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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155827/the-asian-house-shrew-suncus-murinus-as-a-reservoir-and-source-of-human-outbreaks-of-plague-in-madagascar
#1
Soanandrasana Rahelinirina, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Sandra Telfer, Cyril Savin, Elisabeth Carniel, Jean-Marc Duplantier
Identifying key reservoirs for zoonoses is crucial for understanding variation in incidence. Plague re-emerged in Mahajanga, Madagascar in the 1990s but there has been no confirmed case since 1999. Here we combine ecological and genetic data, from during and after the epidemics, with experimental infections to examine the role of the shrew Suncus murinus in the plague epidemiological cycle. The predominance of S. murinus captures during the epidemics, their carriage of the flea vector and their infection with Yersinia pestis suggest they played an important role in the maintenance and transmission of plague...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152344/crystal-structure-of-akuammicine-an-indole-alkaloid-from-catharanthus-roseus
#2
Mahdi Yahyazadeh, Gerold Jerz, Dirk Selmar, Peter Winterhalter, Peter G Jones
The title compound, C20H22N2O2, an alkaloid isolated from the Madagascar periwinkle, crystallizes in P1 with two independent but closely similar mol-ecules in the unit cell. The mol-ecules are linked into pairs by two N-H⋯O=C hydrogen bonds. The absolute configuration was confirmed by anomalous dispersion effects as S at the 3 and 15 positions, and R at the 7 position.
November 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147812/geissoschizine-synthase-controls-flux-in-the-formation-of-monoterpenoid-indole-alkaloids-in-a-catharanthus-roseus-mutant
#3
Yang Qu, Antje M K Thamm, Matthew Czerwinski, Sayaka Masada, Kyung Hee Kim, Graham Jones, Ping Liang, Vincenzo De Luca
A Catharanthus roseus mutant accumulates high levels of ajmalicine at the expense of catharanthine and vindoline. The altered chemistry depends on increased expression and biochemical activities of strictosidine β-glucosidase and ajmalicine synthase activities and reduced expression and biochemical activity of geissoschizine synthase. The Madagascar periwinkle [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don] is a commercially important horticultural flower species and is a valuable source for several monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs), such as the powerful antihypertensive drug ajmalicine and the antineoplastic agents, vinblastine and vincristine...
November 17, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147568/environmental-influences-on-the-skin-microbiome-of-humans-and-cattle-in-rural-madagascar
#4
Melissa B Manus, James J Yu, Lawrence P Park, Olaf Mueller, Sarah C Windsor, Julie E Horvath, Charles L Nunn
Background and objectives: The skin harbors a dynamic community of microorganisms, where contact with humans, other animals and the environment can alter microbial communities. Most research on the human skin microbiome features Western populations living in hygienic conditions, yet these populations have vastly different patterns of environmental contact than the majority of people on Earth, including those living in developing countries. Methodology: We studied skin microbial communities of humans and cattle (zebu) in rural Madagascar to investigate how zebu ownership affects microbial composition of the human skin, and to characterize non-Western human and zebu skin communities more generally...
2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143572/socio-economic-integration-of-the-informal-recycling-sector-through-an-ngo-intervention-at-the-andralanitra-dumpsite-in-antananarivo-madagascar
#5
Harinaivo A Andrianisa, Fanilo M Randriatsiferana, Serge L Rakotoson, Fanja Rakotoaritera
The social status improvement and the degree of integration of the informal recycling sector, by using InteRa, made by the AKAMASOA association interventions at the Andralanitra dumpsite (Antananarivo, Madagascar) was assessed. 20% of the workers from the three activities at the site were interviewed: 325 scavengers, 12 compost producers and three soap manufacturers. It was found that the incomes of Andralanitra workers are relatively low compared to that of people working in the same field in other countries (30-60 USD/month)...
November 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140563/-stink-flirting-in-ring-tailed-lemurs-lemur-catta-male-olfactory-displays-to-females-as-honest-costly-signals
#6
Amber D Walker-Bolton, Joyce A Parga
Sexual selection for honest behavioral displays of quality has driven the development of remarkably complex courtship behavior in many animal species. Olfactory displays are often overlooked as an area of inquiry compared to auditory and visual displays. Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) scent marking of substrates has been studied extensively, although the male olfactory displays of anointing and wafting tails to females has received relatively little attention. We studied the role of male olfactory displays to females, evaluating whether such signals function as honest, costly signals of male dominance status in two groups of wild L...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132421/durability-monitoring-of-long-lasting-insecticidal-mosquito-nets-llins-in-madagascar-physical-integrity-and-insecticidal-activity
#7
Sanjiarizaha Randriamaherijaona, Jacky Raharinjatovo, Sébastien Boyer
BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets (LLINs) are highly effective for malaria prevention. However, it is also clear that durability monitoring is essential to predict when, post-distribution, a net population, no longer meets minimum WHO standards and needs to be replaced. Following a national distribution campaign in 2013, we tracked two durability indicators, physical integrity and bio-efficacy at six and 12 months post-distribution. While the loss of net integrity during this period was in line with expectations for a one-year net life, bio-efficacy results suggested that nets were losing insecticidal effect faster than expected...
November 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129935/antimalarial-use-of-malagasy-plants-is-poorly-correlated-with-performance-in-antimalarial-bioassays
#8
Wendy L Applequist, Michel Ratsimbason, Alyse Kuhlman, Stephan Rakotonandrasana, Vincent Rasamison, David G I Kingston
Bioassay screening of plant extracts can identify unique lead compounds for drug development, but the "hit rate" from random screening is very low. Targeted screening of medicinal plants has been repeatedly reported to increase the percentage of samples displaying bioactivity. Contrarily, Maranz (2012) suggested that African antimalarial plants were unsuitable sources of antimalarial drugs because high prevalence of malaria would result in rapid evolution of resistance to active compounds that directly targeted the parasite...
March 2017: Economic Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124496/biological-activity-of-entada-phaseoloides-and-entada-rheedei
#9
REVIEW
Sachiko Sugimoto, Katsuyoshi Matsunami, Hideaki Otsuka
The aim of our study is to find functional compounds from natural resources. We focus on plants grown in tropical areas, especially Madagascar and Thailand, because they have unique flora and are expected to contain interesting compounds. We review the functional compounds of the seed kernels of Entada phaseoloides and E. rheedei and their biological activities such as anti-proliferation and melanogenesis inhibitory properties, etc.
November 9, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111084/a-model-for-humanitarian-outreach-in-today-s-world
#10
REVIEW
James A O'Neill
The traditional model for humanitarian work for surgeons has been a few long-term people and a larger number of volunteers on short-term missions to needy places for one or two weeks with limited opportunity for follow-up. While a great deal of good has resulted from these efforts, in the long term not much has changed. Recent studies like the U.N. Millennium Development Goals and the Lancet Commission Report, Surgery 2030, have pointed out that the burden of surgical disease is the major public health issue in the world, such that an estimated five billion people worldwide do not have access to safe surgery and anesthesia, with the largest number being in Africa where almost half of the population is less than age 18years...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110719/plague-risk-in-vulnerable-community-assessment-of-xenopsylla-cheopis-susceptibility-to-insecticides-in-malagasy-prisons
#11
Adélaïde Miarinjara, Jean Vergain, Jean Marcel Kavaruganda, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Sébastien Boyer
BACKGROUND: Prisons in Madagascar are at high risk of plague outbreak. Occurrence of plague epidemic in prisons can cause significant episode of urban plague through the movement of potentially infected humans, rodents and fleas. Rodent and flea controls are essential in plague prevention, by reducing human contact with plague reservoirs and vectors. Insecticide treatment is the key step available for the control of rat fleas which transmit the disease from infected rodents to human. The implementation of an adapted flea control strategy should rely on the insecticide susceptibility status of the targeted population...
November 7, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107552/feeding-ecology-and-morphology-make-a-bamboo-specialist-vulnerable-to-climate-change
#12
Jussi T Eronen, Sarah Zohdy, Alistair R Evans, Stacey R Tecot, Patricia C Wright, Jukka Jernvall
Animals with dietary specializations can be used to link climate to specific ecological drivers of endangerment. Only two mammals, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Asia and the greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus) in Madagascar, consume the nutritionally poor and mechanically challenging culm or trunk of woody bamboos [1-3]. Even though the greater bamboo lemur is critically endangered, paleontological evidence shows that it was once broadly distributed [4, 5]. Here, integrating morphological, paleontological, and ecological evidence, we project the effects of climate change on greater bamboo lemurs...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102168/impact-of-rotavirus-vaccine-on-rotavirus-diarrhoea-in-countries-of-east-and-southern-africa
#13
Goitom Weldegebriel, Jason M Mwenda, Jethro Chakauya, Fussum Daniel, Balcha Masresha, Umesh D Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate
BACKGROUND: Established in 2006 with four countries conducting hospital-based rotavirus surveillance, the African rotavirus surveillance network has expanded over subsequent years. By 2015, 14 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) East and Southern Africa sub-region (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mauritius, Namibia, Rwanda, Seychelles, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe) were participating in the rotavirus surveillance network coordinated by WHO...
October 25, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100506/long-term-in-vitro-culture-of-plasmodium-vivax-isolates-from-madagascar-maintained-in-saimiri-boliviensis-blood
#14
Rajeev K Mehlotra, D'Arbra Blankenship, Rosalind E Howes, Tovonahary A Rakotomanga, Brune Ramiranirina, Stephanie Ramboarina, Thierry Franchard, Marlin H Linger, Melinda Zikursh-Blood, Arsène C Ratsimbasoa, Peter A Zimmerman, Brian T Grimberg
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent human malaria parasite and is likely to increase proportionally as malaria control efforts more rapidly impact the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum. Despite the prominence of P. vivax as a major human pathogen, vivax malaria qualifies as a neglected and under-studied tropical disease. Significant challenges bringing P. vivax into the laboratory, particularly the capacity for long-term propagation of well-characterized strains, have limited the study of this parasite's red blood cell (RBC) invasion mechanism, blood-stage development, gene expression, and genetic manipulation...
November 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098868/chemical-composition-and-insecticidal-activity-of-the-essential-oil-from-helichrysum-faradifani-endemic-to-madagascar
#15
Giovanni Benelli, Roman Pavela, Rianasoambolanoro Rakotosaona, Emmanuel Randrianarivo, Marcello Nicoletti, Filippo Maggi
Helichrysum faradifani (Asteraceae) is a perennial shrub growing in rocky and sandy places of Madagascar. The plant is used in the Malagasy traditional medicine as a wound-healing agent, disinfectant and for the treatment of syphilis, diarrhea, cough and headache. In the present work, we analysed the chemical composition of the essential oil distilled from the aerial parts of H. faradifani by GC-MS and evaluated its insecticidal activity against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae of the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus by acute toxicity assays...
November 3, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089504/low-levels-of-fruit-nitrogen-as-drivers-for-the-evolution-of-madagascar-s-primate-communities
#16
Giuseppe Donati, Luca Santini, Timothy M Eppley, Summer J Arrigo-Nelson, Michela Balestri, Sue Boinski, An Bollen, LeAndra L Bridgeman, Marco Campera, Valentina Carrai, Mukesh K Chalise, Abigail Derby Lewis, Gottfried Hohmann, Margaret F Kinnaird, Andreas Koenig, Martin Kowalewski, Petra Lahann, Matthew R McLennan, Anna K I Nekaris, Vincent Nijman, Ivan Norscia, Julia Ostner, Sandra Y Polowinsky, Oliver Schülke, Christoph Schwitzer, Pablo R Stevenson, Mauricio G Talebi, Chia Tan, Irene Tomaschewski, Erin R Vogel, Patricia C Wright, Jörg U Ganzhorn
The uneven representation of frugivorous mammals and birds across tropical regions - high in the New World, low in Madagascar and intermediate in Africa and Asia - represents a long-standing enigma in ecology. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain these differences but the ultimate drivers remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that fruits in Madagascar contain insufficient nitrogen to meet primate metabolic requirements, thus constraining the evolution of frugivory. We performed a global analysis of nitrogen in fruits consumed by primates, as collated from 79 studies...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079606/prevalence-and-time-trends-in-overweight-and-obesity-among-urban-women-an-analysis-of-demographic-and-health-surveys-data-from-24-african-countries-1991-2014
#17
Dickson Abanimi Amugsi, Zacharie T Dimbuene, Blessing Mberu, Stella Muthuri, Alex C Ezeh
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among non-pregnant urban women in Africa over the past two and a half decades. DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys conducted between 1991 and 2014. SETTINGS: Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), repeated cross-sectional data collected in 24 African countries. PARTICIPANTS: Adult non-pregnant women aged 15-49 years. The earlier DHS collected anthropometric data on only those women who had children aged 0-5 years...
October 27, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074744/echoes-of-ebola-as-plague-hits-madagascar
#18
Leslie Roberts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071129/facilitating-access-to-surgical-care-through-a-decentralised-case-finding-strategy-experience-in-madagascar
#19
REVIEW
Michelle C White, Mirjam Hamer, Jasmin Biddell, Nathan Claus, Kirsten Randall, Dennis Alcorn, Gary Parker, Mark G Shrime
Over two-thirds of the world's population lack access to surgical care. Non-governmental organisation's providing free surgeries may overcome financial barriers, but other barriers to care still exist. This analysis paper discusses two different case-finding strategies in Madagascar that aimed to increase the proportion of poor patients, women and those for whom multiple barriers to care exist. From October 2014 to June 2015, we used a centralised selection strategy, aiming to find 70% of patients from the port city, Toamasina, and 30% from the national capital and two remote cities...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069082/discovery-of-the-first-ichthyosaur-from-the-jurassic-of-india-implications-for-gondwanan-palaeobiogeography
#20
Guntupalli V R Prasad, Dhirendra K Pandey, Matthias Alberti, Franz T Fürsich, Mahesh G Thakkar, Gaurav D Chauhan
An articulated and partially preserved skeleton of an ichthyosaur was found in the Upper Jurassic (Upper Kimmeridgian) Katrol Formation exposed at a site south of the village Lodai in Kachchh district, Gujarat (western India). Here we present a detailed description and inferred taxonomic relationship of the specimen. The present study revealed that the articulated skeleton belongs to the family Ophthalmosauridae. The new discovery from India further improves the depauperate fossil record of ichthyosaurs from the former Gondwanan continents...
2017: PloS One
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