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Ventilator synchrony

Taiga Itagaki, Christopher T Chenelle, Desmond J Bennett, Daniel F Fisher, Robert M Kacmarek
BACKGROUND: During both nasal noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and invasive ventilation of neonates, the presence of air leaks causes triggering and cycling asynchrony. METHODS: Five ICU ventilators (PB840, PB980, Servo-i, V500, and Avea) were compared in available invasive ventilation and NIV ventilator modes (pressure control continuous spontaneous ventilation [PC-CSV] and pressure control continuous mandatory ventilation [PC-CMV]). The V500 and Avea do not provide PC-CSV and PC-CMV in NIV...
September 20, 2016: Respiratory Care
Marc R Mendler, Claudia Weber, Mohammad A Hassan, Li Huang, Benjamin Mayer, Helmut D Hummler
BACKGROUND: There are few data available on the interaction of inflations, chest compressions (CC), and delivery of tidal volumes in newborn infants undergoing resuscitation in the presence of endotracheal tube (ET) leaks. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of different respiratory support strategies along with CC on changes in tidal volume and ET leaks in hypoxic newborn piglets with cardiac arrest. METHODS: Asphyxiated newborn piglets, intubated with weight-adapted uncuffed ET, were randomized into three groups and resuscitated according to ILCOR 2010 guidelines: (1) T-piece resuscitator (TPR) group = peak inspiratory pressure (PIP)/positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 25/5 cm H2O, rate 30/min, inflations interposed between CC (3:1 ratio); (2) self- inflating bag (SIB) group = PIP 25 cm H2O without PEEP, rate 30/min, inflations interposed between CC (3:1 ratio), and (3) ventilator group = PIP/PEEP of 25/5 cm H2O, rate 30/min...
September 20, 2016: Neonatology
B LoVerde, K S Firestone, H M Stein
OBJECTIVE: Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is a mode of mechanical ventilation that delivers ventilatory support in synchrony to the patient's respiratory needs using NAVA level, a proportionality constant that converts the electrical activity of the diaphragm (Edi) into a peak pressure (PIP). Recent published studies suggest that neonates can control the delivered ventilatory support through neural feedback. Systematically increasing the NAVA level initially increases the PIP while maintaining a constant Edi until an inflection point or breakpoint (BrP) is reached, at which time the PIP plateaus and the Edi signal decreases...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
J Y Hu, Z G Zheng, H N Lu, N Liu, W L Wu, Y X Li, Y Xiong, X N Wang, R C Chen
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of condensate in the piezometric tube on patient ventilator interaction during noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. METHODS: Eleven healthy adults volunteered to receive noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. Different capacity of physiological saline was injected gradually into the piezometric tube until the volunteers could not trigger the ventilator or the total volume of the water reached 1.5 ml. The dynamic changes of the pressure of mask(Pmask), piezometric tube near mask (Ppro), piezometric tube near breathing machine(Pdis), and the flow were observed...
September 2016: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Merja Kallio, Ulla Koskela, Outi Peltoniemi, Tero Kontiokari, Tytti Pokka, Maria Suo-Palosaari, Timo Saarela
UNLABELLED: Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) improves patient-ventilator synchrony during invasive ventilation and leads to lower peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) and oxygen requirements. The aim of this trial was to compare NAVA with current standard ventilation in preterm infants in terms of the duration of invasive ventilation. Sixty infants born between 28 + 0 and 36 + 6 weeks of gestation and requiring invasive ventilation due to neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were randomized to conventional ventilation or NAVA...
September 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Milind Baldi, Inderpaul Singh Sehgal, Sahajal Dhooria, Digambar Behera, Ritesh Agarwal
Invasive mechanical ventilation is an integral component in the management of critically ill patients. In certain situations, liberation from mechanical ventilation becomes difficult resulting in prolonged ventilation. Patient-ventilator dyssynchrony is a frequently encountered reason for difficult weaning. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is a novel mode of ventilation that utilizes the electrical activity of diaphragm to pick up respiratory signals and delivers assistance in proportion to the ventilatory requirement of a patient...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Giorgio Conti, Vito Marco Ranieri, Roberta Costa, Chris Garratt, Andrew Wighton, Giorgia Spinazzola, Rosario Urbino, Luciana Mascia, Giuliano Ferrone, Pasi Pohjanjousi, Gabriela Ferreyra, Massimo Antonelli
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine can be used for sedation of mechanically ventilated patients and has minor respiratory effects. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of patient-ventilator dyssynchronies during sedation with dexmedetomidine or propofol. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre, prospective, open-label, randomised clinical trial, comparing dexmedetomidine with standard propofol sedation at three intensive care units of university hospitals in Italy...
July 2, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Davide Chiumello, Matteo Brioni
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by a noncardiogenic pulmonary edema with bilateral chest X-ray opacities and reduction in lung compliance, and the hallmark of the syndrome is hypoxemia refractory to oxygen therapy. Severe hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2 < 100 mmHg), which defines severe ARDS, can be found in 20-30 % of the patients and is associated with the highest mortality rate. Although the standard supportive treatment remains mechanical ventilation (noninvasive and invasive), possible adjuvant therapies can be considered...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Yuqing Chen, Kewen Cheng, Xin Zhou
BACKGROUND Pressure support ventilation (PSV) is a standard method for non-invasive home ventilation. A bench study was designed to compare the effectiveness of patient-ventilator inspiratory termination synchronization with automated and conventional triggering in various respiratory mechanics models. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two ventilators, the Respironics V60 and Curative Flexo ST 30, connected to a Hans Rudolph Series 1101 lung simulator, were evaluated using settings that simulate lung mechanics in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), or normal lungs...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Tsuneo Yamashiro, Hiroshi Moriya, Maho Tsubakimoto, Shin Matsuoka, Sadayuki Murayama
PURPOSE: Four-dimensional dynamic-ventilation computed tomography (CT) imaging demonstrates continuous movement of the airways and lungs, which cannot be depicted with conventional CT. We aimed to investigate continuous changes in lung density and airway dimensions and to assess the correlation with spirometric values in smokers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and informed consent was waived. Twenty-one smokers including six patients with COPD underwent four-dimensional dynamic-ventilation CT during free breathing (160 mm in length)...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Erin S Grawe, Suzanne Bennett, William E Hurford
The use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) early in the development of ARDS has been a strategy of interest for many years. The use of NMBAs with a concomitant deep sedation strategy can increase oxygenation and possibly decrease mortality when used in the early stages of ARDS. The mechanism by which this occurs is unclear but probably involves a combination of factors, such as improving patient-ventilator synchrony, decreasing oxygen consumption, and decreasing the systemic inflammatory response associated with ARDS...
June 2016: Respiratory Care
Yuya Goto, Shinshu Katayama, Atsuko Shono, Yosuke Mori, Yuya Miyazaki, Yoko Sato, Makoto Ozaki, Toru Kotani
BACKGROUND: Patient-ventilator asynchrony is a major cause of difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is reported useful to improve the synchrony in patients with sustained low lung compliance. However, the role of NAVA has not been fully investigated. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 63-year-old Japanese man with acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to respiratory infection. He was treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for 7 days and survived...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
Stamatia Alexiou, Howard B Panitch
Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is used in neonates to treat extrathoracic and intrathoracic airway obstruction, parenchymal lung disease and disorders of control of breathing. Avoidance of airway intubation is associated with a reduction in the incidence of chronic lung disease among preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) may help establish and maintain functional residual capacity (FRC), decrease respiratory work, and improve gas exchange...
June 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Lara J Kanbar, Wissam Shalish, Carlos A Robles-Rubio, Doina Precup, Karen Brown, Guilherme M Sant'Anna, Robert E Kearney
Extremely preterm infants (gestational age ≤ 28 weeks) often require EndoTracheal Tube-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation (ETT-IMV) to survive. Clinicians wean infants off ETT-IMV as early as possible using their judgment and clinical information. However, assessment of extubation readiness is not accurate since 20 to 40% of preterm infants fail extubation. We extended our work in automated prediction of extubation readiness by examining correlations of automated cardiorespiratory features to clinical parameters in successfully extubated infants...
August 2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
F Longhini, S Scarlino, M R Gallina, A Monzani, S De Franco, E C Grassino, G Bona, F Ferrero
AIM: To compare invasive (iNAVA) and non-invasive (nivNAVA) neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in infants, respect to gas exchange, breathing pattern, respiratory drive, infant- ventilator interaction and synchrony, vital parameters and required sedation. METHODS: 10 consecutive intubated term infants admitted for respiratory failure of different etiology underwent to 2-hour not-randomized trials of iNAVA and, after extubation, nivNAVA, the latter with unchanged ventilator settings and with air-leaks compensating software...
November 19, 2015: Minerva Pediatrica
Juçara Gasparetto Maccari, Cassiano Teixeira, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Augusto Savi, Felippe Leopoldo Dexheimer-Neto, Marli Maria Knorst
Patients with obstructive lung disease often require ventilatory support via invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, depending on the severity of the exacerbation. The use of inhaled bronchodilators can significantly reduce airway resistance, contributing to the improvement of respiratory mechanics and patient-ventilator synchrony. Although various studies have been published on this topic, little is known about the effectiveness of the bronchodilators routinely prescribed for patients on mechanical ventilation or about the deposition of those drugs throughout the lungs...
September 2015: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
Onnen Moerer, Lars-Olav Harnisch, Peter Herrmann, Carsten Zippel, Michael Quintel
BACKGROUND: During noninvasive ventilation (NIV) of COPD patients, delayed off-cycling of pressure support can cause patient ventilator mismatch and NIV failure. This systematic experimental study analyzes the effects of varying cycling criteria on patient-ventilator interaction. METHODS: A lung simulator with COPD settings was connected to an ICU ventilator via helmet or face mask. Cycling was varied between 10 and 70% of peak inspiratory flow at different breathing frequencies (15 and 30 breaths/min) and pressure support levels (5 and 15 cm H2O) using the ventilator's invasive and NIV mode with and without an applied leakage...
January 2016: Respiratory Care
Vito Fanelli, Yasumasa Morita, Paola Cappello, Mirna Ghazarian, Bina Sugumar, Luisa Delsedime, Jane Batt, V Marco Ranieri, Haibo Zhang, Arthur S Slutsky
BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) bind the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α1 (nAChRα1) that also contributes to inflammatory signaling. Thus, the author hypothesized that the use of NMBA mitigates lung injury by improving ventilator synchrony and decreasing inflammatory responses. METHODS: Lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of hydrogen chloride in rats that were randomized to receive no NMBA with evidence of asynchronous ventilation (noNMBA/aSYNC, n = 10); no NMBA with synchronous ventilation (noNMBA/SYNC, n = 10); cisatracurium (CIS, n = 10); or pancuronium (PAN, n = 10)...
January 2016: Anesthesiology
Carlo Olivieri, Federico Longhini, Tiziana Cena, Gianmaria Cammarota, Rosanna Vaschetto, Antonio Messina, Paola Berni, Corrado Magnani, Francesco Della Corte, Paolo Navalesi
BACKGROUND: The helmet is a well-tolerated interface for noninvasive ventilation, although it is associated with poor patient-ventilator interaction. A new helmet (NH) has proven to attenuate this limitation of the standard helmet (SH) in both bench study and healthy volunteers. The authors compared a NH and a SH in intensive care unit patients receiving noninvasive ventilation for prevention of postextubation respiratory failure; both helmets were also compared with the endotracheal tube in place before extubation...
January 2016: Anesthesiology
Marc R Mendler, Claudia Weber, Mohammad A Hassan, Li Huang, Markus Waitz, Benjamin Mayer, Helmut D Hummler
BACKGROUND: There are no clear evidence-based recommendations on the use of different techniques of respiratory support and chest compressions (CC) during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of different respiratory support strategies along with CC representing clinical practice on the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in hypoxic newborn piglets with cardiac arrest. We hypothesized that use of a T-piece resuscitator (TPR) providing positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) reduces time to ROSC as compared to a self-inflating bag (SIB) without PEEP...
2016: Neonatology
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