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Tyler S Pidgeon, Katia A DaSilva, Joseph J Crisco, Eric C Johnson, Alison B Chambers, Manuel F DaSilva
BACKGROUND: Distal radius (DR) fractures demonstrate patterns of predictable fragments. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of these regions of interest (ROIs) may guide more precise treatment. METHODS: Computed tomography (CT) scans of the DR of 42 healthy volunteers (23 female) were analyzed using quantitative CT software, measuring BMD within trabecular bone. Seven ROIs were described by alignment with the distal (volar ulnar distal [VUD], dorsal ulnar distal [DUD], volar radial distal [VRD], and dorsal radial distal [DRD]) or proximal (middle ulnar proximal [MUP], middle proximal [MP], and middle radial proximal [MRP]) sigmoid notch...
July 1, 2018: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
Tahereh Kamali, Daniel W Stashuk
OBJECTIVE: Electrophysiological muscle classification (EMC) is a crucial step in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders. Existing quantitative techniques are not sufficiently robust and accurate to be reliably clinically used. Here, EMC is modelled as a multiple instance learning (MIL) problem and a system to infer unsupervised motor unit potential (MUP) labels and create supervised muscle classifications is presented. METHODS: The system has five main steps: 1) MUP representation using morphological, stability, and near fiber parameters as well as spectral features extracted from wavelet coefficients; 2) MUP feature selection using unsupervised Laplacian scores; 3) MUP clustering using neighborhood distance entropy consistency to find representations of MUP normality and abnormality; 4) Muscle representation by embedding its MUP cluster associations in a feature vector; and 5) Muscle classification using support vector machines or random forests...
February 5, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Marianna Purgato, Chiara Gastaldon, Davide Papola, Mark van Ommeren, Corrado Barbui, Wietse A Tol
BACKGROUND: People living in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are exposed to a constellation of stressors that make them vulnerable to developing mental disorders. Mental disorders with a higher prevalence in these settings include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive, anxiety, somatoform (e.g. medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS)), and related disorders. A range of psychological therapies are used to manage symptoms of mental disorders in this population...
July 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Shabnam Shalapour, Xue-Jia Lin, Ingmar N Bastian, John Brain, Alastair D Burt, Alexander A Aksenov, Alison F Vrbanac, Weihua Li, Andres Perkins, Takaji Matsutani, Zhenyu Zhong, Debanjan Dhar, Jose A Navas-Molina, Jun Xu, Rohit Loomba, Michael Downes, Ruth T Yu, Ronald M Evans, Pieter C Dorrestein, Rob Knight, Christopher Benner, Quentin M Anstee, Michael Karin
In this Article, the sentence: "After 7 months of HFD, MUP-uPA mice developed HCC15 , which contained numerous (usually 50-100 per tumour) non-recurrent coding mutations in pathways that are mutated in human HCC (Fig. 2d and Extended Data Fig. 6a).", should have read: "After 7 months of HFD, MUP-uPA mice developed HCC15 , which contained numerous (usually 50-100 per tumour) non-recurrent mutations in pathways that are mutated in human HCC (Fig. 2d and Extended Data Fig. 6a).". This has been corrected online...
July 4, 2018: Nature
Yasuhiro Oono, Takeshi Kuwata, Kenji Takashima, Kensuke Shinmura, Keisuke Hori, Yusuke Yoda, Hiroaki Ikematsu, Kohei Shitara, Takahiro Kinoshita, Tomonori Yano
BACKGROUND: Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play critical roles in gastric cancer (GC) progression and are potential targets for novel molecular-targeted agents or photo-immunotherapies. During patient selection, targeted biopsy is the first step. However, heterogeneous expression of RTKs based on the macroscopic appearance in GC has not been extensively addressed. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated differences in RTK expression associated with macroscopic appearance in GC. METHODS: In total, 375 consecutive patients who had undergone gastrectomy at the National Cancer Center Hospital East and who had histologically proven adenocarcinoma, available archived tumor sample, and no history of chemotherapy were enrolled in this study...
June 27, 2018: Gastric Cancer
Simon Podnar, Leja Dolenc Grošelj
OBJECTIVE: Both myopathic and neuropathic tongue protruder muscle changes have been demonstrated to occur in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients using different methods. We tried to elucidate this dilemma using quantitative electromyographic (EMG) methods. METHODS: In a group of consecutive patients with suspected OSA a full overnight polysomnography (PSG) and quantitative needle EMG of the tongue protruder, biceps brachii and vastus lateralis muscles were performed...
June 14, 2018: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
Ewa Zalewska, Anna Kaminska, Biruta Kierdaszuk, Elżbieta Szmidt-Salkowska, Małgorzata Gawel
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to compare muscle fiber diameters obtained from standard muscle biopsy and from computer simulations based on recorded motor unit potentials (MUPs). METHODS: Electromyography (EMG) and muscle biopsy were performed in 14 patients with a suspicion of a neuromuscular disorder. Histograms of the simulated muscle fiber diameters (SMFDs) were compared with those from the biopsy RESULTS: The values of the SMFDs were similar to those in the muscle biopsy for the same patient (p = 0...
August 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Shigekazu Ito, Yasuhiro Ueta, Kota Koshino, Kenji M Kojima, Iain McKenzie, Koichi Mikami
A 1,3-diphosphacyclobutane-2,4-diyl contains a unique unsaturated cyclic unit, and the presence of radical-type centers have been expected as a source of functionality. This study demonstrates that the P-heterocyclic singlet biradical captures muonium (Mu=[μ+ e- ]), the light isotope of a hydrogen radical, to generate an observable P-heterocyclic paramagnetic species. Investigation of a powder sample of 2,4-bis(2,4,6-tri-t-butylphenyl)-1-t-butyl-3-benzyl-1,3-diphosphacyclobutane-2,4-diyl using muon (avoided) level-crossing resonance (μLCR) spectroscopy revealed that muonium adds to the cyclic P2 C2 unit...
May 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Xin-Yu Cao, Fan-Zhi Kong, Qiang Zhang, Wei-Wen Liu, Xiao-Ping Liu, Guo-Qing Li, Ran Zhong, Liu-Yin Fan, Hua Xiao, Cheng-Xi Cao
As a vital enzyme, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has great clinical significance in diagnoses of bone or liver cancer, bone metastases, rickets, and extrahepatic biliary obstruction. However, there is still no really portable chip for the ALP assay in blood. Herein, a simple electrophoresis titration (ET) model was developed for ALP detection via a moving reaction boundary (MRB). In the model, ALP catalyzed the dephosphorylation of a 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate disodium salt (4-MUP) substrate in the cathode well to 4-methylumbelliferone ([4-MU]-) with a negative charge and blue fluorescence under UV excitation...
June 12, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Ricardo da Silva Antunes, John Pham, Curtis McMurtrey, William H Hildebrand, Elizabeth Phillips, Simon Mallal, John Sidney, Paula Busse, Bjoern Peters, Véronique Schulten, Alessandro Sette
Mouse allergy in both laboratory workers and in inner-city children is associated with allergic rhinitis and asthma, posing a serious public health concern. Urine is a major source of mouse allergens, as mice spray urine onto their surroundings, where the proteins dry up and become airborne on dust particles. Here, we tested whether oligopeptides that are abundant in mouse urine may contribute to mouse allergic T cell response. Over 1,300 distinct oligopeptides were detected by mass spectrometry analysis of the low molecular weight filtrate fraction of mouse urine (LoMo)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mohsen Ghofrani Jahromi, Hossein Parsaei, Ali Zamani, Daniel W Stashuk
Feature extraction is an important step of resolving an electromyographic (EMG) signal into its component motor unit potential trains, commonly known as EMG decomposition. Until now, different features have been used to represent motor unit potentials (MUPs) and improve decomposition processing time and accuracy, but a major limitation is that no systematic comparison of these features exists. In an EMG decomposition system, like any pattern recognition system, the features used for representing MUPs play an important role in the overall performance of the system...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Els Tobback, An Mariman, Lies Clauwaert, Lode Godderis, Stefan Heytens, Patrick Ruppol, Daniel Spooren, Rita Tytgat, Martine De Muynck, Dirk Vogelaers
OBJECTIVES: Patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms suffer from chronic fatigue and/or pain in combination with a variety of other symptoms. A flexible, biopsychosocial approach is needed for diagnostic screening and global management. It is crucial to involve the direct patient environment, including family, friends, colleagues as well as health providers, evaluation, and reintegration sector. The aim of this paper is to review the importance of work in the management of medically unexplained physical symptoms...
May 4, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
Sarah A Roberts, Mark C Prescott, Amanda J Davidson, Lynn McLean, Robert J Beynon, Jane L Hurst
BACKGROUND: Reliable recognition of individuals requires phenotypic identity signatures that are both individually distinctive and appropriately stable over time. Individual-specific vocalisations or visual patterning are well documented among birds and some mammals, whilst odours play a key role in social recognition across many vertebrates and invertebrates. Less well understood, though, is whether individuals are recognised through variation in cues that arise incidentally from a wide variety of genetic and non-genetic differences between individuals, or whether animals evolve distinctive polymorphic signals to advertise identity reliably...
April 27, 2018: BMC Biology
Eva O Melin, Ralph Svensson, Hans O Thulesius
OBJECTIVES: Feasibility testing of a psychoeducational method -The Affect School and Script Analyses (ASSA) - in a Swedish primary care setting. Exploring associations between psychological, and medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). DESIGN: Pilot study. SETTING: Three Swedish primary care centers serving 20,000 people. INTERVENTION: 8 weekly 2-hour sessions with a 5-7 participant group led by two instructors - followed by 10 individual hour-long sessions...
June 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
Jeffrey F Scott, Ruzica Z Conic, Cheryl L Thompson, Meg R Gerstenblith, Jeremy S Bordeaux
BACKGROUND: Melanoma of unknown primary (MUP) is incompletely described on a population level. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize stage IV MUP in a population-based cancer registry. METHODS: We developed a novel search algorithm to identify cases of stage IV MUP in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-18 registries from 1973 to 2014. Stage IV melanoma of known primary (MKP) served as a comparison group. Age-standardized incidence rates, demographic characteristics, adjusted disease-specific survival (DSS), and Cox proportional hazard models were calculated for MUP and MKP...
March 23, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Debika Datta, Preeti Khatri, Ambika Singh, Dhira Rani Saha, Gaurav Verma, Rajagopal Raman, Shibnath Mazumder
Mycobacterium fortuitum is a natural fish pathogen. It induces apoptosis in headkidney macrophages (HKM) of catfish, Clarias sp though the mechanism remains largely unknown. We observed M. fortuitum triggers calcium (Ca2+ ) insult in the sub-cellular compartments which elicits pro-apototic ER-stress factor CHOP. Alleviating ER-stress inhibited CHOP and attenuated HKM apoptosis implicating ER-stress in the pathogenesis of M. fortuitum . ER-stress promoted calpain activation and silencing the protease inhibited caspase-12 activation...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
M Piasecki, A Ireland, J Piasecki, D W Stashuk, A Swiecicka, M K Rutter, D A Jones, J S McPhee
KEY POINTS: The age-related loss of muscle mass is related to the loss of innervating motor neurons and denervation of muscle fibres. Not all denervated muscle fibres are degraded; some may be reinnervated by an adjacent surviving neuron, which expands the innervating motor unit proportional to the numbers of fibres rescued. Enlarged motor units have larger motor unit potentials when measured using electrophysiological techniques. We recorded much larger motor unit potentials in relatively healthy older men compared to young men, but the older men with the smallest muscles (sarcopenia) had smaller motor unit potentials than healthy older men...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Ehsan Choubini, Mehri Habibi, Ahmad Khorshidi, Amir Ghasemi, Mohammad Reza Asadi Karam, Saeid Bouzari
Proteus mirabilis is a common pathogen in urinary tract infections (UTIs). There is no vaccine against P. mirabilis, thus a novel multi-peptide vaccine of MrpA, UcaA and Pta factors of P. mirabilis we designed and a mice model was used to evaluate its efficacy in combination with AddaVax adjuvant. According to the bioinformatics studies, 7 fragments of MrpA (31-75, 112-146), UcaA (68-117, 132-156) and Pta (210-265, 340-400, 496-570) with B and T cell epitope regions were selected for fusion construction. Mice subcutaneously vaccinated with the fusion MrpA...
April 2018: Molecular Immunology
Véronique Schulten, Luise Westernberg, Giovanni Birrueta, John Sidney, Sinu Paul, Paula Busse, Bjoern Peters, Alessandro Sette
Mouse allergy has become increasingly common, mainly affecting laboratory workers and inner-city households. To date, only one major allergen, namely Mus m 1, has been described. We sought to identify T cell targets in mouse allergic patients. PBMC from allergic donors were expanded with either murine urine or epithelial extract and subsequently screened for cytokine production (IL-5 and IFNγ) in response to overlapping peptides spanning the entire Mus m 1 sequence, peptides from various Mus m 1 isoforms [major urinary proteins (MUPs)], peptides from mouse orthologs of known allergens from other mammalian species and peptides from proteins identified by immunoproteomic analysis of IgE/IgG immunoblots of mouse urine and epithelial extracts...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Aneta Stachowicz, Rafał Olszanecki, Maciej Suski, Anna Wiśniewska, Katarzyna Kuś, Magdalena Białas, Jacek Jawień, Ryszard Korbut
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role, not only in endothelium-dependent vasodilation but also in lipid and glucose homeostasis in the liver and exerts beneficial effects on mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. Thus, the aim of our study was to use iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics to investigate the changes in protein expression in the mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions isolated from the liver of the double (apolipoprotein E (apoE) and eNOS) knockout (apoE/eNOS-DKO) mice as compared to apoE KO mice (apoE-/- ) - an animal model of atherosclerosis and hepatic steatosis...
February 27, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
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