keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Madagascar

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429848/stuck-in-fragments-population-genetics-of-the-endangered-collared-brown-lemur-eulemur-collaris-in-the-malagasy-littoral-forest
#1
Stefania Bertoncini, Jacopo D'Ercole, Francesca Brisighelli, Jean-Baptiste Ramanamanjato, Cristian Capelli, Sergio Tofanelli, Giuseppe Donati
OBJECTIVES: The Endangered collared brown lemur (Eulemur collaris) is the largest primate living in the littoral forest of southeastern Madagascar, a top priority habitat for biodiversity conservation on the island. Because this lemur is a key seed-disperser, an evaluation of the structure and connectivity of the populations surviving in the forest fragments is urgently needed to guide conservation plans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genetic variability at autosomal microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA was investigated in a total of 49 collared brown lemurs sampled by non-invasive methods in three littoral forest fragments and in the nearby lowland humid forest...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422958/modern-alongside-traditional-taxonomy-integrative-systematics-of-the-genera-gymnangium-hincks-1874-and-taxella-allman-1874-hydrozoa-aglaopheniidae
#2
Marta Ronowicz, Emilie Boissin, Bautisse Postaire, Chloé Annie-France Bourmaud, Nicole Gravier-Bonnet, Peter Schuchert
We studied the diversity within the former genus Gymnangium in the South West Indian Ocean by using an integrative approach of both traditional (morphology-based) and modern molecular taxonomy. Nine species were recorded in the material collected. A total of 97 16S mitochondrial DNA sequences and 54 Calmodulin nuclear sequences from eight Gymnangium/Taxella species were analyzed. We found both morphological and molecular differences in the studied Gymnangium species that make it necessary to split the genus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419352/dermatophytes-and-dermatophytosis-in-the-eastern-and-southern-parts-of-africa
#3
E I Nweze, I E Eke
Dermatophytosis is currently a disease of global importance and a public health burden. It is caused by dermatophytes, which attack and grow on dead animal keratin. Dermatophytes belong to three genera, namely, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. The predominant clinical forms and causative agents vary from one region of the world to another. Poor socioeconomic status, high population densities, and poor sanitary conditions are some of the factors responsible for the high prevalence of dermatophytosis in many developing countries, which include countries in southern and eastern Africa, the focus of this review...
April 17, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412938/broad-and-flexible-stable-isotope-niches-in-invasive-non-native-rattus-spp-in-anthropogenic-and-natural-habitats-of-central-eastern-madagascar
#4
Melanie Dammhahn, Toky M Randriamoria, Steven M Goodman
BACKGROUND: Rodents of the genus Rattus are among the most pervasive and successful invasive species, causing major vicissitudes in native ecological communities. A broad and flexible generalist diet has been suggested as key to the invasion success of Rattus spp. Here, we use an indirect approach to better understand foraging niche width, plasticity, and overlap within and between introduced Rattus spp. in anthropogenic habitats and natural humid forests of Madagascar. RESULTS: Based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values measured in hair samples of 589 individual rodents, we found that Rattus rattus had an extremely wide foraging niche, encompassing the isotopic space covered by a complete endemic forest-dwelling Malagasy small mammal community...
April 17, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407630/characterization-of-the-tree-holes-used-by-lepilemur-ruficaudatus-in-the-dry-deciduous-forest-of-kirindy-mitea-national-park
#5
Elvis J Rakotomalala, Felix Rakotondraparany, Amanda C Perofsky, Rebecca J Lewis
Knowledge of the key resources for a species is critical for developing an effective conservation strategy. Kirindy Mitea National Park is an important refuge for the red-tailed sportive lemur (Lepilemur ruficaudatus), a nocturnal folivorous lemur endemic to the dry deciduous forest of western Madagascar. Because L. ruficaudatus sleeps in tree holes during the day, sleeping trees may be an important resource for this species. Our goal was to characterize the sleeping sites used by L. ruficaudatus at the Ankoatsifaka Research Station in Kirindy Mitea National Park...
April 14, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406418/collective-poisoning-from-sea-turtle-consumption-in-mahajanga-madagascar-may-2014
#6
N G Rasamimanana, Z Z Andrianirina, F M F Razafilalaina, L M P Rakotozanany, N C Andriamalala, D Andrianarimanana, D O Tiandaza, N E Raveloson
Poisoning from eating sea turtles, medically known as chelonitoxism, is seen especially in coastal areas. It remains a public health problem in Madagascar, despite a ban on hunting these animals. The objective of this study was to describe its epidemiological and clinical aspects and outcome to improve knowledge and prevention of this type of poisoning. Chelonitoxism occurred in May 2014, affecting the population in Antsanitia, a fishing village in northwest Mahajanga, Madagascar. All patients came first to the CSB I basic health center in Antsanitia and were subsequently hospitalized at the Mahajanga CHU Pzaga, 51 in the adult emergency department and 25 in the pediatrics department...
February 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405364/east-african-origins-for-madagascan-chickens-as-indicated-by-mitochondrial-dna
#7
Michael B Herrera, Vicki A Thomson, Jessica J Wadley, Philip J Piper, Sri Sulandari, Anik Budhi Dharmayanthi, Spiridoula Kraitsek, Jaime Gongora, Jeremy J Austin
The colonization of Madagascar by Austronesian-speaking people during AD 50-500 represents the most westerly point of the greatest diaspora in prehistory. A range of economically important plants and animals may have accompanied the Austronesians. Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus) are found in Madagascar, but it is unclear how they arrived there. Did they accompany the initial Austronesian-speaking populations that reached Madagascar via the Indian Ocean or were they late arrivals with Arabian and African sea-farers? To address this question, we investigated the mitochondrial DNA control region diversity of modern chickens sampled from around the Indian Ocean rim (Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa and Madagascar)...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403048/prevalence-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-malagasy-children
#8
Lova Ravelomanana, Naim Bouazza, Mbola Rakotomahefa, André Zo Andrianirina, Annick Lalaina Robinson, Honoré Raobidjaona, Rabezanahary Andriamihaja, Nadjet Benhaddou, Fréderique Randrianirina, Elisoa Ratsima, Patrick Imbert, Josette Raymond
BACKGROUND: Childhood community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood morbidity in low-income countries. The etiologic agents are usually Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. M. pneumoniae was recognized as a cofactor in asthmatic disease. High asthma prevalence was reported in Madagascar. Our aim was to clarify the prevalence of M. pneumoniae infection in this country and its relationship with asthma. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 351 children (from 2 to 16 years of age) from January 2012 to December 2014...
May 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399303/efficacy-of-bendiocarb-used-for-indoor-residual-spraying-for-malaria-control-in-madagascar-results-with-local-anopheles-species-diptera-culicidae-from-experimental-hut-trials
#9
Sanjiarizaha Randriamaherijaona, Thiery Nirina Jean Jose Nepomichene, Jade Assoukpa, Yoann Madec, Sébastien Boyer
To control malaria in Madagascar, two primary vector control interventions are being scaled up: insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying of bendiocarb, which was implemented in the Malagasy Central Highlands in 2009. The current efficacy of bendiocarb against Anopheles species was evaluated in a small-scale field trial. An experimental hut trial comparing the effectiveness of bendiocarb sprayed on five substrates (cement, wood, tin, mud, and vegetative materials) was carried out against Anopheles species in two study sites located in the eastern foothills of Madagascar...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399297/two-new-species-of-sucking-lice-phthiraptera-anoplura-polyplacidae-from-endangered-hibernating-lemurs-primates-cheirogaleidae
#10
Lance A Durden, Marina B Blanco, Matthew H Seabolt
Lemurpediculus robbinsi sp. nov. is described from Crossley's dwarf lemur, Cheirogaleus crossleyi A. Grandidier, and Lemurpediculus claytoni sp. nov. is described from Sibree's dwarf lemur, Cheirogaleus sibreei Forsyth Major, from Madagascar. Both sexes of each new louse species are illustrated and distinguished from the two previously known species of Lemurpediculus: L. verruculosus (Ward) and L. petterorum Paulian. With the addition of two new species to the genus, an amended description of Lemurpediculus is provided...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399201/parasitism-by-nycteribiidae-and-streblidae-flies-diptera-of-a-malagasy-fruit-bat-pteropodidae-effects-of-body-size-and-throat-gland-development-on-parasite-abundance
#11
Faneva I Rajemison, Oliva S Noroalintseheno Lalarivoniaina, Steven M Goodman
We examined the possible effects of host body size and throat gland development on the abundance of blood-feeding nycteribiid and streblid flies parasitizing a Malagasy fruit bat, Rousettus madagascariensis G. Grandidier, 1928. Data were collected in the Parc National d'Ankarana in northern Madagascar during four visits: September 2014, 2015 (dry season), and January 2015, 2016 (wet season). Two bat fly species were identified, Eucampsipoda madagascarensis Theodor, 1955 (Nycteribiidae) and Megastrebla wenzeli (Jobling, 1952) (Streblidae)...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396873/clinical-features-and-outcome-in-adult-cases-of-tuberculous-meningitis-in-tertiary-care-hospital-in-antananarivo-madagascar
#12
Mihaja Raberahona, Rivonirina Andry Rakotoarivelo, Tiana Razafinambinintsoa, Radonirina Lazasoa Andrianasolo, Mamy Jean de Dieu Randria
Purpose. We aimed to describe and to assess prognosis factors in tuberculous meningitis in adult patients. Methods. We performed a retrospective study of case records of adult patients. Patients classified as definite, probable, or possible tuberculous meningitis according to standardized definition criteria were included and assessed in the study. Results. Seventy-five patients were included in the study. Tuberculous meningitis was classified as definite in 8 (10.7%), probable in 44 (58.7%), and possible in 23 patients (30...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396423/el-ni%C3%A3-o-and-the-shifting-geography-of-cholera-in-africa
#13
Sean M Moore, Andrew S Azman, Benjamin F Zaitchik, Eric D Mintz, Joan Brunkard, Dominique Legros, Alexandra Hill, Heather McKay, Francisco J Luquero, David Olson, Justin Lessler
The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and other climate patterns can have profound impacts on the occurrence of infectious diseases ranging from dengue to cholera. In Africa, El Niño conditions are associated with increased rainfall in East Africa and decreased rainfall in southern Africa, West Africa, and parts of the Sahel. Because of the key role of water supplies in cholera transmission, a relationship between El Niño events and cholera incidence is highly plausible, and previous research has shown a link between ENSO patterns and cholera in Bangladesh...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387867/cost-effectiveness-analysis-and-mortality-impact-estimation-of-scaling-up-pregnancy-test-kits-in-madagascar-ethiopia-and-malawi
#14
Robert J Kolesar, Martine Audibert, Alison B Comfort
Cost-effective, innovative approaches are needed to accelerate progress towards ending preventable infant, child and maternal mortality. To inform policy decisions, we conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of adding urine pregnancy test kits to the maternal and reproductive services package offered at the community level in Madagascar, Ethiopia and Malawi. We used a decision tree model to compare the intervention with the status quo for each country. We also completed single factor sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulations with 10 000 iterations to generate the probability distribution of the estimates and uncertainty limits...
April 5, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380021/phylogeography-of-y-chromosome-haplogroup-o3a2b2-n6-reveals-patrilineal-traces-of-austronesian-populations-on-the-eastern-coastal-regions-of-asia
#15
Lan-Hai Wei, Shi Yan, Yik-Ying Teo, Yun-Zhi Huang, Ling-Xiang Wang, Ge Yu, Woei-Yuh Saw, Rick Twee-Hee Ong, Yan Lu, Chao Zhang, Shu-Hua Xu, Li Jin, Hui Li
Austronesian diffusion is considered one of the greatest dispersals in human history; it led to the peopling of an extremely vast region, ranging from Madagascar in the Indian Ocean to Easter Island in Remote Oceania. The Y-chromosome haplogroup O3a2b*-P164(xM134), a predominant paternal lineage of Austronesian populations, is found at high frequencies in Polynesian populations. However, the internal phylogeny of this haplogroup remains poorly investigated. In this study, we analyzed -seventeen Y-chromosome sequences of haplogroup O3a2b*-P164(xM134) and generated a revised phylogenetic tree of this lineage based on 310 non-private Y-chromosome polymorphisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376871/prevalence-and-genetic-variants-of-g6pd-deficiency-among-two-malagasy-populations-living-in-plasmodium-vivax-endemic-areas
#16
Rosalind E Howes, Ernest R Chan, Tovonahary Angelo Rakotomanga, Seth Schulte, John Gibson, Melinda Zikursh, Thierry Franchard, Brune Ramiranirina, Arsène Ratsimbasoa, Peter A Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and variants of G6PD deficiency in the Plasmodium vivax-endemic zones of Madagascar remain unknown. The admixed African-Austronesian origins of the Malagasy population make it probable that a heterogeneous mix of genetic variants with a spectrum of clinical severity will be circulating. This would have implications for the widespread use of P. vivax radical cure therapy. Two study populations in the P. vivax-endemic western foothills region of Madagascar were selected for G6PD screening...
April 4, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368118/unguiculin-a-and-ptilomycalins-e-h-antimalarial-guanidine-alkaloids-from-the-marine-sponge-monanchora-unguiculata
#17
Pierre-Eric Campos, Jean-Luc Wolfender, Emerson F Queiroz, Laurence Marcourt, Ali Al-Mourabit, Michel Frederich, Annélise Bordignon, Nicole De Voogd, Bertrand Illien, Anne Gauvin-Bialecki
Chemical study of the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1) extract from the sponge Monanchora unguiculata collected in Madagascar highlighted five new compounds, one acyclic guanidine alkaloid, unguiculin A (1) and four pentacyclic alkaloids, ptilomycalins E-H (2-5), along with four known compounds: crambescidin 800 (6) and crambescidin 359 (7), crambescidic acid (8), and fromiamycalin (9). Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectra and HRESIMS data. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against KB cells and their antiplasmodial activity...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364923/equity-and-immunization-supply-chain-in-madagascar
#18
Maya M V X van den Ent, Andre Yameogo, Eric Ribaira, Celina M Hanson, Ramiandrasoa Ratoto, Saholy Rasolomanana, Chrysanthus Foncha, François Gasse
Vaccination rates have improved in many countries, yet immunization inequities persist within countries and the poorest communities often bear the largest burden of vaccine preventable disease. Madagascar has one of the world's largest equity gaps in immunization rates. Barriers to immunization include immunization supply chain, human resources, and service delivery to reflect the health system building blocks, which affect poor rural communities more than affluent communities. The Reaching Every District (RED) approach was revised to address barriers and bottlenecks...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358899/a-systematic-review-of-rodent-pest-research-in-afro-malagasy-small-holder-farming-systems-are-we-asking-the-right-questions
#19
Lourens H Swanepoel, Corrie M Swanepoel, Peter R Brown, Seth J Eiseb, Steven M Goodman, Mark Keith, Frikkie Kirsten, Herwig Leirs, Themb'alilahlwa A M Mahlaba, Rhodes H Makundi, Phanuel Malebane, Emil F von Maltitz, Apia W Massawe, Ara Monadjem, Loth S Mulungu, Grant R Singleton, Peter J Taylor, Voahangy Soarimalala, Steven R Belmain
Rodent pests are especially problematic in terms of agriculture and public health since they can inflict considerable economic damage associated with their abundance, diversity, generalist feeding habits and high reproductive rates. To quantify rodent pest impacts and identify trends in rodent pest research impacting on small-holder agriculture in the Afro-Malagasy region we did a systematic review of research outputs from 1910 to 2015, by developing an a priori defined set of criteria to allow for replication of the review process...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358848/comprehensive-species-set-revealing-the-phylogeny-and-biogeography-of-feliformia-mammalia-carnivora-based-on-mitochondrial-dna
#20
Yu Zhou, Si-Rui Wang, Jian-Zhang Ma
Extant Feliformia species are one of the most diverse radiations of Carnivora (~123 species). Despite substantial recent interest in their conservation, diversification, and systematic study, no previous phylogeny contains a comprehensive species set, and no biogeography of this group is available. Here, we present a phylogenetic estimate for Feliformia with a comprehensive species set and establish a historical biogeography based on mitochondrial DNA. Both the Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogeny for Feliformia are elucidated in our analyses and are strongly consistent with many groups recognized in previous studies...
2017: PloS One
keyword
keyword
14204
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"