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Mass gathering

Artur Wandycz, Łukasz Jankowiak, Izabela Jerzak
Objectives : The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of smoking among children and adolescents aged 7-18 years, and also to determine the relationship between this addiction and the Body Mass Index (BMI). Methods : Basic anthropometric measurements were performed, and information concerning cigarette smoking and basic SES was gathered using the questionnaire method. Results : More than 5% of boys admit to smoking at the age of 10-11 years, and as many as 22% 18-year-olds admit to doing so. With regard to girls, the situation is slightly better because it is only among 14-year-olds that the percentage of smokers exceeds 5%...
March 14, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Kunal Jani, Dhiraj Dhotre, Jayashree Bandal, Yogesh Shouche, Mangesh Suryavanshi, Vinay Rale, Avinash Sharma
Kumbh Mela is one of the largest religious mass gathering events (MGE) involving bathing in rivers. The exponential rise in the number of devotees, from around 0.4 million in 1903 to 120 million in 2013, bathing in small specified sites can have a dramatic impact on the river ecosystem. Here, we present the spatiotemporal profiling of bacterial communities in Godavari River, Nashik, India, comprising five sites during the Kumbh Mela, held in 2015. Assessment of environmental parameters indicated deterioration of water quality...
March 13, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Harry G Preuss, Gilbert R Kaats, Nate Mrvichin, Debasis Bagchi, Anand Swaroop
BACKGROUND: Previous evaluations in nondiabetic subjects revealed statistically significant correlations between fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels used as an estimate of insulin resistance and many components constituting the metabolic syndrome. Similar significant correlations were not found employing chronological age as the independent variable in the same nondiabetic individuals. OBJECTIVE: The major purpose here was to replicate as well as corroborate the previous cross-sectional observations, emphasizing results obtained from data collected longitudinally...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
F Strollo, C Macchi, I Eberini, M A Masini, M Botta, G Vassilieva, I Nichiporuk, M Monici, D Santucci, F Celotti, P Magni, M Ruscica
PURPOSE: The "Mars-500 project" allowed to evaluate the changes in psychological/physiological adaptation over a prolonged confinement, in order to gather information for future missions. Here, we evaluated the impact of confinement and isolation on body composition, glucose metabolism/insulin resistance and adipokine levels. METHODS: The "Mars-500 project" consisted of 520 consecutive days of confinement from June 3, 2010 to Nov 4, 2011. The crew was composed of six male subjects (three Russians, two Europeans, and one Chinese) with a median age of 31 years (range 27-38 years)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Aydan Akyüz Özdemir, Rengin Erdal, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to gather information about complementary medicine applications used by chronic renal failure patients and their relation to demographic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 1750 chronic renal disease patients who were undergoing hemodialysis, only 450 patients attended in the study. Among 450 patients, 388 gave consent and were interviewed using a previously tested questionnaire. Questions about complementary and alternative medicine use, a list of commonly used methods, and the sources of knowledge about these were asked of all patients...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
R Karimbeiki, M Pourmasoumi, A Feizi, B Abbasi, A Hadi, N Rafie, S M Safavi
OBJECTIVE: The present study was carried out to compare dietary diversity score (DDS) among overweight, obese, and normal-weight adults. STUDY DESIGN: This case-control study was conducted with a total of 200 cases (100 participants with obesity and 100 participants with overweight) and 300 controls (normal weight) matched by socio-economic status (SES), older than 18 years. METHODS: Dietary intakes were assessed using a self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire...
March 5, 2018: Public Health
Raphael Royauté, Elisabeth S Wilson, Bryan R Helm, Rachel E Mallinger, Jarrad Prasifka, Kendra J Greenlee, Julia H Bowsher
Structures such as nests and burrows are an essential component of many organisms' life-cycle and requires a complex sequence of behaviors. Because behaviors can vary consistently among individuals and be correlated with one another, we hypothesized that these structures would 1) show evidence of among-individual variation, 2) be organized into distinct functional modules, and 3) show evidence of trade-offs among functional modules due to limits on energy budgets. We tested these hypotheses using the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, a solitary bee and important crop pollinator...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Thivviya Vairamuthu, Susan Pfeiffer
The Late Archaic in northeastern North America (4500-2800 B.P.) pre-dates reliance on pottery and domesticated plants. It is thought to reflect a highly mobile, seasonal migratory foraging/hunting regimen. A juvenile skeleton with pervasive bone wasting and fragile jaws from the Hind Site (AdHk-1), ca. 3000 B.P., southwestern Ontario, provides evidence of the social context of her family group, including aspects of mobility and food management. The well-preserved bones and teeth are considered in bioarchaeological context...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Babak Alikhani, Tobias Getzin, Till Frederik Kaireit, Kristina Imeen Ringe, Leila Jamali, Frank Wacker, Thomas Werncke, Hans-Jürgen Raatschen
PURPOSE: The aim of this investigation is to establish the relationship between the size-dependent conversion factor (fsize ) and the body-mass-index (BMI) and to test whether BMI can be substituted for the conventionally used patients' anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral (LAT) dimensions for calculation of fsize . By calculating fsize on the basis of BMI instead of the AP and LAT measurements, size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) could be determined prior to image acquisition. METHODS: Our institute utilizes a dose monitoring software to record radiation exposure during CT examinations...
March 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Iñigo Aramendia, Unai Fernandez-Gamiz, Alberto Lopez-Arraiza, Carmen Rey-Santano, Victoria Mielgo, Francisco Jose Basterretxea, Javier Sancho, Miguel Angel Gomez-Solaetxe
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) represents one of the major causes of mortality among preterm infants, and the best approach to treat it is an open research issue. The use of perfluorocarbons (PFC) along with non-invasive respiratory support techniques has proven the usefulness of PFC as a complementary substance to achieve a more homogeneous surfactant distribution. The aim of this work was to study the inhaled particles generated by means of an intracorporeal inhalation catheter, evaluating the size and mass distribution of different PFC aerosols...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
D Zhao, X L Ma, W L Wang, L Zhang
Objective: To investigate the clinical effect of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) in unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: Retrospective analysis of 98 patients received unilateral TKA from September 2015 to September 2016 in the Orthopaedic Departmentof Affiliated Hospital of Logistics University of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces.Of the patients, 52 cases were treated by traditional operation (routine group) and the other 46 cases were treated with ERAS concept (ERAS group). The following data were gathered and statistically analyzed between the groups: gender, age, body mass index, preoperative hemoglobin, preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) score, postoperative visible blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin at 24 hour after operation, blood transfusion rate, postoperative VAS score, length of hospital stay, the satisfaction rate, preoperative and 1 and 6 months postoperative evaluation with hospital for special surgery knee score (HSS), postoperative range of motion (ROM) of knees after 2 weeks, 1 month and 6 months of surgery, incidence rate of complications after surgery...
February 13, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Ryota Kobayashi, Soichiro Iwanuma, Nobuyuki Ohashi, Takeo Hashiguchi
Arterial velocity pulse index (AVI) and arterial pressure-volume index (API), new indicators of arterial stiffness, are risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Regular aerobic exercise decreases arterial stiffness. In fact, pulse wave velocity (PWV), index of arterial stiffness, is lower in endurance-trained than in untrained young adults. However, the effect of regular aerobic exercise on AVI and API remains unknown. This study investigates the effect of regular aerobic exercise on AVI and API, new indicators of arterial stiffness...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Erin K Stenson, Rajesh Punn, Musaab Ramsi, Saraswati Kache
OBJECTIVES: The ability to plot the inferior vena cava (IVC) size on a normal curve for pediatric patients may prove beneficial. First, in patients with normal cardiac anatomy who present in shock, assessing IVC size may be valuable for evaluating the degree of dehydration. Second, in children with heart disease, understanding how a child's IVC size compares to normal could be particularly beneficial for patients with right heart disease. We sought to create normal curves for the IVC and aorta in children younger than 6 years...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Ali AlBarrak, Badriah Alotaibi, Yara Yassin, Abdulaziz Mushi, Fuad Maashi, Yassein Seedahmed, Mohamed Alshaer, Abdulaziz Altaweel, Husameddin Elshiekh, Abdulhafiz Turkistani, Tanaz Petigara, John Grabenstein, Saber Yezli
BACKGROUND: The Hajj mass gathering is a risk for pneumococcal disease. We evaluated the proportion of adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) cases attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae among Hajj pilgrims in 2016. To add sensitivity to etiologic attribution, we used a urine-antigen test, in addition to culture-based methods METHODS: Adults hospitalized with x-ray confirmed CAP were prospectively enrolled from all general hospitals designated to treat Hajj pilgrims in the holy cities of Mecca and Medina...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Christina Lund Kidholm, Hans Christian Beck, Julie Bukh Madsen, Nikolai Bjødstrup Palstrøm, Jes Sanddal Lindholt, Lars Melholt Rasmussen
OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) involves a disturbed balance of breakdown and buildup of arterial proteins. We envision that individuals with AAA carry generalized arterial protein alterations either because of effects of genetically or environmental AAA risk factors or because of compensatory changes due to signaling molecules released from the affected aneurysmal tissue. APPROACH: Protein extraction and quantitative proteome analysis by LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) was done on individual samples from the internal mammary artery from 11 individuals with AAA and 33 sex- and age-matched controls without AAA...
2018: PloS One
Mellissa Harden, Alex Wolf, Mark Russell, Kirsty M Hicks, Duncan French, Glyn Howatson
High intensity eccentric exercise is a potent stimulus for neuromuscular adaptation. A greater understanding of the mechanical stimuli afforded by this exercise will aid the prescription of future eccentric training regimes. This study sought to investigate the mechanical characteristics of supramaximally loaded eccentric exercise when using a custom-built leg press machine. Using a within subject, repeated measures design, 15 strength trained subjects (age 31 ± 7 years; height 180.0 ± 6.8 cm; body mass 81...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Angelika Edyta Charkiewicz, Jacek Jamiołkowski, Bartosz Pędziński, Michalina Krzyżak, Dominik Maślach, Andrzej Szpak, Wioleta Justyna Omeljaniuk
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The study was carried out to evaluate the changes in the eating habits and lipid parameters in a 21-year follow-up on a group of 435 men living in Poland. METHODS: The studied population was composed of the same subjects: a group of men who were first studied in the years 1987-1989 and in 2008-2010. The following data was gathered: body mass, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride concentration in blood serum...
February 21, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Alison Hutton, Jamie Ranse, Matthew Brendan Munn
This report identifies what is known about audience motivations at three different mass-gathering events: outdoor music festivals, religious events, and sporting events. In light of these motivations, the paper discusses how these can be harnessed by the event organizer and Emergency Medical Services. Lastly, motivations tell what kinds of interventions can be used to achieve an understanding of audience characteristics and the opportunity to develop tailor-made programs to maximize safety and make long-lasting public health interventions to a particular "cohort" or event population...
February 19, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Brian E Roe, John W Apolzan, Danyi Qi, H Raymond Allen, Corby K Martin
We analyze food-item level data collected from 50 adults from the United States using the Remote Food Photography Method® to provide the first estimates of plate waste gathered from adults across multiple consecutive meals and days in free-living conditions, and during laboratory-based meals with fixed food items and quantities. We find average plate waste in free-living conditions is 5.6 grams (7.7 kcals) per item and that 3.3% of all food selected is returned as plate waste, where the percent waste figure is substantially lower than previously published plate waste estimates gathered primarily from dine-out settings in the United States such as buffets and institutional settings with limited-choice meals (e...
2018: PloS One
Quentin Fouche, Valery Hedouin, Damien Charabidze
Necrophagous Calliphoridae breed in vertebrate carrion. Their larvae aggregate and form large masses of individuals. These aggregated larvae can reach adulthood faster than scattered larvae, increasing their chances of survival. Furthermore, the gathering of larvae of different species suggests possible interspecific aggregation vectors. In this context, the effect of larval ground-left cues on larvae of Calliphora vomitoria and Lucilia sericata was studied. We used video tracking to follow larvae placed in binary choice tests...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
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