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Chemical Pathology, Laboratory Medicine

Brandon W Heimer, Brooke E Tam, Alissa Minkovsky, Hadley D Sikes
Epigenetic silencing of genes that are important for DNA repair, cell cycle control, apoptosis, and cellular interactions with the extracellular matrix has been causally linked to several subtypes of cancer. Translating this knowledge of the implications of promoter methylation to wide and routine use in clinical pathology laboratories has been more challenging than the case of genetic analyses because epigenetic modifications do not change the underlying sequence of the affected nucleic acid, rendering polymerase chain reaction analysis alone uninformative...
April 29, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Jingshu Guo, Byeong Hwa Yun, Pramod Upadhyaya, Lihua Yao, Sesha Krishnamachari, Thomas A Rosenquist, Arthur P Grollman, Robert J Turesky
DNA adducts are a measure of internal exposure to genotoxicants and an important biomarker for human risk assessment. However, the employment of DNA adducts as biomarkers in human studies is often restricted because fresh-frozen tissues are not available. In contrast, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues with clinical diagnosis are readily accessible. Recently, our laboratory reported that DNA adducts of aristolochic acid, a carcinogenic component of Aristolochia herbs used in traditional Chinese medicines worldwide, can be recovered quantitatively from FFPE tissues...
May 3, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
James R Wright, Leland B Baskin
CONTEXT: Historical research on pathology and laboratory medicine services in World War I has been limited. In the Spanish American War, these efforts were primarily focused on tropical diseases. World War I problems that could be addressed by pathology and laboratory medicine were strikingly different because of the new field of clinical pathology. Geographic differences, changing war tactics, and trench warfare created new issues. OBJECTIVES: To describe the scope of pathology and laboratory medicine services in World War I and the value these services brought to the war effort...
September 2015: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Bingbing Wang, Chris V Galliford, Philip S Low
Medicines for the treatment of most human pathologies are encumbered by unwanted side effects that arise from the deposition of an effective drug into the wrong tissues. The logical remedy for these undesirable properties involves selective targeting of the therapeutic agent to pathologic cells, thereby avoiding collateral toxicity to healthy cells. Since significant advantages can also accrue by incorporating a therapeutic or imaging agent into a nanoparticle, many laboratories are now combining both benefits into a single formulation...
February 2014: Nanomedicine
R B Sandu, L Tarţău, A Miron, M Zagnat, C M Ghiciuc, C E Lupuşoru
UNLABELLED: Adaptogens represent a class of herbs frequently used as a unique and natural alternative medicine and herbal remedy for treating the many forms of stress and different other pathological conditions. Bidens tripartite, a flowering plant from the genus Bidens, family Compositae, subfamily Asteroideae was widely used in traditional medicine for its antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, astringent, diuretic, febrifuge, narcotic and sedative effects. Phytochemical analysis of this plant has revealed the presence of flavonoids, xanthophylls, volatile oil, acetylene and polyacetylene, sterols, aurones, chalcones, caffeine and tannins...
July 2013: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
Sumreena Mansoor, Abdul Khaliq Naveed, Asifa Majeed
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Wilson disease (WD) is autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism. Wilson disease patients usually suffer from hepatic or neuropsychiatric complications. The symptoms appear between ages five to 35 but it can vary from two years to 72 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study was carried out from June 2008 to November 2010. This study included nine families with eleven cases of WD to determine clinical presentation, diagnostic findings (including laboratory results) and liver histology...
July 2012: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Phulwinder K Grover, Adrian G Cummins, Timothy J Price, Ian C Roberts-Thomson, Jennifer E Hardingham
Understanding the molecular basis of disease requires gene expression profiling of normal and pathological tissue. Although the advent of laser microdissection (LMD) has greatly facilitated the procurement of specific cell populations, often only small amounts of low quality RNA is recovered. This precludes the use of global approaches of gene expression profiling which require sizable amounts of high quality RNA. Here we report a method for processing of snap-frozen tissue to prepare large amounts of intact RNA using LMD...
December 2012: Biochimie
Diann L Weddle, Charles R Mahrt, Stephen P Schmidt
In non-rodent toxicity studies supporting pharmaceutical or chemical product registration, the value of histopathology evaluation of all tissues from all animals from all dose groups is an ongoing discussion topic among pathologists. This manuscript documents an examination of this topic through a retrospective review of internal nonclinical study data from non-rodent toxicity studies performed at three pharmaceutical companies (Abbott Laboratories, Eli Lilly, and Pfizer, Inc.) and an informal survey of the current practices within the toxicological pathology community...
July 2012: Toxicologic Pathology
Linda M Vap, Kendal E Harr, Jill E Arnold, Kathleen P Freeman, Karen Getzy, Sally Lester, Kristen R Friedrichs
In December 2009, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards committee published the updated and peer-reviewed ASVCP Quality Assurance Guidelines on the Society's website. These guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports: (1) general analytical factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons; (2) hematology, hemostasis, and crossmatching; and (3) clinical chemistry, cytology, and urinalysis...
March 2012: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
J Michael Miller, Rex Astles, Timothy Baszler, Kimberle Chapin, Roberta Carey, Lynne Garcia, Larry Gray, Davise Larone, Michael Pentella, Anne Pollock, Daniel S Shapiro, Elizabeth Weirich, Danny Wiedbrauk
Prevention of injuries and occupational infections in U.S. laboratories has been a concern for many years. CDC and the National Institutes of Health addressed the topic in their publication Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, now in its 5th edition (BMBL-5). BMBL-5, however, was not designed to address the day-to-day operations of diagnostic laboratories in human and animal medicine. In 2008, CDC convened a Blue Ribbon Panel of laboratory representatives from a variety of agencies, laboratory organizations, and facilities to review laboratory biosafety in diagnostic laboratories...
January 6, 2012: MMWR Supplements
Takayuki Honda
In this review, I showed a brief summary of my carrier in multiple special fields (clinical pathologist, anatomical pathologist of lung, respiratory physician and infection control doctor), my studies and my own view of laboratory medicine. We chiefly study pathology of the lung, especially about type II pneumocytes. Type II pneumocytes had abundant surface coat on the apical surface containing a specific carbohydrate structure of Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen. TF antigen is a marker of type II pneumocytes beyond animal species, and can be used for evaluating activity of various interstitial pneumonia as type II pneumocyte index (number/lmm alveolar length)...
March 2011: Rinsho Byori. the Japanese Journal of Clinical Pathology
(no author information available yet)
The authors considered importance and possibilities of using laboratory values in occupational medicine and pathology for diagnosis of occupational diseases. Evaluation covered requirements and methodic approaches to selection of the most informative diagnostically reliable laboratory biomarkers and to elaboration of their complexes. The article covers examples of selecting informative biomarkers in exposure to various occupational hazards and specific complexes to identify harm caused by coal dust, vibration, chemical factors, skin diseases...
2010: Meditsina Truda i Promyshlennaia Ekologiia
P Hardelid, N J Andrews, K Hoschler, E Stanford, M Baguelin, P A Waight, M Zambon, E Miller
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the H1N1 2009 serological surveillance project were twofold: to document (1) the prevalence of cross-reactive antibodies to H1N1 2009 by age group in the population of England prior to arrival of the pandemic strain virus in the UK and (2) the age-specific incidence of infection by month as the pandemic progressed by measuring increases in the proportion of individuals with antibodies to H1N1 2009 by age. METHODS: Residual aliquots of samples submitted to 16 microbiology laboratories in eight regions in England in defined age groups in 2008 and stored by the Health Protection Agency serological surveillance programme were used to document age-stratified prevalence of antibodies to H1N1 2009 prior to the arrival of the pandemic in the UK...
December 2010: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
M Martin, H Fangerau
During the nineteenth century the analysis of urine was based on technical tools for the quantification of its constituents. The transformation of diagnostic signs into numbers made reference and normal values indispensable for the verification of the transition point between "normal" and "pathological". It needed the reconfiguration of disease concepts to link measured data and values with specific clinical pictures. Ontological disease concepts were replaced by a gradual understanding of health and disease...
July 2010: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
G E Dobretsov
The objective of this paper was to overview results of the works aimed at the development and practical use of fluorescent dies (molecular flourescent probes) for the study of blood components carried out at the Institute of Physico-Chemical Medicine under the guidance of prof. Yu.M. Lopukhin. The new probes were used to directly detect and measure lipoproteins in unfractionated plasma and serum for the identification of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. The study revealed changes in physico-chemical characteristics of albumin molecules in many pathological processes closely related to clinical features and severity of the disease...
2009: Vestnik Rossiĭskoĭ Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk
Anna Klajnbard, Pal B Szecsi, Nina P Colov, Malene R Andersen, Maja Jørgensen, Brian Bjørngaard, Anne Barfoed, Katrine Haahr, Steen Stender
BACKGROUND: Physiological changes during pregnancy may affect laboratory parameters. Reference values based on samples from non-pregnant women are not necessarily useful for clinical decisions during pregnancy. There is a need to establish reference values during pregnancy in order to recognize pathological conditions. METHODS: Eight hundred and one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, delivery, or the early postpartum period...
February 2010: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Hansruedi Isler
Circa 1660 several favorable factors, instrumental to the invention of neurology, converged at the University of Oxford. Animals and men were believed to have a material soul whose functions throughout the nervous system were accessible to research. In 1659 inductive methods were introduced in clinical medicine by Thomas Willis, the founder of English epidemiology and biochemistry. The Vertuosi,who later founded the Royal Society, performed chemical experiments in teams, and Willis, head of their laboratory, gained experience in teamwork...
2010: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Daniela Pereira Lima, Diego Garcia Diniz, Suzely Adas Saliba Moimaz, Dóris Hissako Sumida, Ana Cláudia Okamoto
Saliva has become an important resource for evaluating physiological and pathological conditions in humans. The use of saliva has many advantages, including the simple and non-invasive method of collection and its easy, low-cost storage. With the addition of modern techniques and chemical instrumentation equipment, there has been an increase in its use for laboratory investigations, applicable for basic and clinical analyses in the fields of medicine and dentistry. The value of these methods for the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases has been the subject of study by several researchers with the aim of increasing its use alongside complementary exams...
March 2010: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
R T Erasmus, A E Zemlin
Audits are part of the continuous quality improvement process and one of the key elements of clinical governance. Laboratory-based clinical audits are concerned primarily with the everyday aspects of laboratory services and are a means of providing feedback to the users of the laboratory and its staff. They involve measuring the performance of laboratory services against established standards. These standards have ideally been established using the principles of evidence-based medicine. If necessary, changes are implemented and then a re-audit is performed after a certain time period to ensure that the changes have been implemented and maintained...
July 2009: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Kenu Harada, Yukiko Ichige, Misuzu Kakuda, Yukiko Taga, Noriko Shiba, Isao Kitajima
It is essential that medical students learn how to precisely assess the results of laboratory tests. This may be accomplished by improving students' understanding of the processes involved in the laboratory testing of specimens, from blood collection to analysis, and by discovering factors that may influence these processes and impact results. Currently, medical students are generally taught the process by using a large automatic analyzer. However, because the students cannot observe the actual operation of the analyzer, they do not learn the process of analysis, that is, the chemical analysis of the specimen...
September 2008: Rinsho Byori. the Japanese Journal of Clinical Pathology
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