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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102966/histone-deacetylase-2-is-decreased-in-peripheral-blood-pro-inflammatory-cd8-t-and-nkt-like-lymphocytes-following-lung-transplant
#1
Greg Hodge, Sandra Hodge, Chien-Li Holmes-Liew, Paul N Reynolds, Mark Holmes
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Immunosuppression therapy following lung transplantation fails to prevent chronic rejection in many patients, which is associated with lack of suppression of cytotoxic mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood T and natural killer T (NKT)-like cells. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) upregulate/downregulate pro-inflammatory gene expression, respectively; however, differences in the activity of these enzymes following lung transplant are unknown...
February 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102935/ectopic-cushing-syndrome-in-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
Hang-Yu Zhang, Jun Zhao
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a neuroendocrine tumor with the potential to secrete various peptides or hormones that can lead to paraneoplastic syndromes, such as Ectopic Cushing syndrome (ECS). Because of the aggressive nature of the syndrome and its atypical features, ECS in small-cell lung cancer is difficult to diagnose and has a poor prognosis. We report a case of a 74-year-old male patient who presented with severe hypokalemia, proximal muscle weakness, peripheral edema, metabolic alkalosis, and worsening hyperglycemia...
November 8, 2016: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102915/transgenerational-effects-alter-plant-defense-and-resistance-in-nature
#3
Jack Colicchio
Trichomes, or leaf hairs, are epidermal extensions that take a variety of forms and perform many functions in plants, including herbivore defense. In this study, I document genetically determined variation, within-generation plasticity, and a direct role of trichomes in herbivore defense for Mimulus guttatus. After establishing the relationship between trichomes and herbivory, I test for transgenerational effects of wounding on trichome density and herbivore resistance. Patterns of inter-annual variation in herbivore density and the high cost of plant defense makes plant-herbivore interactions a system in which transgenerational phenotypic plasticity (TPP) is apt to evolve...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102909/the-effects-of-hospital-characteristics-on-delays-in-breast-cancer-diagnosis-in-appalachian-communities-a-population-based-study
#4
Christopher J Louis, Jonathan R Clark, Marianne M Hillemeier, Fabian Camacho, Nengliang Yao, Roger T Anderson
PURPOSE: Despite being generally accepted that delays in diagnosing breast cancer are of prognostic and psychological concern, the influence of hospital characteristics on such delays remains poorly understood, especially in rural and underserved areas. However, hospital characteristics have been tied to greater efficiency and warrant further investigation as they may have implications for breast cancer care in these areas. METHODS: Study data were derived from the Kentucky, North Carolina, Ohio, and Pennsylvania state central cancer registries (2006-2008)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102879/the-conservative-and-pharmacological-management-of-chronic-subdural-haematoma
#5
Jehuda Soleman, Fabio Noccera, Luigi Mariani
Chronic subdural haematoma (cSDH), one of the most common neurosurgical entities, occurs typically in elderly patients. The incidence is expected to double by the year 2030, owing to the continuous aging of the population. Surgery is usually the treatment of choice, but conservative treatment may be a good alternative in some situations. We provide a systematic review of studies analysing the conservative treatment options and the natural history of cSDH. Of 231 articles screened, 35 were included in this systematic review...
January 19, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102853/skin-to-skin-contact-after-birth-and-the-natural-course-of-neurosteroid-levels-in-healthy-term-newborns
#6
K R McCallie, N W Gaikwad, M E Castillo Cuadrado, M Aleman, J E Madigan, D K Stevenson, V K Bhutani
OBJECTIVE: To determine the postnatal course of neurosteroid levels in relation to gender, mode of delivery and the extent of skin-to-skin (STS) contact during the first days of life in healthy term newborns. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study of 39 neonates in which parents recorded total duration of STS in the first 2 days and nine neurosteroids (dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, progesterone, pregnenolone, pregnenolone-sulfate, allopregnanolone, isopregnanolone, epipregnanolone, pregnanolone and pregnanolone-sulfate) were assayed from blood samples at birth and at 1-2 days of age...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102847/curcumin-represses-mouse-3t3-l1-cell-adipogenic-differentiation-via-inhibiting-mir-17-5p-and-stimulating-the-wnt-signalling-pathway-effector-tcf7l2
#7
Lili Tian, Zhuolun Song, Weijuan Shao, William W Du, Lisa R Zhao, Kejing Zeng, Burton B Yang, Tianru Jin
Understanding mechanisms underlying adipogenic differentiation may lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic targets for obesity. Wnt signalling pathway activation leads to repressed adipogenic differentiation while certain microRNAs may regulate pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. We show here that in mouse white adipose tissue, miR-17-5p level is elevated after high fat diet consumption. miR-17-5p upregulates adipogenic differentiation, as its over-expression increased while its inhibition repressed 3T3-L1 differentiation...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102818/is-cell-size-a-spandrel
#8
Ariel Amir
All organisms control the size of their cells. We focus here on the question of size regulation in bacteria, and suggest that the quantitative laws governing cell size and its dependence on growth rate may arise as byproducts of a regulatory mechanism which evolved to support multiple DNA replication forks. In particular, we show that the increase of bacterial cell size during Lenski's long-term evolution experiments is a natural outcome of this proposal. This suggests that, in the context of evolution, cell size may be a 'spandrel'...
January 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102802/norovirus-gii-17-natural-infections-in-rhesus-monkeys-china
#9
Zhanlong He, Bo Liu, Yufen Tao, Chao Li, Ming Xia, Weiming Zhong, Xi Jiang, Hongqi Liu, Ming Tan
Noroviruses are a leading viral cause of acute gastroenteritis among humans. During the 2014-15 epidemic season, norovirus GII.17 was detected in rhesus monkeys in China. Genetic, structural, and challenge studies revealed virus mutations and verified the infections. Thus, cross-species transmission may occur, and monkeys may be a virus reservoir.
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102791/an-exemplar-of-naturalistic-inquiry-in-general-practice-research
#10
Susan McInnes, Kath Peters, Andrew Bonney, Elizabeth Halcomb
Background Before beginning any research project, novice researchers must consider which methodological approach will best address their research questions. The paucity of literature describing a practical application of naturalistic inquiry adds to the difficulty they may experience. Aim To provide a practical example of how naturalistic inquiry was applied to a qualitative study exploring collaboration between registered nurses and general practitioners working in Australian general practice. Discussion Naturalistic inquiry is not without its critics and limitations...
January 23, 2017: Nurse Researcher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102784/model-systems-for-the-study-of-enterococcal-colonization-and-infection
#11
H M Sharon Goh, M H Adeline Yong, Kelvin Kian Long Chong, Kimberly A Kline
Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract, as well as frequent opportunistic pathogens. Enterococci cause a range of infections including, most frequently, infections of the urinary tract, catheterized urinary tract, bloodstream, wounds and surgical sites, and heart valves in endocarditis. Enterococcal infections are often biofilm-associated, polymicrobial in nature, and resistant to antibiotics of last resort. Understanding Enterococcal mechanisms of colonization and pathogenesis are important for identifying new ways to manage and intervene with these infections...
January 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102779/long-term-dust-aerosol-production-from-natural-sources-in-iceland
#12
Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Olafur Arnalds, Haraldur Olafsson
: Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland is volcanic sandy deserts. Not only do natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze"), but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean >1000 km at times...
February 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102755/anionic-lipids-and-the-maintenance-of-membrane-electrostatics-in-eukaryotes
#13
Matthieu Pierre Platre, Yvon Jaillais
A wide range of signaling processes occurs at the cell surface through the reversible association of proteins from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. Some low abundant lipids are enriched at the membrane of specific compartments and thereby contribute to the identity of cell organelles by acting as biochemical landmarks. Lipids also influence membrane biophysical properties, which emerge as an important feature in specifying cellular territories. Such parameters are crucial for signal transduction and include lipid packing, membrane curvature and electrostatics...
January 19, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102754/enhancement-of-antibody-functions-through-fc-multiplications
#14
Qun Wang, Yan Chen, Mark Pelletier, Romana Cvitkovic, Jessica Bonnell, Chien-Ying Chang, Adem C Koksal, Ellen O'Connor, Xizhe Gao, Xiang-Qing Yu, Herren Wu, C Kendall Stover, William F Dall'Acqua, Xiaodong Xiao
Antibodies carry out a plethora of functions through their crystallizable fragment (Fc) regions, which can be naturally tuned by the adoption of several isotypes and post-translational modifications. Protein engineering enables further Fc function modulations through modifications of the interactions between the Fc and its functional partners, including FcγR, FcRn, complement complex, and additions of auxiliary functional units. Due to the many functions embedded within the confinement of an Fc, a suitable balance must be maintained for a therapeutic antibody to be effective and safe...
January 19, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102675/mechanistic-elucidation-of-zirconium-catalyzed-direct-amidation
#15
Helena Lundberg, Fredrik Tinnis, Jiji Zhang, Andrés G Algarra, Fahmi Himo, Hans Adolfsson
The mechanism of the zirconium-catalyzed condensation of carboxylic acids and amines for direct formation of amides was studied using kinetics, NMR-spectroscopy and DFT-calculations. The reaction is found to be first order with respect to catalyst and has a positive rate dependence on amine concentration and a negative rate dependence on carboxylic acid concentration. Kinetic experiments using Reaction Progress Kinetic Analysis (RPKA) protocols demonstrate that inhibition of the catalyst by the amide product can be avoided using a high amine concentration...
January 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102673/total-synthesis-of-%C3%A2-berkeleyone-a
#16
Masha Elkin, Suzanne M Szewczyk, Anthony C Scruse, Timothy R Newhouse
A 13-step total synthesis of the fungal meroterpenoid berkeleyone A is reported. The molecular skeleton is formed using the first examples of two critical construction reactions: 1) an epoxide-initiated, β-ketoester-terminated polycyclization, and 2) an isomerization-cyclization cascade to generate the remaining bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane framework. The resulting 6-step synthesis of the carbocyclic core of the berkeleyone natural products has been used to access protoaustinoid A and berkeleyone A, and will aid future biosynthetic investigations into the origin of related natural products...
January 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102668/adventures-in-reactive-intermediate-chemistry-a-perspective-and-retrospective
#17
Robert A Moss
I review aspects of my research on reactive intermediates, specifically the physical organic chemistry of carbenes and carbocations. The topics treated include carbenoids, carbenic philicity, absolute rates of carbene/alkene additions, the diazirine exchange reaction and derived carbenes, carbene equilibria, carbocations from diazotates, and carbocations from alkoxychlorocarbenes. The essay concludes with observations on the protean nature of physical organic chemistry.
January 19, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102581/molecular-mechanisms-and-ecological-function-of-far-red-light-signalling
#18
REVIEW
David J Sheerin, Andreas Hiltbrunner
Land plants possess the ability to sense and respond to far-red light (700-760 nm), which serves as an important environmental cue. Due to the nature of far-red light, it is not absorbed by chlorophyll and thus is enriched in canopy shade, and will also penetrate deeper into soil than other visible wavelengths. Far-red light responses include regulation of seed germination, suppression of hypocotyl growth, induction of flowering, and accumulation of anthocyanins, which depend on one member of the phytochrome photoreceptor family, phytochrome A (phyA)...
January 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102563/multiscale-modeling-methods-in-biomechanics
#19
REVIEW
Pinaki Bhattacharya, Marco Viceconti
More and more frequently, computational biomechanics deals with problems where the portion of physical reality to be modeled spans over such a large range of spatial and temporal dimensions, that it is impossible to represent it as a single space-time continuum. We are forced to consider multiple space-time continua, each representing the phenomenon of interest at a characteristic space-time scale. Multiscale models describe a complex process across multiple scales, and account for how quantities transform as we move from one scale to another...
January 19, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102546/ataluren-and-similar-compounds-specific-therapies-for-premature-termination-codon-class-i-mutations-for-cystic-fibrosis
#20
REVIEW
Aisha A Aslam, Colin Higgins, Ian P Sinha, Kevin W Southern
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is a common life-shortening genetic disorder in the Caucasian population (less common in other ethnic groups) caused by the mutation of a single gene that codes for the production of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein. This protein coordinates the transport of salt (and bicarbonate) across cell surfaces and the mutation most notably affects the airways. In the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis, defective protein results in a dehydrated surface liquid and compromised mucociliary clearance...
January 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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