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Joannie Lortet-Tieulent, Ann Goding Sauer, Rebecca L Siegel, Kimberly D Miller, Farhad Islami, Stacey A Fedewa, Eric J Jacobs, Ahmedin Jemal
Importance: State-specific information about the health burden of smoking is valuable because state-level initiatives are at the forefront of tobacco control. Smoking-attributable cancer mortality estimates are currently available nationally and by cancer, but not by state. Objective: To calculate the proportion of cancer deaths among adults 35 years and older that were attributable to cigarette smoking in 2014 in each state and the District of Columbia. Design, Setting, and Participants: The population-attributable fraction (PAF) of cancer deaths due to cigarette smoking was computed using relative risks for 12 smoking-related cancers (acute myeloid leukemia and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx; esophagus; stomach; colorectum; liver; pancreas; larynx; trachea, lung, and bronchus; cervix uteri; kidney and renal pelvis; and urinary bladder) from large US prospective studies and state-specific smoking prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System...
October 24, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
Ryo Uratani, Yuji Toiyama, Takahito Kitajima, Mikio Kawamura, Junichiro Hiro, Minako Kobayashi, Koji Tanaka, Yasuhiro Inoue, Yasuhiko Mohri, Takao Mori, Toshio Kato, Ajay Goel, Masato Kusunoki
BACKGROUND: Although there is a growing interest in developing circulating microRNA (miRNA) as noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers for the detection of high-risk colorectal adenomas and early-stage CRCs, but the comparative diagnostic significance of serum vs. exosomal miRNAs remains unexplored. METHODS: Based upon published literature, we performed an initial discovery step by investigating the expression of a miRNA panel in 20 normal colonic mucosa, 27 adenomas, and 19 CRC tissues...
2016: PloS One
Yoshiki Nando, Jiro Watari, Chiyomi Ito, Ken Hara, Takahisa Yamasaki, Takuya Okugawa, Takashi Kondo, Tomoaki Kono, Katsuyuki Tozawa, Toshihiko Tomita, Yoshio Ohda, Tadayuki Oshima, Hirokazu Fukui, Nagahide Matsubara, Naohiro Tomita, Seiichi Hirota, Hiroto Miwa
It is recommended that small (6-10 mm) lesions be treated with endoscopic resection (ER), while diminutive (≤ 5 mm) lesions are not currently an indication for ER according to the Japanese guidelines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular alterations, and therefore treatment indications, in diminutive vs. small tubular adenoma (TA). We prospectively analyzed genetic instability, including microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity, methylation status, KRAS/BRAF mutations, and Ki-67 staining in 96 TAs without a villous component...
October 13, 2016: Human Pathology
Takahiko Ito, Shuko Morita, Naoto Shimeno, Keiichiro Uehara, Yukihiro Imai, Tetsuro Inokuma
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal is seldom diagnosed at an early stage. Chemoradiation therapy is a standard in Europe and the United States, though in squamous cell carcinoma there is no evidence-based therapy. In Japan, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is the standard minimally invasive treatment for early stage cancer of the digestive tract, including the colorectum. Therefore, if the lesion is diagnosed at an early stage, ESD may be selected for anal canal lesions. We experienced two cases of early stage anal canal cancer in which the diagnosis and the extent of the lesions were confirmed using magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (NBI), as well as performing ESD...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Tamotsu Sugai, Wataru Habano, Ryo Takagi, Hiroo Yamano, Makoto Eizuka, Noriyuki Arakawa, Yayoi Takahashi, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Keisuke Kawasaki, Syunichi Yanai, Kazuyuki Ishida, Hiromu Suzuki, Takayuki Matsumoto
BACKGROUND: Colorectal laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) are classified into LST-Gs and LST-NGs, according to macroscopic findings. In the present study, we determined the genetic and epigenetic alterations within colorectal LSTs and protruding adenomas. METHODS: A crypt isolation method was used to isolate DNA from tumors and normal glands of 73 macroscopically verified colorectal LSTs (histologically defined adenomas; 38 LST-Gs and 35 LST-NGs) and 36 protruding adenomas...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
Jay Chouhan, Sachin Batra, Rohan Gupta, Sushovan Guha
Gastrointestinal follicular lymphoma (GI-FL) is a rare extranodal variant of follicular lymphoma (FL) that has been increasingly reported in the literature. An especially indolent course is linked to the disease after a lack of observed patient death in past studies. However, overall survival (OS) and associated prognostic factors remain unclear. A large population-based database was utilized to identify demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics of GI-FL, along with survival differences among primary sites...
October 1, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Eun-Young Karen Choi, Henry D Appelman
This article offers a historical perspective on the discovery of 3 types of serrated colorectal polyps recognized in the past 60 years. The first to be discovered was the hyperplastic polyp, which is still the most commonly encountered serrated polyp. In the past 20 years, the carcinoma-associated sessile serrated adenoma/polyp has been recognized, but its diagnosis can be difficult owing to overlapping histologic features with hyperplastic polyps. Less is known about the third type, the traditional serrated adenoma, because it is far less common than the other 2 types, and its association with cancer is currently under investigation...
October 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Mónica S Sierra, Isabelle Soerjomataram, Sébastien Antoni, Mathieu Laversanne, Marion Piñeros, Esther de Vries, David Forman
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Cancer burden is increasing in Central and South America (CSA). We describe the current burden of cancer in CSA. METHODS: We obtained regional and national-level cancer incidence data from 48 population-based registries (13 countries) and nation-wide cancer mortality data from the WHO (18 countries). We estimated world population age-standardized incidence and mortality rates per 100,000 person-years. RESULTS: The leading cancers diagnosed were prostate, lung, breast, cervix, colorectal, and stomach, which were also the primary causes of cancer mortality...
September 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Luke B Hesson, Benedict Ng, Peter Zarzour, Sameer Srivastava, Chau-To Kwok, Deborah Packham, Andrea C Nunez, Dominik Beck, Regina Ryan, Ashraf Dower, Caroline E Ford, John Pimanda, Mathew A Sloane, Nicholas J Hawkins, Michael J Bourke, Jason W H Wong, Robyn L Ward
: Laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) are colorectal adenomas that develop into extremely large lesions with predominantly slow progression to cancer depending on lesion subtype. Comparing and contrasting the molecular profiles of LSTs and colorectal cancer (CRCs) offers an opportunity to delineate key molecular alterations that drive malignant transformation in the colorectum. In a discovery cohort of 11 LSTs and paired normal mucosa, we performed a comprehensive and unbiased screen of the genome, epigenome and transcriptome followed by bioinformatics integration of these data and validation in an additional 84 large benign colorectal lesions...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Xiaoming Yuan, Guangrong Zhou, Yan He, Aiwen Feng
BACKGROUND: Epithelial dysplasia and adenomatous polyps of colorectum are precancerous lesions. Surgical removal is still one of the important treatment approaches for colorectal polyps. CASE PRESENTATION: A male patient over 78 years was admitted due to bloody stool and abdominal pain. Colonoscopic biopsy showed a high-grade epithelial dysplasia in an adenomatous polyp of sigmoid colon. Anemia, COPD, ischemic heart disease (IHD), arrhythmias, and hypoproteinemia were comorbidities...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Yongchao Zhang, Jianguo Xie, Jiaxiang Wang, Donghua Yang, Zhengyu Jiang, Guangsen Han, Qiang Fu, Yonglei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colorectum is a kind of malignant tumor composed of neuroendocrine cells, with a unique hormone synthesis and secretory function. In recent years, more and more attention is being paid to this kind of tumor, with its high malignant potential, poor differentiation, high invasiveness and early metastasis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colorectum...
July 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Christine Woischke, Christian W Schaaf, Hui-Min Yang, Michael Vieth, Lothar Veits, Helene Geddert, Bruno Märkl, Peter Stömmer, David F Schaeffer, Matthias Frölich, Helmut Blum, Sebastian Vosberg, Philipp A Greif, Andreas Jung, Thomas Kirchner, David Horst
Neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) of the colorectum are rare but highly aggressive neoplasms. These tumors show some shared genetic alterations with colorectal adenocarcinomas, and most of them have adjacent glandular adenoma or adenocarcinoma components. However, genetic data on colorectal NECs still are sparse and insufficient for definite conclusions regarding their molecular origin. Based on morphological characterization, panel and whole-exome sequencing, we here present results from an in-depth analysis of a collection of 15 colorectal NECs with glandular components, 10 of which by definition were mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs)...
September 2, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Ru-Ying Fan, Xiao-Wei Wang, Li-Jun Xue, Ran An, Jian-Qiu Sheng
Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS) is a rare but serious protein-losing enteropathy, but little is known about the mechanism. Further more, misdiagnosis is common due to non-familiarity of its clinical manifestation. A 40-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital because of diarrhea and hypogeusia associated with weight loss for 4 mo. On physical examination, skin pigmentation, dystrophic nail changes and alopecia were noted. He had no alike family history. Laboratory results revealed low levels of serum albumin (30...
August 16, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Muhammad Asif Qureshi, Talat Mirza, Saeed Khan, Bushra Sikandar, Maria Zahid, Marium Aftab, Sehrish Mohsin, Shaheen Sharafat, Lubna Avesi, Saba Hassan
National level population-based cancer data have never been published from Pakistan in seven decades since independence (1947). Therefore, generation of high-quality regional data becomes highly relevant. Cancer data for the period of 2010-2015 representing the population from all districts of Karachi (14.6 million) are presented herein. After institutional approval (Ref no. IRB-459/DUHS/-14), a Pathology based cancer registry was established at the largest government-run diagnostic and reference center of Karachi...
October 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Luiz Claudio Santos Thuler, Raquel Ferreira de Menezes, Anke Bergmann
This is the first study specifically estimating the proportion of new cancer cases that could be attributable to alcohol consumption in the year 2012 in Brazil. The proportion of exposed cases and the association between alcohol and lip and oral cavity, nasopharynx, other pharynx, larynx, esophagus, colorectum, female breast, liver, and intrahepatic bile ducts cancers was based on data made available by the Integrator System of Hospital Cancer Registries. The cancer incidence was obtained from the estimates produced by GLOBOCAN...
August 2016: Alcohol
Freddie Bray, Marion Piñeros
OBJECTIVE: To develop a situation analysis encompassing the patterns and trends in cancer incidence and mortality in South and Central America and the Caribbean, with comparisons globally and with selected external countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on cancer incidence and mortality rates for 31 countries were obtained from the 2012 GLOBOCAN database. Incidence and mortality trends for selected countries were analysed with data from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) series and the WHO Mortality Database, respectively...
April 2016: Salud Pública de México
Olga Golubnitschaja, Krishna Chander Sridhar
Liver cancer, one of the leading causes of all cancer related deaths, belongs to the most malignant cancer types. In fact, the secondary hepatic malignancies (liver metastases) are more common than the primary ones. Almost all solid malignancies can metastasise to the liver. It is well justified that the "treat and wait" approach in the overall management of the liver cancer is not up-to-date and so creation of complex individual patient profiles is needed. This review is specifically focused on the liver metastases originating from the colorectum, breast and prostate cancer...
August 19, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Jie Zheng, Yue Zhou, Ya Li, Dong-Ping Xu, Sha Li, Hua-Bin Li
Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin...
August 12, 2016: Nutrients
Ashley J Vargas, John Quackenbush, Kimberly Glass
BACKGROUND: Weight loss may decrease risk of colorectal cancer in obese individuals, yet its effect in the colorectum is not well understood. We used integrative network modeling, Passing Attributes between Networks for Data Assimilation, to estimate transcriptional regulatory network models from mRNA expression levels from rectal mucosa biopsies measured pre- and post-weight loss in 10 obese, pre-menopausal women. RESULTS: We identified significantly greater regulatory targeting of glucose transport pathways in the post-weight loss regulatory network, including "regulation of glucose transport" (FDR=0...
August 11, 2016: Genomics
Miranda M Fidler, Isabelle Soerjomataram, Freddie Bray
Socioeconomic factors are associated with cancer incidence through complex and variable pathways. We assessed cancer incidence for all cancers combined and 27 major types according to national human development levels. Using GLOBOCAN data for 184 countries, age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) were assessed by four levels (low, medium, high, very high) of the Human Development Index (HDI), a composite index of life expectancy, education, and gross national income. A strong positive relationship between overall cancer incidence and HDI level was observed...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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