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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904977/misuse-of-topical-corticosteroids-for-cosmetic-purpose-in-antananarivo-madagascar
#1
F A Sendrasoa, I M Ranaivo, M Andrianarison, O Raharolahy, N H Razanakoto, L S Ramarozatovo, F Rapelanoro Rabenja
This cross-sectional study was conducted in Antananarivo, Madagascar, from June to September 2012. We aim to evaluate the misuse of TC on the face for cosmetic purpose and the adverse effects due to its application. A questionnaire-based analysis was done among females who use topical corticosteroids on the face for cosmetic purpose. Of the 770 women questioned, 384 (49,8%) used topical corticosteroids for cosmetic purpose whose mean age was 38 years (range 16-73 years). Two hundred and sixty-one females (68%) used TC combined with handcrafted cosmetics, and 123 (32%) used TC alone...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904964/plague-a-millenary-infectious-disease-reemerging-in-the-xxi-century
#2
REVIEW
A J Dos Santos Grácio, Maria Amélia A Grácio
Plague, in the Middle Ages known as Black Death, continues to occur at permanent foci in many countries, in Africa, Asia, South America, and even the USA. During the last years outbreaks were reported from at least 3 geographical areas, in all cases after tens of years without reported cases. The recent human plague outbreaks in Libya and Algeria suggest that climatic and other environmental changes in Northern Africa may be favourable for Y. pestis epidemiologic cycle. If so, other Northern Africa countries with plague foci also may be at risk for outbreaks in the near future...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902889/on-specimen-killing-in-the-era-of-conservation-crisis-a-quantitative-case-for-modernizing-taxonomy-and-biodiversity-inventories
#3
Patrick O Waeber, Charlie J Gardner, Wilson R Lourenço, Lucienne Wilmé
BACKGROUND TO THE WORK: For centuries taxonomy has relied on dead animal specimens, a practice that persists today despite the emergence of innovative biodiversity assessment methods. Taxonomists and conservationists are engaged in vigorous discussions over the necessity of killing animals for specimen sampling, but quantitative data on taxonomic trends and specimen sampling over time, which could inform these debates, are lacking. METHODS: We interrogated a long-term research database documenting 2,723 land vertebrate and 419 invertebrate taxa from Madagascar, and their associated specimens conserved in the major natural history museums...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900276/highly-variable-lifespan-in-an-annual-reptile-labord-s-chameleon-furcifer-labordi
#4
Falk Eckhardt, Peter M Kappeler, Cornelia Kraus
Among tetrapods, the current record holder for shortest lifespan is Labord's chameleon, Furcifer labordi. These reptiles from the arid southwest of Madagascar have a reported lifespan of 4-5 months during the annual rainy season and spend the majority of their life (8-9 months) as a developing embryo. This semelparous, annual life history is unique among tetrapods, but only one population (Ranobe) in the southernmost distribution range has been studied. We therefore investigated the potential for environmentally-dependent variability in lifespan in a population in Kirindy Forest, which has a much longer warm rainy season...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894945/a-tabersonine-3-reductase-catharanthus-roseus-mutant-accumulates-vindoline-pathway-intermediates
#5
Alison Edge, Yang Qu, Michael L A E Easson, Antje M K Thamm, Kyung Hee Kim, Vincenzo De Luca
Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) have remarkable biological properties that have led to their medical uses for a variety of human diseases. Mutagenesis has been used to generate plants with new alkaloid profiles and a useful screen for rapid comparison of MIA profiles is described. The MIA mutants identified are useful for investigating MIA biosynthesis and for targeted production of these specialised metabolites. The Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) is the sole source of the dimeric anticancer monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs), 3',4'-anhydrovinblastine and derivatives, which are formed via the coupling of the MIAs, catharanthine and vindoline...
September 11, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888695/characterization-of-seasonal-reproductive-and-stress-steroid-hormones-in-wild-radiated-tortoises-astrochelys-radiata
#6
Andrea F T Currylow, Tsilavo H Rafeliarisoa, Edward E Louis, Craig B Stanford, Soary T Randrianjafizanaka, Sarah M Chinn, Daniel E Crocker
The critically endangered Radiated Tortoise (Astrochelys radiata) is endemic to the southern coastlines of Madagascar. Once common, wild populations of this tortoise have undergone dramatic declines in recent years. Although there have been studies documenting reproductive activities, reproductive physiological parameters are unknown yet may be crucial in the recovery of the species. Over four research seasons in remote field locations native to A. radiata, we surveyed for, radio-tracked, and sampled wild, free ranging tortoises...
September 6, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877248/flying-foxes-create-extensive-seed-shadows-and-enhance-germination-success-of-pioneer-plant-species-in-deforested-madagascan-landscapes
#7
Ryszard Oleksy, Luca Giuggioli, Thomas J McKetterick, Paul A Racey, Gareth Jones
Seed dispersal plays a significant role in forest regeneration and maintenance. Flying foxes are often posited as effective long-distance seed dispersers due to their large home ranges and ability to disperse seeds when flying. We evaluate the importance of the Madagascan flying fox Pteropus rufus in the maintenance and regeneration of forests in one of the world's priority conservation areas. We tested germination success of over 20,000 seeds from the figs Ficus polita, F. grevei and F. lutea extracted from bat faeces and ripe fruits under progressively more natural conditions, ranging from petri-dishes to outdoor environments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874191/internet-or-dvd-for-distance-learning-to-isolated-rural-health-professionals-what-is-the-best-approach
#8
Lanto Barthelemy Rakototiana, Rajabo, Serge Gottot
BACKGROUND: Distance Learning (DL) is a means to overcome the barriers that prevent health workers access to medical education and training sessions to update their knowledge. The main objective of this study is to compare the knowledge acquisition among practitioners Heads of Health Based Center (HBC) for the management of hypertension in two training modalities, one interactive, via internet (by Visio conferencing and video Conferencing), and other non-interactive, via DVD in the three regions (Miarinarivo, Moramanga and Manjakandriana) of Madagascar...
September 6, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873412/temporal-phylogeography-of-yersinia-pestis-in-madagascar-insights-into-the-long-term-maintenance-of-plague
#9
Amy J Vogler, Voahangy Andrianaivoarimanana, Sandra Telfer, Carina M Hall, Jason W Sahl, Crystal M Hepp, Heather Centner, Genevieve Andersen, Dawn N Birdsell, Lila Rahalison, Roxanne Nottingham, Paul Keim, David M Wagner, Minoarisoa Rajerison
BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis appears to be maintained in multiple, geographically separate, and phylogenetically distinct subpopulations within the highlands of Madagascar. However, the dynamics of these locally differentiated subpopulations through time are mostly unknown. To address that gap and further inform our understanding of plague epidemiology, we investigated the phylogeography of Y. pestis in Madagascar over an 18 year period. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated whole genome sequences for 31 strains and discovered new SNPs that we used in conjunction with previously identified SNPs and variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) to genotype 773 Malagasy Y...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861465/incorporating-explicit-geospatial-data-shows-more-species-at-risk-of-extinction-than-the-current-red-list
#10
Natalia Ocampo-Peñuela, Clinton N Jenkins, Varsha Vijay, Binbin V Li, Stuart L Pimm
The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Red List classifies species according to their risk of extinction, informing global to local conservation decisions. Unfortunately, important geospatial data do not explicitly or efficiently enter this process. Rapid growth in the availability of remotely sensed observations provides fine-scale data on elevation and increasingly sophisticated characterizations of land cover and its changes. These data readily show that species are likely not present within many areas within the overall envelopes of their distributions...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861051/host-ecology-rather-than-host-phylogeny-drives-amphibian-skin-microbial-community-structure-in-the-biodiversity-hotspot-of-madagascar
#11
Molly C Bletz, Holly Archer, Reid N Harris, Valerie J McKenzie, Falitiana C E Rabemananjara, Andolalao Rakotoarison, Miguel Vences
Host-associated microbiotas of vertebrates are diverse and complex communities that contribute to host health. In particular, for amphibians, cutaneous microbial communities likely play a significant role in pathogen defense; however, our ecological understanding of these communities is still in its infancy. Here, we take advantage of the fully endemic and locally species-rich amphibian fauna of Madagascar to investigate the factors structuring amphibian skin microbiota on a large scale. Using amplicon-based sequencing, we evaluate how multiple host species traits and site factors affect host bacterial diversity and community structure...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846504/a-mobile-health-data-collection-system-for-remote-areas-to-monitor-women-participating-in-a-cervical-cancer-screening-campaign
#12
Kelly Quercia, Phuong Lien Tran, Jéromine Jinoro, Joséa Lea Herniainasolo, Manuela Viviano, Pierre Vassilakos, Caroline Benski, Patrick Petignat
BACKGROUND: Barriers to efficient cervical cancer screening in low- and medium-income countries include the lack of systematic monitoring of the participants' data. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a mobile health (m-Health) data collection system to facilitate monitoring of women participating to cervical cancer screening campaign. METHODS: Women aged 30-65 years, participating in a cervical cancer screening campaign in Ambanja, Madagascar, were invited to participate in the study...
August 28, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845070/the-use-of-vocalizations-of-the-sambirano-mouse-lemur-microcebus-sambiranensis-in-an-acoustic-survey-of-habitat-preference
#13
Dan Hending, Marc Holderied, Grainne McCabe
Primate vocalizations convey a variety of information to conspecifics. The acoustic traits of these vocalizations are an effective vocal fingerprint to discriminate between sibling species for taxonomic diagnosis. However, the vocal behavior of nocturnal primates has been poorly studied and there are few studies of their vocal repertoires. We compiled a vocal repertoire for the Endangered Sambirano mouse lemur, Microcebus sambiranensis, an unstudied nocturnal primate of northwestern Madagascar, and compared the acoustic properties of one of their call types to those of M...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842341/the-genus-psiadia-review-of-traditional-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology
#14
REVIEW
Keshika Mahadeo, Isabelle Grondin, Hippolyte Kodja, Joyce Soulange Govinden, Sabina Jhaumeer Laulloo, Michel Frederich, Anne Gauvin-Bialecki
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Psiadia Jacq. ex. Willd. belongs to the Asteraceae family and includes more than 60 species. This genus grows in tropical and subtropical regions, being especially well represented in Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands (La Réunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues). Several Psiadia species have been used traditionally for their medicinal properties in Africa and the Mascarene Islands. Based on traditional knowledge, various phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been conducted...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836188/heme-oxygenase-1-inducing-activity-of-4-methoxydalbergione-and-4-hydroxy-4-methoxydalbergione-from-dalbergia-odorifera-and-their-anti-inflammatory-and-cytoprotective-effects-in-murine-hippocampal-and-bv2-microglial-cell-line-and-primary-rat-microglial-cells
#15
Dong-Cheol Kim, Dong-Sung Lee, Wonmin Ko, Kwan-Woo Kim, Hye Jin Kim, Chi-Su Yoon, Hyuncheol Oh, Youn-Chul Kim
Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen (Leguminosae) grows in Central and South America, Africa, Madagascar, and Southern Asia. D. odorifera possesses many useful pharmacological properties, such as antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in various cell types. 4-Methoxydalbergione (MTD) and 4'-hydroxy-4-methoxydalbergione (HMTD) were isolated from the EtOH extract of D. odorifera by several chromatography methods. The chemical structures were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrum (MS)...
August 23, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835269/insecticide-resistance-status-of-three-malaria-vectors-anopheles-gambiae-s-l-an-funestus-and-an-mascarensis-from-the-south-central-and-east-coasts-of-madagascar
#16
Jean-Desire Rakotoson, Christen M Fornadel, Allison Belemvire, Laura C Norris, Kristen George, Angela Caranci, Bradford Lucas, Dereje Dengela
BACKGROUND: Insecticide-based vector control, which comprises use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), is the key method to malaria control in Madagascar. However, its effectiveness is threatened as vectors become resistant to insecticides. This study investigated the resistance status of malaria vectors in Madagascar to various insecticides recommended for use in ITNs and/or IRS. METHODS: WHO tube and CDC bottle bioassays were performed on populations of Anopheles gambiae (s...
August 23, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833907/toxic-toad-invasion-of-wallacea-a-biodiversity-hotspot-characterized-by-extraordinary-endemism
#17
Sean B Reilly, Guinevere O U Wogan, Alexander L Stubbs, Evy Arida, Djoko T Iskandar, Jimmy A McGuire
Invasions of poisonous species can cause rapid population declines among native fauna because predators are naïve and often vulnerable to these toxins. The recent invasion of Madagascar by the poisonous Asian common toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus, has sparked international attention (Kolby, 2015), as well as research and conservation efforts to predict the climate suitability of Madagascar for the invasive toads (Pearson 2015; Vences et al., 2017), pinpoint the origin of the invasive lineage (Wogan et al...
August 22, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833471/perceived-barriers-to-and-drivers-of-community-participation-in-protected-area-governance
#18
Caroline Ward, George Holmes, Lindsay Stringer
Protected areas (PAs) are a frequently used conservation strategy, yet their socio-economic impacts on local communities remain contentious. A shift towards increased local community participation in PA governance has sought to deliver benefits for human well-being as well as biodiversity. Although participation is considered critical to the success of PAs, few studies have investigated individuals' decisions to participate and what this means for how local people experience the costs and benefits of conservation...
August 17, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831048/tip-dated-phylogeny-of-whirligig-beetles-reveals-ancient-lineage-surviving-on-madagascar
#19
Grey T Gustafson, Alexander A Prokin, Rasa Bukontaite, Johannes Bergsten, Kelly B Miller
The temporal origin of Madagascar's extraordinary endemic diversity is debated. A preference for Cenozoic dispersal origins has replaced the classical view of Mesozoic vicariance in the wake of molecular dating. However, evidence of ancient origins is mounting from arthropod groups. Using phylogenetic 'tip-dating' analysis with fossils, we show that a whirligig beetle species, Heterogyrus milloti, inhabiting forest streams in southeastern Madagascar is the last survivor of a once dominant and widespread Mesozoic group...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821735/current-and-future-suitability-of-wintering-grounds-for-a-long-distance-migratory-raptor
#20
Christina Kassara, Laura Gangoso, Ugo Mellone, Gvido Piasevoli, Thomas G Hadjikyriakou, Nikos Tsiopelas, Sinos Giokas, Pascual López-López, Vicente Urios, Jordi Figuerola, Rafa Silva, Willem Bouten, Alexander N G Kirschel, Munir Z Virani, Wolfgang Fiedler, Peter Berthold, Marion Gschweng
Conservation of migratory species faces the challenge of understanding the ecological requirements of individuals living in two geographically separated regions. In some cases, the entire population of widely distributed species congregates at relatively small wintering areas and hence, these areas become a priority for the species' conservation. Satellite telemetry allows fine tracking of animal movements and distribution in those less known, often remote areas. Through integrating satellite and GPS data from five separated populations comprising most of the breeding range, we created a wide habitat suitability model for the Eleonora's falcon on its wintering grounds in Madagascar...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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