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Debika Datta, Preeti Khatri, Ambika Singh, Dhira Rani Saha, Gaurav Verma, Rajagopal Raman, Shibnath Mazumder
Mycobacterium fortuitum is a natural fish pathogen. It induces apoptosis in headkidney macrophages (HKM) of catfish, Clarias sp though the mechanism remains largely unknown. We observed M. fortuitum triggers calcium (Ca2+ ) insult in the sub-cellular compartments which elicits pro-apototic ER-stress factor CHOP. Alleviating ER-stress inhibited CHOP and attenuated HKM apoptosis implicating ER-stress in the pathogenesis of M. fortuitum . ER-stress promoted calpain activation and silencing the protease inhibited caspase-12 activation...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
M Piasecki, A Ireland, J Piasecki, D W Stashuk, A Swiecicka, M K Rutter, D A Jones, J S McPhee
Sarcopenia results from the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and reduced function in older age. It is likely to be associated with the well-documented reduction of motor unit numbers innervating limb muscles and the increase in size of surviving motor units via reinnervation of denervated fibres. However no evidence currently exists to confirm the extent of motor unit remodelling in sarcopenic individuals. The aim of the present study was to compare motor unit size and number between young (n = 48), non-sarcopenic old (n = 13), pre-sarcopenic (n = 53) and sarcopenic (n = 29) men...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Ehsan Choubini, Mehri Habibi, Ahmad Khorshidi, Amir Ghasemi, Mohammad Reza Asadi Karam, Saeid Bouzari
Proteus mirabilis is a common pathogen in urinary tract infections (UTIs). There is no vaccine against P. mirabilis, thus a novel multi-peptide vaccine of MrpA, UcaA and Pta factors of P. mirabilis we designed and a mice model was used to evaluate its efficacy in combination with AddaVax adjuvant. According to the bioinformatics studies, 7 fragments of MrpA (31-75, 112-146), UcaA (68-117, 132-156) and Pta (210-265, 340-400, 496-570) with B and T cell epitope regions were selected for fusion construction. Mice subcutaneously vaccinated with the fusion MrpA...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Véronique Schulten, Luise Westernberg, Giovanni Birrueta, John Sidney, Sinu Paul, Paula Busse, Bjoern Peters, Alessandro Sette
Mouse allergy has become increasingly common, mainly affecting laboratory workers and inner-city households. To date, only one major allergen, namely Mus m 1, has been described. We sought to identify T cell targets in mouse allergic patients. PBMC from allergic donors were expanded with either murine urine or epithelial extract and subsequently screened for cytokine production (IL-5 and IFNγ) in response to overlapping peptides spanning the entire Mus m 1 sequence, peptides from various Mus m 1 isoforms [major urinary proteins (MUPs)], peptides from mouse orthologs of known allergens from other mammalian species and peptides from proteins identified by immunoproteomic analysis of IgE/IgG immunoblots of mouse urine and epithelial extracts...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Aneta Stachowicz, Rafał Olszanecki, Maciej Suski, Anna Wiśniewska, Katarzyna Kuś, Magdalena Białas, Jacek Jawień, Ryszard Korbut
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) - derived nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role not only in endothelium-dependent vasodilation but also in lipid and glucose homeostasis in the liver and exerts beneficial effects on mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. Thus, the aim of our study was to used iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics to investigate the changes in protein expression in the mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions isolated from the liver of the double (apolipoprotein E (apoE) and eNOS) knockout (apoE/eNOS-DKO) mice as compared to apoE KO mice (apoE-/- ) - an animal model of atherosclerosis and hepatic steatosis...
February 27, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Xiao Guo, Huifen Guo, Lei Zhao, Yao-Hua Zhang, Jian-Xu Zhang
Background: In rats, urine-borne male pheromones comprise organic volatile compounds and major urinary proteins (MUPs). A number of volatile pheromones have been reported, but no MUP pheromones have been identified in rat urine. Results: We used sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), isoelectric focusing electrophoresis (IEF), nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS) after in gel digestion of the proteins and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT - PCR) and showed that the levels of two MUPs, odorant - binding protein 3 (OBP3) (i...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Barbara J Cade-Menun, Kyle R Elkin, Corey W Liu, Ray B Bryant, Peter J A Kleinman, Philip A Moore
Phosphorus (P) can limit crop production in many soils, and soil testing is used to guide fertilizer recommendations. The Mehlich III (M3) soil test is widely used in North America, followed by colorimetric analysis for P, or by inductively coupled plasma-based spectrometry (ICP) for P and cations. However, differences have been observed in M3 P concentrations measured by these methods. Using31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (P-NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS), we characterized P forms in M3 extracts. In addition to the orthophosphate that would be detected during colorimetric analysis, several organic P forms were present in M3 extracts that would be unreactive colorimetrically but measured by ICP (molybdate unreactive P, MUP)...
February 21, 2018: Geochemical Transactions
Barbora Kuntová, Romana Stopková, Pavel Stopka
Mammalian olfaction depends on chemosensory neurons of the main olfactory epithelia (MOE), and/or of the accessory olfactory epithelia in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). Thus, we have generated the VNO and MOE transcriptomes and the nasal cavity proteome of the house mouse, Mus musculus musculus . Both transcriptomes had low levels of sexual dimorphisms, while the soluble proteome of the nasal cavity revealed high levels of sexual dimorphism similar to that previously reported in tears and saliva. Due to low levels of sexual dimorphism in the olfactory receptors in MOE and VNO, the sex-specific sensing seems less likely to be dependent on receptor repertoires...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
A B Jacobsen, R S Kristensen, A Witt, A G Kristensen, L Duez, S Beniczky, A Fuglsang-Frederiksen, H Tankisi
OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic utility of motor unit number estimation (MUNE) methods to motor unit potential (MUP) analysis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: Twenty-five patients (1 definite, 11 probable, 9 possible ALS and 4 progressive muscular atrophy) and 22 healthy controls were prospectively included. Quantitative MUP analysis and three MUNE methods; Multiple Point Stimulation MUNE (MPS), Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX) and MScanFit MUNE (MScan) were done in abductor pollicis brevis muscle...
March 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Liu Zhang, Li Wu, Caifen Wang, Guoqing Zhang, Lin Yu, Hai Yan Li, Abi Maharjan, Yan Tang, Dunwei He, Peter York, Huimin Sun, Xianzhen Yin, Jiwen Zhang, Lixin Sun
One unusual and challenging scientific field that has received only cursory attention to date is the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure and spatial distribution of drug(s) and formulation materials in solid dosage forms. This study aims to pro-vide deeper insight to the relationships between the microstructure of multiple-unit pellet system (MUPS) tablets and the spa-tial distribution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and excipients to facilitate the design of quantitative models for drug delivery systems...
February 7, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Hannlie Hamman, Josias Hamman, Anita Wessels, Jacques Scholtz, Jan Steenekamp
The SeDeM Expert Diagram System (SeDeM EDS) was originally developed to provide information about the suitability of powders to produce direct compressible tablets. Multiple-unit pellet systems (MUPS) are dosage forms consisting of pellets compressed into tablets or loaded into hard gelatine capsules. The aim of this study was to apply the SeDeM EDS to different size pellets (i.e. 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mm) containing different APIs (i.e. doxylamine, ibuprofen or paracetamol) to determine which properties should be corrected to yield MUPS tablet formulations...
February 2, 2018: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
M Ghofrani Jahromi, H Parsaei, A Zamani, M Dehbozorgi
Background: Electromyographic (EMG) signal decomposition is the process by which an EMG signal is decomposed into its constituent motor unit potential trains (MUPTs). A major step in EMG decomposition is feature extraction in which each detected motor unit potential (MUP) is represented by a feature vector. As with any other pattern recognition system, feature extraction has a significant impact on the performance of a decomposition system. EMG decomposition has been studied well and several systems were proposed, but feature extraction step has not been investigated in detail...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
M Piasecki, A Ireland, J Piasecki, D W Stashuk, J S McPhee, D A Jones
PURPOSE: Current methods for estimating muscle motor unit (MU) number provide values which are remarkably similar for muscles of widely differing size, probably because surface electrodes sample from similar and relatively small volumes in each muscle. We have evaluated an alternative means of estimating MU number that takes into account differences in muscle size. METHODS: Intramuscular motor unit potentials (MUPs) were recorded and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured using MRI to provide a motor unit number estimate (iMUNE)...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Robert A Maxwell, Chasen A Croft, C Buddy Creech, Isaac Thomsen, Nicole Soper, Laura E Brown, Vicente A Mejia, Benjamin W Dart, Donald E Barker
The purpose of this study was to determine if a decolonization regimen reduces the frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and if colonization isolates are genetically related to subsequent infectious strains. Trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit with positive MRSA nasal swabs were randomized to either daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) baths and mupirocin (MUP) ointment to the nares or soap and water baths and placebo ointment for five days. Nasal swabs performed at the end of treatment and invasive MRSA infections during the remaining hospitalization were compared with the original nasal isolate via polymerase chain reaction for genetic relatedness as well as CHG and MUP resistance genes...
December 1, 2017: American Surgeon
Veronica Penza, Xiaofei Du, Danail Stoyanov, Antonello Forgione, Leonardo S Mattos, Elena De Momi
Despite the benefits introduced by robotic systems in abdominal Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS), major complications can still affect the outcome of the procedure, such as intra-operative bleeding. One of the causes is attributed to accidental damages to arteries or veins by the surgical tools, and some of the possible risk factors are related to the lack of sub-surface visibilty. Assistive tools guiding the surgical gestures to prevent these kind of injuries would represent a relevant step towards safer clinical procedures...
December 22, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
Kari Irene H Busvold, Hilde Bondevik
Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are a significant and increasing health issue in the western world. Chronic pain constitutes a considerable element of these symptoms, and the lack of a biomedical explanation of their cause challenges the clinical encounter. The limitations of biomedicine become evident in these encounters and expose the need for an expanded understanding of body and symptom. Semiotics, as an anti-dualistic meta-theory, closes the gap between natural science and the humanities and views the human body in an evolutionary and existential perspective...
January 8, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Nikki Claassen-van Dessel, Johannes C van der Wouden, Trynke Hoekstra, Joost Dekker, Henriëtte E van der Horst
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the 2-year course of Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms (MUPS) in terms of symptom severity, physical functioning and mental functioning. METHODS: We used data of the PROSPECTS cohort study, consisting of 325 MUPS patients from several health care settings. Symptom severity (PHQ-15), physical functioning (RAND 36 PCS) and mental functioning (RAND 36 MCS) were assessed at baseline and 6, 12 and 24 months afterwards. We used Latent Class Growth Modeling (LCGM) to identify different course types, but as clinical usability of results was limited, we also analysed change scores and directions of change...
January 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Xia Wu, Xiao-Bing Cong, Qi-Shun Huang, Fang-Xin Ai, Yu-Tian Liu, Xiao-Cheng Lu, Jin Li, Yu-Xiong Weng, Zhen-Bing Chen
This study aimed to investigate the reconstruction of the thumb and finger extension function in patients with middle and lower trunk root avulsion injuries of the brachial plexus. From April 2010 to January 2015, we enrolled in this study 4 patients diagnosed with middle and lower trunk root avulsion injuries of the brachial plexus via imaging tests, electrophysiological examinations, and clinical confirmation. Muscular branches of the radial nerve, which innervate the supinator in the forearm, were transposed to the posterior interosseous nerve to reconstruct the thumb and finger extension function...
December 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Vanessa Susini, Veronica Lucia Rossi, Antonio Sanesi, Laurent Drazek
Alkaline phosphatase (AP) (EC is one of the most used enzymes in immunoassays. In VIDAS® assays (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) AP catalyses the hydrolysis of 4-Methylumbelliferyl phosphate (4-MUP) in 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) producing a fluorescent signal. This work introduces an original method of characterization of the kinetics parameter Km, Vmax and Kcat of AP embedded in VIDAS® assays. Assessment of such constants allows us to predict the fluorescent signal generated for given amounts of enzyme and its associated substrate; in the particular case of VIDAS®, it has been estimated that 0...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
Ewa Zalewska, Irena Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to determine motor unit morphology underpinning the various MUP waveforms using MUP analysis. METHOD: The simulation method is based on the decomposition of MUP into single fiber potentials. Number of fibers, fiber diameters and fiber to electrode distances were determined. The impact of each muscle fiber on the MUP waveform was determined and quantified by its percentage contribution. RESULTS: The origin of the four examined MUPs of distinct waveforms have been explained by showing the histograms of fiber diameters and their distance to the electrode...
January 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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