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Sheena L Faherty, José Luis Villanueva-Cañas, Marina B Blanco, Mar M Albà, Anne D Yoder
Hibernation is an adaptive strategy some mammals use to survive highly seasonal or unpredictable environments. We present the first investigation on the transcriptomics of hibernation in a natural population of primate hibernators: Crossley's dwarf lemurs (Cheirogaleus crossleyi). Using capture-mark-recapture techniques to track the same animals over a period of seven months in Madagascar, we used RNA-seq to compare gene expression profiles in white adipose tissue (WAT) during three distinct physiological states...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Ecology
António J Dos Santos Grácio, Maria Amélia A Grácio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Tropical Doctor
Ga Hun Boo, Line Le Gall, Il Ki Hwang, Kathy Ann Miller, Sung Min Boo
The genus Ptilophora currently includes 16 species occurring mostly in subtidal habitats of the Indo-Pacific Ocean, but its global diversity and biogeography are poorly understood. We analyzed mitochondrial cox1, plastid rbcL and plastid psbA sequences from specimens collected in southern Madagascar during the 2010 Atimo Vatae expedition and studied their morphologies. Both morphological and molecular datasets demonstrated the presence of five species in southern Madagascar: Ptilophora hildebrandtii, P. pterocladioides, and three new species described here, P...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Phycology
R S Razafindrasata, N F Rasaholiarison, J Razafimahefa, A D Tehindrazanarivelo
A stroke is the sudden onset of focal neurological deficits presumed to have mecanism vascular and is the leading cause of acquired motor disability in adults. To improve stroke management, we examined the motor disability of patients presenting with stroke, their course, and its determinant factors. This retrospective descriptive study reviewed case records from the neurology unit of the Befelatanana University Hospital from january to december 2015. We included all patients who had a stroke with motor impairment of any upper or lower limbs, with or without computed tomography of the brain, that is, 227 (36...
November 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Fidisoa Rasambainarivo, Mamy Navalona Andriamihajarivo, Edward Dubovi, Patricia G Parker
Carnivores of Madagascar are at increased risk of extinction due to anthropogenic loss of habitat, hunting, and interactions with introduced carnivores. Interactions between introduced and native animals also present the potential for introduction of pathogens into new geographic areas or host species. Here, we provide serologic data regarding pathogen exposure of domestic and native carnivores from the Betampona Natural Reserve Landscape, a protected area in eastern Madagascar. For the Eupleridae, we found limited evidence of exposure to viruses from domestic animals but greater prevalence for Toxoplasma gondii (39%) and Leptospira interrogans (40%)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Matthew H Bonds, Mohammed A Ouenzar, Andres Garchitorena, Laura F Cordier, Meg G McCarty, Michael L Rich, Benjamin Andriamihaja, Justin Haruna, Paul E Farmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jennifer Chua, Nathan A Fisher, Shane D Falcinelli, David DeShazer, Arthur M Friedlander
Many aspects of innate immunity are conserved between mammals and insects. An insect, the Madagascar hissing cockroach from the genus Gromphadorhina, can be utilized as an alternative animal model for the study of virulence, host-pathogen interaction, innate immune response, and drug efficacy. Details for the rearing, care and breeding of the hissing cockroach are provided. We also illustrate how it can be infected with bacteria such as the intracellular pathogens Burkholderia mallei, B. pseudomallei, and B...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Beza Ramasindrazana, Steven M Goodman, Yann Gomard, Carl W Dick, Pablo Tortosa
BACKGROUND: We present information on Nycteribiidae flies parasitizing the bat families Pteropodidae, Miniopteridae and Vespertilionidae from the Malagasy Region, contributing insight into their diversity and host preference. RESULTS: Our phylogenetic analysis identified nine clusters of nycteribiid bat flies on Madagascar and the neighbouring Comoros Archipelago. Bat flies sampled from frugivorous bats of the family Pteropodidae are monoxenous: Eucampsipoda madagascariensis, E...
December 29, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Maéva Angélique Techer, Johanna Clémencet, Christophe Simiand, Patrick Turpin, Lionel Garnery, Bernard Reynaud, Hélène Delatte
With globalization the Western honey bee has become a nearly cosmopolitan species, but it was originally restricted to the Old World. This renowned model of biodiversity has diverged into five evolutionary lineages and several geographic "subspecies." If Apis mellifera unicolor is indubitably an African subspecies endemic to Madagascar, its relationship with honey bees from three archipelagos in the southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) hotspot of biodiversity is misunderstood. We compared recent mtDNA diversity data to an original characterization of the nuclear diversity from honey bees in the Mascarenes and Comoros archipelagos, using 14 microsatellites, but also additional mtDNA tRNALeu-cox2 analysis...
2017: PloS One
Leo J Ragazzo, Sarah Zohdy, Mamitiana Velonabison, James Herrera, Patricia C Wright, Thomas R Gillespie
Amoebiasis, caused by Entamoeba histolytica, affects 50 million people worldwide, and results in 100,000 deaths annually. It is particularly prevalent in developing nations where poverty and poor sanitation contribute to contamination of food and water. E. histolytica is also a zoonotic protozoan parasite with the potential to infect non-human primates. Lemurs, primates endemic to Madagascar, are the most threatened mammalian group in the world due to habitat loss. As forests disappear, humans and lemurs come into more frequent contact, and the potential for E...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Paul S Mead
When plague first arrived in Madagascar in November 1898, its appearance mirrored events in port cities around the world. Alexandria, Bombay, Buenos Aires, San Francisco, Saigon, and Sydney were all affected as part of the "third pandemic," a global event that began in China but spread widely with..
December 20, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
Karina Ivanova, Pavel Zehtindjiev, Jean Mariaux, Dimitar Dimitrov, Boyko B Georgiev
The diversity of the haemosporidian genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon in birds from rain forests in Madagascar is characterized combining techniques of PCR and microscopy and based on the examination of 72 host individuals of 23 species in 15 families. High total prevalence of haemosporidians (68%) is detected, with Leucocytozoon infections being predominant (59.7%) and lower comparable prevalence of Plasmodium (18.0%) and Haemoproteus (23.6%) infections. Using mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) marker, 23 genetically distinct lineages are identified: 9 of Plasmodium spp...
December 16, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Andrey V Frolov, Andrew B T Smith, Lilia A Akhmetova
Madagascar has a unique and diverse Orphninae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) fauna with four genera and 39 described species (Paulian 1977, Frolov et al. 2016). Half of these species belong to the genus Madecorphnus Paulian, 1992 (Paulian 1992, Frolov 2010a,b, 2012, 2014). The purpose of this paper is to describe a new species of Madecorphnus and provide a new record for M. dentatus Frolov, 2010.
October 31, 2017: Zootaxa
Philip D Perkins
The Madagascar fauna of the beetle family Hydraenidae is comprehensively revised, based on the study and databasing of 6,949 specimens. New collection records are provided for 11 previously described species, and 95 new species are described. Three new subgenera of Hydraena, viz. H. (Micromadraena), H. (Monomadraena), and H. (Dnahydnaedna) are described, and several new species groups of Hydraena are diagnosed. Two new genera in the tribe Madagastrini are described: Menomadraena and Trinomadraena. The Malagasy hydraenid fauna now comprises 106 species arrayed in the following nine genera: Aulacochthebius (2), Hydraena (65), Limnebius (10), Madagaster (8), Menomadraena (6), Ochthebius (1), Protozantaena (5), Sicilicula (8), and Trinomadraena (1)...
November 3, 2017: Zootaxa
Mark D Scherz, Jary H Razafindraibe, Andolalao Rakotoarison, Nadi M Dixit, Molly C Bletz, Frank Glaw, Miguel Vences
Madagascar hosts a high diversity of small brown frogs. In this paper, we add another one by describing Gephyromantis (Duboimantis) tohatra sp. nov. The new species is a small brown mantellid frog discovered on a recent expedition to Marojejy National Park in northeastern Madagascar. It is characterised, among other things, by its small size (snout-vent length ~33 mm), an orange to yellowish belly, two dorsolateral ridges, and a distinctive call composed of 7-10 pulsed notes. The new species occurs sympatrically with other members of the subgenus Duboimantis at high altitude (~1700 m above sea level), including its sister species G...
November 14, 2017: Zootaxa
Fanomezana M Ratsoavina, Philip-Sebastian Gehring, Mark D Scherz, David R Vieites, Frank Glaw, Miguel Vences
The Tsaratanana Massif is the highest mountain massif of Madagascar and is characterized by a high species-level endemism of its biota. Here we describe two new small-sized species of leaf-tailed geckos of the Uroplatus ebenaui group from this region. Named in a preliminary way as confirmed candidate species Uroplatus ebenaui [Ca1] and [Ca2] in previous studies, we here provide detailed data on their molecular and morphological differentiation and describe them as Uroplatus fotsivava sp. nov. and Uroplatus kelirambo sp...
November 14, 2017: Zootaxa
Paweł Jałoszyński
Based on examination of type species, Alloconophron, previously a subgenus of Euconnus, is placed as a subgenus of Anhoraeomorphus, resulting in Anhoraeomorphus (Alloconophron) grucheti (Franz) comb. n. and Anhoraeomorphus (Alloconophron) impressifrons (Franz) comb. n. All species of Anhoraeomorphus are known to occur in Madagascar. Noctophus stat. rest., a North American taxon originally described as a genus and later placed as a subgenus of Euconnus, is restituted as genus and redefined. Noctophus is morphologically surprisingly similar to Anhoraeomorphus, it also shares many structures with the Australo-Pacific Sciacharis...
November 29, 2017: Zootaxa
Bruno Massa
The results of the study of the rich material of Orthoptera Phaneropterinae at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Bruxelles, are reported. The following new taxa are described: Dithela longicaudata n. sp. from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Terpnistriella bredoi n. gen. n. sp. from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Mimoscudderia paulyi n. sp. from the Madagascar, Pseudogoetia constanti n. gen. n. sp. from the Democratic Republic of Congo (including a table listing differences with related genera), and Materuana abyssinica n...
November 30, 2017: Zootaxa
Abigail Donner, Allison Belemvire, Ben Johns, Keith Mangam, Elana Fiekowsky, Jayleen Gunn, Mary Hayden, Kacey Ernst
BACKGROUND: One of the primary control measures for malaria transmission is indoor residual spraying (IRS). Historically, few women have worked in IRS programs, despite the income-generating potential. Increasing women's roles in IRS requires understanding the barriers to women's participation and implementing measures to address them. The U.S. President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) Africa Indoor Residual Spraying (AIRS) Project is the largest implementer of IRS globally. To address gender inequity in IRS operations, PMI AIRS assessed the barriers to the participation of women and developed and implemented policies to address these barriers...
December 14, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
Dolorès Pourette, Chiarella Mattern, Rila Ratovoson, Patricia Raharimalala
OBJECTIVES: To learn what complications some women experienced in Madagascar following use of misoprostol for abortion and what treatment they received post-misoprostol use. STUDY DESIGN: This was a qualitative study in 2015-16 among women who had experienced complications after use of misoprostol, with or without additional methods, for abortion, what information they received before use, what dosage and regimens they used, what complications they experienced and what treatment they received post-use...
December 11, 2017: Contraception
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