterile-male technique. With the knowledge that using mice as bait in BG-Sentinel traps effectively enhances Aedes albopictus male and female trapping success, the present study was designed to determine whether attractants derived from mouse odour blend could be a viable substitute for live mice to lure Ae. albopictus mosquitoes into traps...
September 1, 2017: Insects
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