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Marija Meznaric, Erika Cvetko
Smaller diaphragmatic motor unit potentials (MUPs) compared to MUPs of limb muscles lead to the hypothesis that diaphragmatic muscle fibers, being the generators of MUPs, might be also smaller. We compared autopsy samples of costal diaphragm and vastus lateralis of healthy men with respect to fibers' size and expression of slow myosin heavy chain isoform (MyHC-1) and fast 2A isoform (MyHC-2A). Diaphragmatic fibers were smaller than fibers in vastus lateralis with regard to the mean minimal fiber diameter of slow-twitch (46...
2016: BioMed Research International
Kara Thompson, Tim Stockwell, Ashley Wettlaufer, Norman Giesbrecht, Gerald Thomas
There is an interest globally in using Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) of alcohol to promote public health. Canada is the only country to have both implemented and evaluated some forms of minimum alcohol prices, albeit in ways that fall short of MUP. To inform these international debates, we describe the degree to which minimum alcohol prices in Canada meet recommended criteria for being an effective public health policy. We collected data on the implementation of minimum pricing with respect to (1) breadth of application, (2) indexation to inflation and (3) adjustments for alcohol content...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
J Koudy Williams, Gopal Badlani, Ashley Dean, Shannon Lankford, Kimberly Poppante, Tracy Criswell, Karl-Erik Andersson
BACKGROUND: Many factors may influence the efficacy of cell therapy for intrinsic urinary sphincter deficiency (ISD), including the route of administration of the cells and the condition of the sphincter. The goal of this study was to compare local versus intravenous administration of autologous skeletal muscle precursor cells (skMPCs) when administered to nonhuman primates (NHPs) with either acute or chronic ISD. METHODS: Thirty-two adult female monkeys were divided into eight groups (n = 4/group): (1) control; (2) surgically induced ISD/no treatment; (3) acute ISD (6-week duration)/local vehicle only; (4) acute ISD/local skMPC injection; (5) acute ISD/systemic skMPC; (6) chronic ISD (6-month duration)/local vehicle; (7) chronic ISD/local skMPC; (8) chronic ISD/systemic skMPC...
October 7, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Anna Novikova, Jens M Carstensen, Thomas Rades, Prof Dr Claudia S Leopold
In the present study the applicability of multispectral UV imaging in combination with multivariate image analysis for surface evaluation of MUPS tablets was investigated with respect to the differentiation of the API pellets from the excipients matrix, estimation of the drug content as well as pellet distribution, and influence of the coating material and tablet thickness on the predictive model. Different formulations consisting of coated drug pellets with two coating polymers (Aquacoat(®) ECD and Eudragit(®) NE 30 D) at three coating levels each were compressed to MUPS tablets with various amounts of coated pellets and different tablet thicknesses...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Mathew Piasecki, Alex Ireland, Jessica Coulson, Dan W Stashuk, Andrew Hamilton-Wright, Agnieszka Swiecicka, Martin K Rutter, Jamie S McPhee, David A Jones
Muscle motor unit numbers decrease markedly in old age, while remaining motor units are enlarged and can have reduced neuromuscular junction transmission stability. However, it is possible that regular intense physical activity throughout life can attenuate this remodeling. The aim of this study was to compare the number, size, and neuromuscular junction transmission stability of tibialis anterior (TA) motor units in healthy young and older men with those of exceptionally active master runners. The distribution of motor unit potential (MUP) size was determined from intramuscular electromyographic signals recorded in healthy male Young (mean ± SD, 26 ± 5 years), Old (71 ± 4 years) and Master Athletes (69 ± 3 years)...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Y T Ren, F Cui, F Yang, Z H Chen, L Ling, X S Huang
Objective: To analyze the features of needle electromyography (EMG) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and explore the correlation between EMG parameters of the tenth thoracic paraspinal muscle and disease duration, rate of disease progression, forced vital capacity (FVC) and revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R). Methods: Standard EMG was recorded from unilateral sternocleidomastoid muscle and/or tongue muscles, upper and lower limbs muscles and the tenth thoracic paraspinal muscle in 112 patients with definite ALS between March 2012 and June 2013 in the Department of Neurology at Chinese PLA General Hospital...
September 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
S K Natarajan, D Chua, K Anbalakan, V G Shelat
PURPOSE: Marginal ulcer (MU) is defined as ulcer on the jejunal side of the gastrojejunostomy (GJ) anastomosis. Most MUs are managed medically but those with complications like bleeding or perforation require intervention. It is recommended that GJ anastomosis be revised in patients with MU perforation (MUP). The aim of this case series is to study the clinical presentation and management of MUP. METHODS: Three hundred and thirty-two patients who underwent emergency surgery for perforated peptic ulcer at a single center were studied over a period of 5 years...
September 12, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Vikas Menon, Balasubramanian Shanmuganathan, Anand Babu Arun, Jaiganesh Selvapandian Thamizh, Nivedhitha Selvakumar, Siddharth Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Knowledge about subjective perceptions and explanatory models has the potential to inform clinical evaluation and lead to development of patient-friendly treatment models in medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). AIM: To collect qualitative data about explanatory models in MUPS. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was done among patients with MUPS presenting over a 2-year period to a specialty psychosomatic clinic...
September 8, 2016: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Pavel Stopka, Barbora Kuntová, Petr Klempt, Leona Havrdová, Martina Černá, Romana Stopková
Chemical communication is mediated by sex-biased signals abundantly present in the urine, saliva and tears. Because most studies concentrated on the urinary signals, we aimed to determine the saliva proteome in wild Mus musculus musculus, to extend the knowledge on potential roles of saliva in chemical communication. We performed the gel-free quantitative LC-MS/MS analyses of saliva and identified 633 proteins with 134 (21%) of them being sexually dimorphic. They include proteins that protect and transport volatile organic compounds in their beta barrel including LCN lipocalins, major urinary proteins (MUPs), and odorant binding proteins (OBPs)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Javier Rodriguez-Falces, Armando Malanda, Iban Latasa, Ana Lavilla-Oiz, Javier Navallas
The transient enlargement of the compound muscle action potential (M wave) after a conditioning contraction is referred to as potentiation. It has been recently shown that the potentiation of the first and second phases of a monopolar M wave differed drastically; namely, the first phase remained largely unchanged, whereas the second phase underwent a marked enlargement and shortening. This dissimilar potentiation of the first and second phases has been suggested to be attributed to a transient increase in conduction velocity after the contraction...
October 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Gráinne Cousins, Deirdre Mongan, Joe Barry, Bobby Smyth, Marion Rackard, Jean Long
AIM: One of the main provisions of the Irish Public Health (Alcohol) Bill is the introduction of a minimum unit price (MUP) for alcohol in Ireland, set at €1.00/standard drink. We sought to identify who will be most affected by the introduction of a MUP, examining the relationship between harmful alcohol consumption, personal income, place of purchase and price paid for alcohol. METHOD: A nationally representative survey of 3187 respondents aged 18-75 years, completing a diary of their previous week's alcohol consumption...
August 19, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Elena Ferrari, Emanuela Casali, Samuele E Burastero, Alberto Spisni, Thelma A Pertinhez
BACKGROUND: The species Mus musculus experiences an obligate proteinuria: predominant are the Major Urinary Proteins (MUPs), that, collectively known as the major mouse allergen Mus m 1, are among the most important aeroallergens for mouse allergic patients. The production of a soluble and stable hypoallergenic form of Mus m 1 is essential for the development of immunotherapeutic protocols to treat allergic symptoms. METHODS: We introduced the substitution C138S in recombinant Mus m 1...
November 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Viktoria M Enk, Christian Baumann, Michaela Thoß, Kenneth C Luzynski, Ebrahim Razzazi-Fazeli, Dustin J Penn
Major urinary proteins (MUPs) are highly homologous proteoforms that function in binding, transporting and releasing pheromones in house mice. The main analytical challenge for studying variation in MUPs, even for state-of-the-art proteomics techniques, is their high degree of amino acid sequence homology. In this study we used unique peptides for proteoform-specific identification. We applied different search engines (ProteinPilot™vs. PEAKS®) and protein databases (MUP database vs. SwissProt + unreviewed MUPs), and found that proteoform identification is influenced by addressing background proteins (unregulated urinary proteins, non-MUPs) during the database search...
October 20, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Anurag Sharma, Fabrice Etilé, Kompal Sinha
We use counterfactual analysis techniques to evaluate the impact of a $2 minimum unit price (MUP) on the distribution of Australian (Victorian) household off-trade alcohol purchases. Our estimates suggest that a $2 MUP significantly reduces the purchases of at-risk households by up to -0.92 [90% CI: -1.55, -0.28] standard drinks at the highest quantiles and has substantially less effect on households purchasing at light and moderate levels. A $2 MUP may reduce the proportions of male and female shoppers purchasing at the public health threshold of more than two standard drinks per household member per day by -3...
September 2016: Health Economics
G Thirumurugan, J V L N Seshagiri Rao, M D Dhanaraju
In order to exploit the potential benefits of antimicrobial combination therapy, we need a better understanding of the circumstances under which pharmacodynamic interactions expected. In this study, Pharmacodynamic interactions between silver nanoparticle (SNP) and topical antibiotics such as Cefazolin (CEF), Mupirocin (MUP), Gentamycin (GEN), Neomycin (NEO), Tetracycline (TET), Vancomycin (VAN) were investigated using the MIC test, Combination assay followed by Fractional Inhibitory concentration Index and Agar well diffusion method...
2016: Scientific Reports
Mingliang Jin, Xia Liu, Albert van den Berg, Guofu Zhou, Lingling Shui
Sensitive detection of a specific deoxyribo nucleic acid (DNA) sequence is important for biomedical applications. In this report, a two-step amplification strategy is developed based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to achieve ultrasensitive DNA fluorescence detection. The first level amplification is obtained from multiple binding sites on MNPs to achieve thousands of probe DNA molecules on one nanoparticle surface. The second level amplification is gained by enzymatic reaction to achieve fluorescence signal enhancement...
August 19, 2016: Nanotechnology
Hua Pan, Fan Jian, Jinxi Lin, Na Chen, Zaiqiang Zhang, Yongjun Wang, Liying Cui, Jun Kimura
INTRODUCTION: We sought to determine which muscles to choose for better assessment of the craniobulbar region in establishing the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: We studied the frontalis muscle in 83 controls and compared it with the tongue, sternocleidomastoid (SCM), and trapezius muscles in 105 definite or probable ALS patients (54 bulbar, 51 nonbulbar). RESULTS: More patients achieved complete relaxation of the frontalis muscle than the tongue or SCM...
December 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Monika Pobiega, Iwona Myjak, Monika Pomorska-Wesolowska, Dorota Romaniszyn, Grzegorz Ziólkowski, Agnieszka Chmielarczyk, Joanna Maciag, Anna Szczyptaf, Jadwiga Wójkowska-Mach
The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was investigated among infected diabetic foot ulcers in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients in southern Poland to assess the virulence patterns and antimicrobial resistance among these strains. MRSA was detected in 10.3% of all studied isolates, from the hospitalized patients only. The rest of the isolates was methicillin susceptible. The minimal inhibitory concentration that inhibits 50% of bacterial isolates (MIC50) for vancomycin was 1...
June 24, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Hieronim Jakubowski
Homocysteine (Hcy) and its metabolites Hcy-thiolactone, N-Hcy-protein, and S-Hcy-protein are implicated in vascular and neurological diseases. However, quantification of these metabolites remains challenging. Here I describe streamlined assays for these metabolites based on their conversion to Hcy-thiolactone. Free Hcy-thiolactone is extracted from the urine with chloroform/methanol. Total Hcy is converted to Hcy-thiolactone in the presence of 1 N HCl. Major urinary protein (MUP)-bound S-linked Hcy is liberated from the protein by reduction with dithiothreitol and converted to Hcy-thiolactone...
September 1, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
J Koudy Williams, Ashley Dean, Sherif Badra, Shannon Lankford, Kimberly Poppante, Gopal Badlani, Karl-Erik Andersson
PURPOSE: Mixed efficacy results of autologous skeletal muscle precursor cell therapy in women with chronic intrinsic urinary sphincter deficiency have increased interest in the therapeutic value of alternative regenerative medicine approaches. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of the cell homing chemokine CXCL12 (C-X-C motif chemokine 12) and skeletal muscle precursor cells on chronic urinary sphincter regeneration in chronic intrinsic urinary sphincter deficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five million autologous skeletal muscle precursor cells or 100 ng CXCL12 were injected in the urinary sphincter complex of adult female cynomolgus monkeys with chronic (6-month history) intrinsic urinary sphincter deficiency...
June 4, 2016: Journal of Urology
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