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Active shooter

Jason P Stopyra, William P Bozeman, David W Callaway, James Winslow, Henderson D McGinnis, Justin Sempsrott, Lisa Evans-Taylor, Roy L Alson
There is some controversy about whether ballistic protective equipment (body armor) is required for medical responders who may be called to respond to active shooter mass casualty incidents. In this article, we describe the ongoing evolution of recommendations to optimize medical care to injured victims at such an incident. We propose that body armor is not mandatory for medical responders participating in a rapid-response capacity, in keeping with the Hartford Consensus and Arlington Rescue Task Force models...
2016: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Matthew Doherty
Acts of targeted violence - including active shooter incidents - are typically over within 15 minutes, often before the first law enforcement personnel can respond to the scene. More than a third of active shooter incidents in the USA, for example, last less than five minutes. While this stark fact is often used, with unimpeachable validity, as the cornerstone of employee security awareness training and the need for each employee to make a quick decision on whether to run, hide or fight, it also underscores the importance of another critical priority: prevention...
2016: Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning
Andre Pennardt, Rich Kamin, Craig Llewellyn, Geoff Shapiro, Philip A Carmona, Richard B Schwartz
Tactical emergency medical support (TEMS) is a critical component of the out-of-hospital response to domestic high-threat incidents such as hostage scenarios, warrant service, active shooter or violent incidents, terrorist attacks, and other intentional mass casualty-producing acts. From its grass-roots inception in the form of medical support of select law enforcement special weapons and tactics (SWAT) units in the 1980s, the TEMS subspecialty of prehospital care has rapidly grown and evolved over the past 40 years...
2016: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Nick Lucas, Michael Cook, James Wallace, K Paul Kirkbride, Hilton Kobus
Gunshot residue (GSR) is a valuable form of forensic trace evidence in the investigation of firearms-related suicide and crime. In order to ensure that such evidence is given appropriate evidential weighting when it comes to case investigations, the dynamics of the deposition and distribution of GSR must be understood. As the activity of the subject after firing is a major factor in the retention of GSR, cases of suicide involving a firearm provide an opportunity to assess GSR distribution where post-shooting activity is not an issue, assuming the subject had not been moved...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Selenia di Fronso, Claudio Robazza, Edson Filho, Laura Bortoli, Silvia Comani, Maurizio Bertollo
This study focused on identifying the neural markers underlying optimal and suboptimal performance experiences of an elite air-pistol shooter, based on the tenets of the multi-action plan (MAP) model. According to the MAP model's assumptions, skilled athletes' cortical patterns are expected to differ among optimal/automatic (Type 1), optimal/controlled (Type 2), suboptimal/controlled (Type 3), and suboptimal/automatic (Type 4) performance experiences. We collected performance (target pistol shots), cognitive-affective (perceived control, accuracy, and hedonic tone), and cortical activity data (32-channel EEG) of an elite shooter...
June 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Lenworth M Jacobs
Despite advances in the response to active shooter and intentional mass casualty events, a gap remains in our national preparedness and resilience. Drawing from experiences at myriad mass casualty events, the immediate responder (volunteer responder) represents an underutilized resource, yet one capable of dramatically increasing our all-hazards (injuries from all natural and man-made causes) national resilience. The overarching principle of the Hartford Consensus, outlined in previous reports, is that no one should die from uncontrolled bleeding...
April 2016: Connecticut Medicine
Maurizio Bertollo, Selenia di Fronso, Edson Filho, Silvia Conforto, Maurizio Schmid, Laura Bortoli, Silvia Comani, Claudio Robazza
Background. The main goal of the present study was to explore theta and alpha event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) activity during shooting performance. We adopted the idiosyncratic framework of the multi-action plan (MAP) model to investigate different processing modes underpinning four types of performance. In particular, we were interested in examining the neural activity associated with optimal-automated (Type 1) and optimal-controlled (Type 2) performances. Methods. Ten elite shooters (6 male and 4 female) with extensive international experience participated in the study...
2016: PeerJ
Michael J Egnoto, Darrin J Griffin
BACKGROUND: Identifying precursors that will aid in the discovery of individuals who may harm themselves or others has long been a focus of scholarly research. AIM: This work set out to determine if it is possible to use the legacy tokens of active shooters and notes left from individuals who completed suicide to uncover signals that foreshadow their behavior. METHOD: A total of 25 suicide notes and 21 legacy tokens were compared with a sample of over 20,000 student writings for a preliminary computer-assisted text analysis to determine what differences can be coded with existing computer software to better identify students who may commit self-harm or harm to others...
March 2016: Crisis
Carlos Ferreira, José Ribeiro, Sara Almada, Traian Rotariu, Fausto Freire
Increase of environmental awareness of the population has pressured research activities in the defence area to cover environment and toxicity issues, where have been considered appropriate manners to reduce the environmental and toxicological impacts of ammunition. One of the adopted approaches to achieve such goal involves the replacement of lead and other heavy metals by alternative materials. However, the consequences of using alternative materials in ammunitions manufacturing are uncertain for the other life-cycle phases and trade-offs can occur...
October 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Kimberly Palestis
Active shooter incidents have been on the rise in the United States in the last 2 decades, specifically events occurring in public areas traditionally considered safe such as churches, schools, and hospitals. An examination of historical events shows that the emergency department (ED) nurse must be equipped to handle any situation that may arise, including the increasing likelihood of an active shooter situation. Hospital response to these occurrences is changing, and protocols for staff response are being adjusted on a regular basis...
April 2016: Journal of Forensic Nursing
Daniele Merli, Alberto Brandone, Alberto Amadasi, Cristina Cattaneo, Antonella Profumo
The identification and quantification of metallic residues produced by gunshots, called gunshot residues (GSR), provide crucial elements in forensic investigations. The research has been largely focused on their collection onto the hands of suspected shooters, but the method is often burdened by risks of contamination. This research was focused on the possibility of sampling GSR trapped inside the nasal mucus of consenting shooters. Samples of the nasal mucus of "blank" control subjects and shooters were chemically analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), for residues of antimony (Sb) and barium (Ba), while lead (Pb) was excluded as ubiquitously environmental contaminant and due to high instrumental quantification limit (IQL) of INAA for this element...
July 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Thorsten M Erle, Niklas Barth, Friederike Kälke, Gabriel Duttler, Harald Lange, Andreas Petko, Sascha Topolinski
Although psychological research shows that guns are aggressive cues, proponents of liberal gun control argue that people rather than guns are to blame for gun-related violence. For instance, athletic target-shooters might classify guns as athletic rather than aggressive stimuli and thus should not be more aggressive than the general population. The present work investigated aggression and emotion-regulation in target-shooters. A longitudinal study found that initial self-reported aggression in target-shooters was higher than in the general population and further increased over 1 year...
May 2, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Lenworth M Jacobs
National implementation of the Hartford Consensus is a meticulous and incremental process. It consists of many elements that require collaboration and strategic leadership to achieve an efficient, effective, knowledgeable, resilient, and prepared citizenry. We strongly believe the public can and should act as immediate responders to stop bleeding from all hazards, including active shooter and intentional mass casualty events. The ACS has a long history of setting standards and educating responders through its Committee on Trauma and its programs...
March 2016: Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons
Matthew Doherty
Every time we turn on the news, or open our Internet browsers, a story about an active shooter--at a school, house of worship, public place and even in our workplace--spills onto the page, the author reports. In this article he focuses on how we can prevent these incidents from occurring. What exactly is "targeted violence"--and why is what experts call "behavioral threat assessment" one of the single most effective ways to prevent the next active shooter incident in any organization?
2016: Journal of Healthcare Protection Management
James F Cavanagh, Joel Castellanos
Cognitive neuroscience suffers from a unique and pervasive problem of generalizability. Since neural findings are often interpreted in the context of a specific manipulation during a carefully controlled task, it is hard to transfer knowledge from one task to another. In this report we address problems of generalizability with two methodological advancements. First, we aimed to transcend status quo experimental procedures with a continuous, engaging task environment. To this end, we created a novel 8-bit style continuous space shooter video game that elicits a multitude of goal-oriented events, such as crashing into a wall or blowing up an enemy with a missile...
June 2016: NeuroImage
James E Lankford, Deanna K Meinke, Gregory A Flamme, Donald S Finan, Michael Stewart, Stephen Tasko, William J Murphy
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for air rifle users for both youth and adults. DESIGN: Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit and LAeq75 exposure limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. STUDY SAMPLE: Impulses were generated by nine pellet air rifles and one BB air rifle...
2016: International Journal of Audiology
Joshua P Bobko, Richard Kamin
There is a major gap in the security of the critical infrastructure - civilian medical response to atypical emergencies. Clear evidence demonstrates that, despite ongoing improvements to the first-responder system, there exists an inherent delay in the immediate medical care at the scene of an emergency. This delay can only be reduced through a societal shift in reliance on police and fire response and by extending the medical system into all communities. Additionally, through analysis of military data, it is known that immediately addressing the common injury patterns following a traumatic event will save lives...
2015: Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning
James R Sawyer
"Zero incidents" is the goal every security planner should work to achieve. The tools to build a "zero incidents" environment involve: * Acknowledging that violence is preventable. * Providing optimum customer service to every visitor, patient, family member. They are all VIP'S. * A strong emphasis on documentation. * Honoring and responding to staff intuition. *A proactive threat response program-policy. * Teaching all staff the verbal/non-verbal warning signs of violence. * Proactively contacting individuals of concern, making direct contact...
2015: Journal of Healthcare Protection Management
Scott Downs
The last decade has seen several of the most heinous acts imaginable committed against our educational facilities. In light of the recent shooting in Sandy Hook Elementary School in Monroe (Newtown), CT, which took the lives of 20 children and six employees, a new heightened sense of awareness for safety and security among our educational facilities was created.(1) The law enforcement and public-safety community is now looking to work together with many of the educational representatives across the nation to address this issue, which affects the educational environment now and in the future...
July 2015: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Lenworth M Jacobs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons
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