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Ritesh G Menezes, Muhammad Shariq Usman, Syed Ather Hussain, Mohammed Madadin, Tariq Jamal Siddiqi, Huda Fatima, Pradhum Ram, Syed Bilal Pasha, S Senthilkumaran, Tooba Qadir Fatima, Sushil Allen Luis
Cerbera odollam is a plant species of the Apocynaceae family. It is often dubbed the 'suicide tree' due to its strong cardiotoxic effects, which make it a suitable means to attempt suicide. The plant grows in wet areas in South India, Madagascar, and Southeast Asia; and its common names include Pong-Pong and Othalanga. The poison rich part of the plant is the kernel which is present at the core of its fruit. The bioactive toxin in the plant is cerberin, which is a cardiac glycoside of the cardenolide class...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Mark Moseley, Soanandrasana Rahelinirina, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Benoit Garin, Stuart Piertney, Sandra Telfer
We identified mixed infections of pathogenic Leptospira in small mammals across a landscape-scale study area in Madagascar by using primers targeting different Leptospira spp. Using targeted primers increased prevalence estimates and evidence for transmission between endemic and invasive hosts. Future studies should assess rodentborne transmission of Leptospira to humans.
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
E D'Ortenzio, N Lemaître, C Brouat, P Loubet, F Sebbane, M Rajerison, L Baril, Y Yazdanpanah
After centuries of epidemics and more than a hundred years since the identification of the causative bacterium, very little is known about the plague dynamics in animal reservoirs, vectors and the changing vulnerabilities for humans. The recent plague epidemic in Madagascar in 2017 highlights these gaps existing within the knowledge of the disease dynamics, the factors influencing it, the performance of diagnostic tests and the best recommended treatment. As the eradication of plague will not be possible due to the widespread existence of the bacterium in wildlife, a One Health approach, drawing on animal, human and environmental health disciplines is needed to better control this poverty-related disease...
May 14, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Charles Cunningham, Jorge E Parra, Lucy Coals, Marcela Beltrán, Sama Zefania, Tamás Székely
Mating strategy and social behavior influence gene flow and hence affect levels of genetic differentiation and potentially speciation. Previous genetic analyses of closely related plovers Charadrius spp. found strikingly different population genetic structure in Madagascar: Kittlitz's plovers are spatially homogenous whereas white-fronted plovers have well segregated and geographically distinct populations. Here, we test the hypotheses that Kittlitz's plovers are spatially interconnected and have extensive social interactions that facilitate gene flow, whereas white-fronted plovers are spatially discrete and have limited social interactions...
May 2018: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
Tomáš Scholz, Sareh Tavakol, Lucie Uhrová, Jan Brabec, Iva Přikrylová, Šárka Mašová, Andrea Šimková, Ali Halajian, Wilmien J Luus-Powell
An annotated list of larvae (metacestodes) of gryporhynchid tapeworms (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from freshwater fishes in Africa is provided with numerous new host and geographical records. Newly collected materials from Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Madagascar, Namibia, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan and Zimbabwe practically double the total number of species reported from African fish so far. We confirm the occurrence of 16 species (five unidentified to the species level and most likely representing new taxa) belonging to the genera Amirthalingamia Bray, 1974 (1 species), Cyclustera Fuhrmann, 1901 (2 species), Dendrouterina Fuhrmann, 1912 (1 species), Neogryporhynchus Baer & Bona, 1960 (1 species), Paradilepis Hsü, 1935 (4 species), Parvitaenia Burt, 1940 (5 species), and Valipora Linton, 1927 (2 species)...
May 16, 2018: Systematic Parasitology
Paula Lado, Barbara Qurollo, Cathy Williams, Randall Junge, Hans Klompen
Lemurs are primate species that are endemic to Madagascar. At present, about 90% of lemur species are endangered, and 5 species are among the 25 most endangered primates worldwide. Health status is a major factor impacting the viability of wild populations of many endangered species including lemurs. Given this context, we analyzed the microbiome of 24 specimens of Haemaphysalis lemuris, the most common tick parasitizing lemurs in their native habitats. Ticks were collected from 6 lemur species and microbiomes analyzed using next-generation sequencing...
May 2, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Charlotte H Chang, Maarten J L F Cruyff, Xingli Giam
Understanding conservation non-compliance-violations of laws or social norms designed to protect natural resources from overexploitation-is a priority for conservation research and management. As direct questioning about stigmatized behaviors can be biased, researchers have adopted more complex indirect questioning techniques. The randomized response technique (RRT) is one of the most powerful indirect survey methods, yet analyses of these data require sophisticated statistical models. To date, there has been limited user-friendly software to analyze RRT data, particularly so for models that combine information from multiple RRT questions...
May 12, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Brian K McNab, Colin O'Donnell
We examine the impact of behavior on the short-term energy expenditures of the only terrestrial mammals endemic to New Zealand, two bats, the long-tailed (Chalinolobus tuberculatus, family Vespertilionidae), and the lesser short-tailed (Mystacina tuberculata, family Mystacinidae). Vespertilionidae has a world-wide distribution. Mystacinidae is restricted to New Zealand, although related to five neotropical families and one in Madagascar reflecting a shared Gondwanan origin of their Noctilionoidea superfamily...
May 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Emily Schofield, Edward P Jones, Viswambharan Sarasan
BACKGROUND: Orchids are under threat from human activities and climate change, with populations limited to small geographic hotspots. This makes them ideal candidates for ex situ conservation. Orchid seeds are desiccation tolerant, but often have poor longevity in seed banks and cryopreservation of orchid protocorms is complex and expensive. Therefore, simple methods for large-scale storage programs are essential to store orchid seeds of different life forms. Seeds of five species representing epiphytic, lithophytic and terrestrial orchids from the Central Highlands of Madagascar were studied to find a simple and effective system of cryopreservation...
May 9, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Vololoniaina Raharinosy, Marie-Marie Olive, Fehivola Mandanirina Andriamiarimanana, Soa Fy Andriamandimby, Jean-Pierre Ravalohery, Seta Andriamamonjy, Claudia Filippone, Danielle Aurore Doll Rakoto, Sandra Telfer, Jean-Michel Heraud
BACKGROUND: Hantavirus infection is a zoonotic disease that is associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and cardiopulmonary syndrome in human. Anjozorobe virus, a representative virus of Thailand orthohantavirus (THAIV), was recently discovered from rodents in Anjozorobe-Angavo forest in Madagascar. To assess the circulation of hantavirus at the national level, we carried out a survey of small terrestrial mammals from representative regions of the island and identified environmental factors associated with hantavirus infection...
May 9, 2018: Virology Journal
Travis S Steffens, Shawn M Lehman
Determining what factors affect species occurrence is vital to the study of primate biogeography. We investigated the metapopulation dynamics of a lemur community consisting of eight species (Avahi occidentalis, Propithecus coquereli, Microcebus murinus, Microcebus ravelobensis, Lepilemur edwardsi, Cheirogaleus medius, Eulemur mongoz, and Eulemur fulvus) within fragmented tropical dry deciduous forest habitat in Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar. We measured fragment size and isolation of 42 fragments of forest ranging in size from 0...
2018: PloS One
Lucie Bauret, Ashley R Field, Myriam Gaudeul, Marc-André Selosse, Germinal Rouhan
We explored the biogeographical history of a group of spore-bearing plants focusing on Phlegmariurus (Lycopodiaceae), a genus of lycophytes comprising ca. 250 species. Given its wide distribution in the Southern Hemisphere, Phlegmariurus provides a good model to address questions about the biogeographical processes underlying southern distributions, notably in Madagascar and surrounding islands (WIO). Our aims were i) to discuss the systematics of the Malagasy species in the light of molecular phylogenetic results, ii) to provide the first dating analysis focused on Phlegmariurus and iii) to understand the relative role of vicariance, dispersal and diversification in the origin of the Malagasy Phlegmariurus species...
May 4, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Lorenzo Caputi, Jakob Franke, Scott C Farrow, Khoa Chung, Richard M E Payne, Trinh-Don Nguyen, Thu-Thuy T Dang, Inês Soares Teto Carqueijeiro, Konstantinos Koudounas, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Belinda Ameyaw, D Marc Jones, Ivo Jose Curcino Vieira, Vincent Courdavault, Sarah E O'Connor
Vinblastine, a potent anticancer drug, is produced by Madagascar periwinkle in small quantities: heterologous reconstitution of vinblastine biosynthesis could provide an additional source of this drug. The chemistry underlying vinblastine synthesis makes identification of the biosynthetic genes challenging. Here we identify the two missing steps of vinblastine biosynthesis in this plant, namely an oxidase and a reductase that isomerize stemmadenine acetate into dihydroprecondylocarpine acetate, which is then deacetoxylated and cyclized to either catharanthine or tabersonine via two herein characterized hydrolases...
May 3, 2018: Science
Alida F Hasiniaina, Marina Scheumann, Mamy Rina Evasoa, Diane Braud, Solofonirina Rasoloharijaona, Blanchard Randrianambinina, Elke Zimmermann
The critically endangered Claire's mouse lemur, only found in the evergreen rain forest of the National Park Lokobe (LNP) and a few lowland evergreen rain forest fragments of northern Madagascar, was described recently. The present study provides the first quantified information on vocal acoustics of calls, sound associated behavioral context, acoustic niche, and vocal activity of this species. We recorded vocal and social behavior of six male-female and six male-male dyads in a standardized social-encounter paradigm in June and July 2016 at the LNP, Nosy Bé island...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Derick N Forbanka
Needle-clawed galagos (Euoticus spp.) and fork-marked dwarf lemurs (Phaner spp.) are specialist gummivores inhabiting the forests of Cameroon and Madagascar, respectively. They share a suite of adaptations related to their foraging behavior, but are distantly related. I compared structural characteristics of the natural vegetation in which these strepsirrhines occurred using 10 m × 10 m (100 m2 ) quadrats established in forest areas selected on the grounds of observations of animals during nocturnal surveys...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
David Harimbola Rakotonandrasana, Takahiro Tsukahara, Noriko Yamamoto-Mitani
Background: Despite the World Health Organization and the National Malaria Program of Madagascar recommending that antimalarial drugs only be prescribed for patients with positive results on malaria rapid diagnostic tests, healthcare workers continue to prescribe these drugs for cases with negative test results. We explored why and how primary healthcare workers in Madagascar continue to prescribe antimalarial drugs despite this guidance. Methods: We purposively selected 14 medical doctors and 2 nurses from 11 primary health facilities (6 public, 5 private) in Toliara, Madagascar, and interviewed them regarding their antimalarial prescribing behaviors...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Yumin Dai, Yixi Liu, L Harinantenaina Rakotondraibe
Madagascar's rain forests and tropical dry forests are home to numerous endemic plant species and the island is considered a biodiversity hotspot. About 80% of the Madagascan (Malagasy) population relies on traditional medicines that have been proven to contain a variety of biologically active compounds. In the search for bioactive compounds from Madagascan biodiversity, we accessed and collected most of the literature dealing with the isolation, structure elucidation, and biological activities of organic small molecules originating from Madagascan plants and marine organisms...
2018: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Michelle C White, Kirsten Randall, Dennis Alcorn, Rachel Greenland, Christine Glasgo, Mark G Shrime
BACKGROUND: Patient reported outcomes (PRO) measure the quality of care from the patient's perspective. PROs are an important measure of surgical outcome and can be used to calculate health gains after surgical treatment. The World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) 2.0 is a PRO used to evaluate pre and post-operative disability across a range of surgical specialities. In this study, Mercy Ships, a non-governmental organisation (NGO), used WHODAS 2.0 to evaluate patient reported disability in 401 consecutive patients in Madagascar...
April 27, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Grace N Awantang, Stella O Babalola, Hannah Koenker, Kathleen A Fox, Michael Toso, Nan Lewicky
BACKGROUND: The Malagasy Ministry of Health aimed to achieve 80% coverage of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria among pregnant women (IPTp) in targeted districts by 2015. However, IPTp coverage rates of have remained fairly static over the past few years. METHODS: During a cross-sectional household survey, mothers of children under the age of 2 years were asked about their most recent pregnancy. The primary outcome of interest was a mother receiving two or more doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) (IPTp2) during their last pregnancy, at least one of which was obtained from a health provider...
April 25, 2018: Malaria Journal
JiŘÍ Moravec, Jan VybÍra
Pogonostoma (Microstenocera) noheli sp. nov. from central-eastern Madagascar is described as new to science. The new species was previously (in the monograph of the genus by Moravec 2007) partly confused and included within the externally very similar P. (M.) flavomaculatum W. Horn, 1892, a hitherto rare species based on a holotype only. A rectified redescription of the genuine P. (M.) flavomaculatum also is presented, complemented with external and internal diagnostic characters gained from a great number of recently caught adults...
February 28, 2018: Zootaxa
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