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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096420/drivers-of-rift-valley-fever-epidemics-in-madagascar
#1
Renaud Lancelot, Marina Béral, Vincent Michel Rakotoharinome, Soa-Fy Andriamandimby, Jean-Michel Héraud, Caroline Coste, Andrea Apolloni, Cécile Squarzoni-Diaw, Stéphane de La Rocque, Pierre B H Formenty, Jérémy Bouyer, G R William Wint, Eric Cardinale
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne viral disease widespread in Africa. The primary cycle involves mosquitoes and wild and domestic ruminant hosts. Humans are usually contaminated after contact with infected ruminants. As many environmental, agricultural, epidemiological, and anthropogenic factors are implicated in RVF spread, the multidisciplinary One Health approach was needed to identify the drivers of RVF epidemics in Madagascar. We examined the environmental patterns associated with these epidemics, comparing human and ruminant serological data with environmental and cattle-trade data...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089793/eggshell-palaeogenomics-palaeognath-evolutionary-history-revealed-through-ancient-nuclear-and-mitochondrial-dna-from-madagascan-elephant-bird-aepyornis-sp-eggshell
#2
Alicia Grealy, Matthew Phillips, Gifford Miller, M Thomas P Gilbert, Jean-Marie Rouillard, David Lambert, Michael Bunce, James Haile
Palaeognaths, the sister group of all other living birds (neognaths), were once considered to be vicariant relics from the breakup of the Gondwanan supercontinent. However, recent molecular studies instead argue for dispersal of volant ancestors across marine barriers. Resolving this debate hinges upon accurately reconstructing their evolutionary relationships and dating their divergences, which often relies on phylogenetic information from extinct relatives and nuclear genomes. Mitogenomes from the extinct elephant birds of Madagascar have helped inform the palaeognath phylogeny; however, nuclear information has remained unavailable...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081528/rapid-decrease-in-populations-of-wild-ring-tailed-lemurs-lemur-catta-in-madagascar
#3
Marni LaFleur, Tara A Clarke, Kim Reuter, Toby Schaeffer
Lemurs are the most threatened group of mammals on earth. Lemur catta (ring-tailed lemur) represents one of the most iconic lemur species and faces numerous anthropogenic threats in the wild. In this study, we present population estimates from 32 sites across the range of L. catta, collected from primary and secondary data sources, to assess the number of ring-tailed lemurs left in the wild. We estimate that there are approximately 2,220 individual L. catta remaining in the 32 sites considered. We note local extinctions of populations of L...
January 13, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079085/endangered-species-illegal-lemur-trade-grows-in-madagascar
#4
Kim E Reuter, Marni LaFleur, Tara A Clarke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077326/longevity-in-calumma-parsonii-the-world-s-largest-chameleon
#5
Giulia Tessa, Frank Glaw, Franco Andreone
Large body size of ectothermic species can be correlated with high life expectancy. We assessed the longevity of the world's largest chameleon, the Parson's chameleon Calumma parsonii from Madagascar by using skeletochronology of phalanges taken from preserved specimens held in European natural history museums. Due to the high bone resorption we can provide only the minimum age of each specimen. The highest minimum age detected was nine years for a male and eight years for a female, confirming that this species is exceptionally long living among chameleons...
January 8, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069024/efficient-method-for-establishing-f1-progeny-from-wild-populations-of-anopheles-mosquitoes
#6
Thiery N Nepomichene, Lala Andrianaivolambo, Sébastien Boyer, Catherine Bourgouin
BACKGROUND: The changing malaria situation in Madagascar requires additional knowledge on the physiology and behaviour of local mosquito vectors. However, the absence of established colonies for several anopheline species present in Madagascar constitutes a limiting factor. To avoid labour intensive work and uncertainty for success of establishing Anopheles colonies from Malagasy species, field collections of blood-fed females and in-tube forced oviposition were combined to reliably produce large numbers of F1 progeny...
January 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068340/phylogeography-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-in-africa-and-the-arabian-peninsula
#7
Abdallah M Samy, A Townsend Peterson, Matthew Hall
Rift Valley Fever is an acute zoonotic viral disease caused by Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) that affects ruminants and humans in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. We used phylogenetic analyses to understand the demographic history of RVFV populations, using sequence data from the three minigenomic segments of the virus. We used phylogeographic approaches to infer RVFV historical movement patterns across its geographic range, and to reconstruct transitions among host species. Results revealed broad circulation of the virus in East Africa, with many lineages originating in Kenya...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057063/avian-malaria-on-madagascar-bird-hosts-and-putative-vector-mosquitoes-of-different-plasmodium-lineages
#8
Sandrine Schmid, Anke Dinkel, Ute Mackenstedt, Michaël Luciano Tantely, Fano José Randrianambinintsoa, Sébastien Boyer, Friederike Woog
BACKGROUND: Avian malaria occurs almost worldwide and is caused by Haemosporida parasites (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon). Vectors such as mosquitoes, hippoboscid flies or biting midges are required for the transmission of these parasites. There are few studies about avian malaria parasites on Madagascar but none about suitable vectors. METHODS: To identify vectors of avian Plasmodium parasites on Madagascar, we examined head, thorax and abdomen of 418 mosquitoes from at least 18 species using a nested PCR method to amplify a 524 bp fragment of the haemosporidian mitochondrial cytochrome b gene...
January 5, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054342/diversity-of-photoreceptor-arrangements-in-nocturnal-cathemeral-and-diurnal-malagasy-lemurs
#9
Leo Peichl, Alexander Kaiser, Felix Rakotondraparany, Richard R Dubielzig, Steven M Goodman, And Peter M Kappeler
The lemurs of Madagascar (Primates: Lemuriformes) are a monophyletic group that has lived in isolation from other primates for about 50 million years. Lemurs have diversified into species with diverse daily activity patterns and correspondingly different visual adaptations. We assessed the arrangements of retinal cone and rod photoreceptors in six nocturnal, three cathemeral and two diurnal lemur species and quantified different parameters in six of the species. The analysis revealed lower cone densities and higher rod densities in the nocturnal than in the cathemeral and diurnal species...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051316/phytochemical-investigations-of-three-rhodocodon-hyacinthaceae-sensu-apg-ii-species
#10
Sianne Schwikkard, Alaa Alqahtani, Walter Knirsch, Wolfgang Wetschnig, Andrius Jaksevicius, Elizabeth I Opara, Moses K Langat, Jackie L Andriantiana, Dulcie A Mulholland
The genus Rhodocodon (Hyacinthaceae sensu APG II) is endemic to Madagascar, and its phytochemistry has not been described previously. The phytochemistry of three species in this genus has been investigated, and eight compounds, including three bufadienolides (compounds 1, 4, and 5), a norlignan (2), and four homoisoflavonoids (compounds 3 and 6-8), have been isolated and identified. Compounds 1-3 and 6-8 have not been described previously. The COX-2 inhibitory activity of compound 6 and compound 7 acetate (compound 7A) was investigated on isolated colorectal cancer cells...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051125/reconstruction-of-rift-valley-fever-transmission-dynamics-in-madagascar-estimation-of-force-of-infection-from-seroprevalence-surveys-using-bayesian-modelling
#11
Marie-Marie Olive, Vladimir Grosbois, Annelise Tran, Lalaina Arivony Nomenjanahary, Mihaja Rakotoarinoro, Soa-Fy Andriamandimby, Christophe Rogier, Jean-Michel Heraud, Veronique Chevalier
The force of infection (FOI) is one of the key parameters describing the dynamics of transmission of vector-borne diseases. Following the occurrence of two major outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Madagascar in 1990-91 and 2008-09, recent studies suggest that the pattern of RVF virus (RVFV) transmission differed among the four main eco-regions (East, Highlands, North-West and South-West). Using Bayesian hierarchical models fitted to serological data from cattle of known age collected during two surveys (2008 and 2014), we estimated RVF FOI and described its variations over time and space in Madagascar...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032471/determinants-of-stunting-in-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-in-madagascar
#12
Hasina Rakotomanana, Gail E Gates, Deana Hildebrand, Barbara J Stoecker
Madagascar is among countries where the prevalence of stunting is dramatically high in under 5 years old children. This study investigated the determinants of child stunting based on the UNICEF framework on the causes of malnutrition. A cutoff at 24 months was used to separate the child population into two groups. By using the latest Demographic and Health Survey (2009), logistic regressions were performed to determine the variables associated with stunting. In 2009, 40.1% of the 1,863 children aged 0-23 months and 53...
December 28, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028020/museomics-resolve-the-systematics-of-an-endangered-grass-lineage-endemic-to-north-western-madagascar
#13
Christian Silva, Guillaume Besnard, Anthony Piot, Jacqueline Razanatsoa, Reyjane P Oliveira, Maria S Vorontsova
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent developments in DNA sequencing, so-called next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods, can help the study of rare lineages that are known from museum specimens. Here, the taxonomy and evolution of the Malagasy grass lineage Chasechloa was investigated with the aid of NGS. METHODS: Full chloroplast genome data and some nuclear sequences were produced by NGS from old herbarium specimens, while some selected markers were generated from recently collected Malagasy grasses...
December 27, 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006803/-i-bythaelurus-i-i-bachi-i-n-sp-a-new-deep-water-catshark-carcharhiniformes-%C3%A2-scyliorhinidae-from-the-southwestern-indian-ocean-with-a-review-of-i-bythaelurus-i-species-and-a-key-to-their-identification
#14
Simon Weigmann, David A Ebert, Paul J Clerkin, Matthias F W Stehmann, Gavin J P Naylor
A new deep-water catshark, Bythaelurus bachi, is described based on 44 specimens caught on the southern Madagascar Ridge in the southwestern Indian Ocean. The new species is the only stout-bodied Bythaelurus with oral papillae in the region and is distinguished from all congeners by the plain beige to light gray-brown coloration, high diversity in dermal denticle morphology, and presence of composite oral papillae. Despite resemblance in body shape, Bythaelurus bachi n. sp. is distinguished from its closest congener, B...
December 19, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006005/rapid-assessment-of-ecosystem-service-co-benefits-of-biodiversity-priority-areas-in-madagascar
#15
Rachel A Neugarten, Miroslav Honzák, Pierre Carret, Kellee Koenig, Luciano Andriamaro, Carlos Andres Cano, Hedley S Grantham, David Hole, Daniel Juhn, Madeleine McKinnon, Andriambolantsoa Rasolohery, Marc Steininger, Timothy Max Wright, Will R Turner
The importance of ecosystems for supporting human well-being is increasingly recognized by both the conservation and development sectors. Our ability to conserve ecosystems that people rely on is often limited by a lack of spatially explicit data on the location and distribution of ecosystem services (ES), the benefits provided by nature to people. Thus there is a need to map ES to guide conservation investments, to ensure these co-benefits are maintained. To target conservation investments most effectively, ES assessments must be rigorous enough to support conservation planning, rapid enough to respond to decision-making timelines, and often must rely on existing data...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002431/reproductive-biology-of-albacore-tuna-thunnus-alalunga-in-the-western-indian-ocean
#16
Zahirah Dhurmeea, Iker Zudaire, Emmanuel Chassot, Maria Cedras, Natacha Nikolic, Jérôme Bourjea, Wendy West, Chandani Appadoo, Nathalie Bodin
The reproductive biology of albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, in the western Indian Ocean was examined through analysis of the sex ratio, spawning season, length-at-maturity (L50), spawning frequency and fecundity. From 2013 to 2015, a total of 923 female and 867 male albacore were sampled. A bias in sex ratio was found in favor of females with fork length (LF) < 100 cm. Using histological analyses and gonadosomatic index, spawning was found to occur between 10°S and 30°S, mainly to the east of Madagascar from October to January...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998292/genetic-evidence-that-the-makira-region-in-northeastern-madagascar-is-a-hotspot-of-malaria-transmission
#17
Benjamin L Rice, Christopher D Golden, Evelin Jean Gasta Anjaranirina, Carolina Mastella Botelho, Sarah K Volkman, Daniel L Hartl
BACKGROUND: Encouraging advances in the control of Plasmodium falciparum malaria have been observed across much of Africa in the past decade. However, regions of high relative prevalence and transmission that remain unaddressed or unrecognized provide a threat to this progress. Difficulties in identifying such localized hotspots include inadequate surveillance, especially in remote regions, and the cost and labor needed to produce direct estimates of transmission. Genetic data can provide a much-needed alternative to such empirical estimates, as the pattern of genetic variation within malaria parasite populations is indicative of the level of local transmission...
December 20, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994960/malagasy-conostigmus-hymenoptera-ceraphronoidea-and-the-secret-of-scutes
#18
István Mikó, Carolyn Trietsch, Emily L Sandall, Matthew Jon Yoder, Heather Hines, Andrew Robert Deans
We revise the genus Conostigmus Dahlbom 1858 occurring in Madagascar, based on data from more specimens than were examined for the latest world revision of the genus. Our results yield new information about intraspecific variability and the nature of the atypical latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) observed in Ceraphronoidea. We also investigate cellular processes that underlie body size polyphenism, by utilizing the correspondence between epidermal cells and scutes, polygonal units of leather-like microsculpture...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989673/phylogenomics-and-morphology-of-extinct-paleognaths-reveal-the-origin-and-evolution-of-the-ratites
#19
Takahiro Yonezawa, Takahiro Segawa, Hiroshi Mori, Paula F Campos, Yuichi Hongoh, Hideki Endo, Ayumi Akiyoshi, Naoki Kohno, Shin Nishida, Jiaqi Wu, Haofei Jin, Jun Adachi, Hirohisa Kishino, Ken Kurokawa, Yoshifumi Nogi, Hideyuki Tanabe, Harutaka Mukoyama, Kunio Yoshida, Armand Rasoamiaramanana, Satoshi Yamagishi, Yoshihiro Hayashi, Akira Yoshida, Hiroko Koike, Fumihito Akishinonomiya, Eske Willerslev, Masami Hasegawa
The Palaeognathae comprise the flightless ratites and the volant tinamous, and together with the Neognathae constitute the extant members of class Aves. It is commonly believed that Palaeognathae originated in Gondwana since most of the living species are found in the Southern Hemisphere [1-3]. However, this hypothesis has been questioned because the fossil paleognaths are mostly from the Northern Hemisphere in their earliest time (Paleocene) and possessed many putative ancestral characters [4]. Uncertainties regarding the origin and evolution of Palaeognathae stem from the difficulty in estimating their divergence times [1, 2] and their remarkable morphological convergence...
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988769/hidden-diversity-in-deep-water-bandfishes-review-of-owstonia-with%C3%A2-descriptions-of-twenty-one-new-species-teleostei-cepolidae-owstoniinae
#20
William F Smith-Vaniz, G David Johnson
The bandfish family Cepolidae, comprising the subfamilies Owstoniinae and Cepolinae, is characterized, and defining characters of the three groups are identified and discussed. Characters of larvae of both subfamilies are described and illustrated. Six nominal genera of owstoniines had been proposed by various authors, but we recognize only Owstonia Tanaka. Utility of selected identification characters of the genus are discussed. Differences in lateral-line patterns have been the primary character used by some recent authors for recognition of two owstoniine genera, with Sphenanthias Weber possessing the plesiomorphic lateral-line condition...
November 8, 2016: Zootaxa
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