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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807841/racial-disparity-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-risk
#1
REVIEW
Hassan Ashktorab, Sonia S Kupfer, Hassan Brim, John M Carethers
Cancer from the gastrointestinal tract and its associated excretory organs will occur in over 300,000 Americans in 2017, with colorectal cancer responsible for over forty percent of that burden; there will be over 150,000 deaths from this group of cancers in the same time period. Disparities among subgroups related to these cancers' incidence and mortality exist. The epidemiology and risk factors associated with each cancer bear out differences for racial groups in the United States. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is more frequent in Non-Hispanic Whites, whereas esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with risk factors of tobacco and alcohol is more frequent among Blacks...
August 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801179/family-history-of-gastric-cancer-is-associated-with-the-risk-of-colorectal-neoplasia-in-korean-population
#2
Yoon Suk Jung, Nam Hee Kim, Hyo-Joon Yang, Soo-Kyung Park, Jung Ho Park, Dong Il Park, Chong Il Sohn
BACKGROUND: Family history of cancers at different sites except for colorectum has not been evaluated as a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia (CRN). AIMS: To investigate CRN risk according to family history of cancers at 12 different sites, including stomach and colorectum. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on 139,497 asymptomatic Koreans who underwent colonoscopy as part of a health check-up. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 41...
July 22, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772352/cytologic-characteristics-of-thymic-adenocarcinoma-with-enteric-differentiation-a-study-of-four-fine-needle-aspiration-specimens
#3
Ah-Young Kwon, Joungho Han, Hae-Yon Cho, Seokhwi Kim, Heejin Bang, Jiyeon Hyeon
Thymic adenocarcinoma is extremely rare. Although its histologic features have been occasionally reported, a lack of description of the cytologic features has hampered the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this condition. Herein, we describe the cytologic findings and histology of four aspiration cytology specimens of thymic adenocarcinoma. The specimens were obtained from primary tumors, metastatic lymph nodes, and pericardial effusions. All four specimens showed three-dimensional glandular clusters with a loss of polarity and nuclear overlapping...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763919/-report-of-cancer-incidence-and-mortality-in-jiangsu-province-in-2013
#4
R Q Han, M Wu, P F Luo, H Yu, R S Zheng, J Y Zhou
Objective: To estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in Jiangsu, 2013. Methods: Up to June 2016, registration data in 2013 from 35 cancer registries in Jiangsu was collected by Jiangsu Provincial Central Cancer Registry. All data were checked and evaluated by the method and criteria of data quality control making by the National Central Cancer Registry, data from 34 registries' data were eligible and accepted as pooled data. Stratified by urban and rural, gender, age and cancer site, crude incidence/mortality rate, age-specific incidence/mortality rate, age-standardized incidence/mortality rate by Chinese standard population, age-standardized incidence/mortality rate by world standard population, composition, cumulative incidence/mortality rate (0-74 age years old) and the 10 leading cancers were calculated...
August 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763491/endoscopic-features-of-lymphoid-follicles-using-blue-laser-imaging-bli-endoscopy-in-the-colorectum-and-its-association-with-chronic-bowel-symptoms
#5
Tomomitsu Tahara, Kazuya Takahama, Sayumi Tahara, Dai Yoshida, Noriyuki Horiguchi, Tomohiko Kawamura, Masaaki Okubo, Mitsuo Nagasaka, Yoshihito Nakagawa, Makoto Urano, Tomoyuki Shibata, Tetsuya Tuskamoto, Hiro-O Ieda, Makoto Kuroda, Naoki Ohmiya
BACKGROUND/AIM: In the colorectum, lymphoid follicles hyperplasia (LH) is sometimes observed as small, round, yellowish-white nodules. The novel image-enhanced endoscopy system named blue laser imaging (BLI) provides enhanced the contrast of surface vessels using lasers for light illumination. We investigated the endoscopic features of LH observed by using BLI endoscopy and its association with chronic bowel symptoms. PATIENTS/METHODS: 300 participants undergoing colonoscopy for various indications were enrolled...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761366/colorectal-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-patient-selection-and-special-considerations
#6
REVIEW
Andrew Emmanuel, Shraddha Gulati, Margaret Burt, Bu'Hussain Hayee, Amyn Haji
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) enables en bloc resection of large complex colorectal superficial neoplastic lesions, resulting in very low rates of local recurrence, high-quality pathologic specimens for accurate histopathologic diagnosis and potentially curative treatment of early adenocarcinoma without resorting to major surgical resection. The safety and efficacy of the technique, which was pioneered in the upper gastrointestinal tract, has been established by the consistently impressive outcomes from expert centers in Japan and some other eastern countries...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748422/safety-and-feasibility-of-umbilical-diverting-loop-ileostomy-for-patients-with-rectal-tumor
#7
Masaaki Miyo, Ichiro Takemasa, Taishi Hata, Tsunekazu Mizushima, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori
BACKGROUND: Fashioning an ileostomy in the umbilicus and combining the trauma from extraction of colorectum with that from ileostomy should be less invasive and lead to improved cosmetic outcomes. However, there are only a few reports regarding umbilical ileostomy. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data for 121 consecutive patients with rectal tumor who underwent elective laparoscopic rectal resection with diverting loop ileostomy between 2010 and 2015 at Osaka University Hospital, Japan...
July 26, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738955/primary-site-predicts-grade-for-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#8
Timothy L Fitzgerald, Catalina Mosquera, C Suzanne Lea, Matthew McMullen
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are rare and abstruse neoplasms with increasing incidence and clinical relevance. The National Cancer Data Base was examined to identify GEP-NET cases from 2004 to 2013. In total, 39,454 patients diagnosed with GEP-NET were identified. Median age was 61 years. Majority was female (50.13%), white (79.49%), and had low-grade neoplasms (84.39%). On univariate analysis, age, sex, race, primary site, tumor size, and regional lymph node involvement were associated with tumor grade (P < 0...
July 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729245/a-novel-mouse-model-of-radiation-induced-cancer-survivorship-diseases-of-the-gut
#9
Cecilia Magdalena Bull, Dilip Malipatlolla, Marie Kalm, Fei Sjöberg, Eleftheria Alevronta, Rita Grandér, Pedram Sultanian, Linda Persson, Martina Boström, Yohanna Eriksson, John Swanpalmer, Agnes E Wold, Klas Blomgren, Thomas Björk-Eriksson, Gunnar Steineck
A deeper understanding of the radiation-induced pathophysiological processes that develop in the gut is imperative in order to prevent, alleviate or eliminate cancer survivorship diseases after radiotherapy to the pelvic area. Most rodent models of high-dose gastrointestinal radiation injury are limited by high mortality. We therefore established a model that allows for the delivering of radiation in fractions at high doses, while maintaining long-term survival. Adult male C57/BL6 mice were exposed to small-field irradiation, restricted to 1,5 cm of the colorectum using a linear accelerator...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706430/case-of-pediatric-traditional-serrated-adenoma-resected-via-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection
#10
Sonoko Kondo, Hirohito Mori, Noriko Nishiyama, Takeo Kondo, Ryuichi Shimono, Hitoshi Okada, Takashi Kusaka
Traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) is a type of serrated polyp of the colorectum and is thought to be a precancerous lesion. There are three types of serrated polyps, namely, hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated adenomas/polyps, and TSAs. TSA is the least common of the three types and accounts for about 5% of serrated polyps. Here we report a pediatric case of TSA that was successfully resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). This rare case report describes a pediatric patient with no family history of colonic polyp who was admitted to our hospital with hematochezia...
June 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688203/assessment-of-colorectal-length-using-the-electromagnetic-capsule-tracking-system-a-comparative-validation-study-in-healthy-subjects
#11
E B Mark, J L Poulsen, A M Haase, J B Frøkjaer, V Schlageter, S M Scott, K Krogh, A M Drewes
AIM: We aimed to determine colorectal length with the 3D-Transit system by describing a 'centerline' of capsule movement and compare it to known anatomy, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Further, we aimed to test the day-to-day variation of colorectal length assessed with the system. METHOD: The 3D-Transit system consists of electromagnetic capsules that can be tracked as they traverse the gastrointestinal tract. 25 healthy subjects were examined with both 3D-Transit and MRI...
July 8, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656115/two-cases-of-rectal-xanthoma-presenting-as-yellowish-to-whitish-lesions-during-colonoscopy
#12
Masaya Iwamuro, Takehiro Tanaka, Daisuke Takei, Yuusaku Sugihara, Keita Harada, Sakiko Hiraoka, Yoshiro Kawahara, Hiroyuki Okada
Two cases of rectal xanthomas are described. One case is that of a 56-year-old Japanese man in whom multiple yellowish spots measuring approximately 3 to 5 mm were observed in the rectum during colonoscopy. The other case is that of a 78-year-old Japanese man in whom colonoscopy showed a whitish plaque of 4 mm in diameter in the rectum. Biopsy examinations performed on both patients revealed the deposition of xanthoma cells within the rectal mucosa. Within the gastrointestinal tract, xanthomas most frequently arise in the stomach, whereas the colorectum is rarely affected...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652417/k-ras-mutations-as-the-earliest-driving-force-in-a-subset-of-colorectal-carcinomas
#13
REVIEW
Nikolaos Margetis, Myrsini Kouloukoussa, Kyriaki Pavlou, Spyridon Vrakas, Theodoros Mariolis-Sapsakos
K-ras oncogene is a key factor in colorectal cancer. Based on published and our data we propose that K-ras could be the oncogene responsible for the inactivation of the tumor-suppressor gene APC, currently considered as the initial step in colorectal tumorigenesis. K-ras fulfills the criteria of the oncogene-induced DNA damage model, as it can provoke well-established causes for inactivating tumor-suppressors, i.e. DNA double-strand breaks (causing allele deletion) and ROS production (responsible for point mutation)...
July 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642205/radial-endoscopic-ultrasound-for-the-diagnosis-of-chronic-schistosomiasis-in-the-colorectum
#14
Chun-Hua Zhou, Wei-Xia Zhou, Duan-Min Hu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641191/early-anastomotic-stricture-occurring-after-colectomy-that-responded-well-to-transanal-decompression-and-local-steroid-therapy-a-case-report
#15
Masanori Hayashi, Atsushi Ikeda, Mitsuo Yokota, Hiroyuki Sako, Hiroshi Uchida, Ken Ikeda, Seijiro Okusawa
INTRODUCTION: Anastomotic strictures occurring after colectomy are a most challenging postoperative complication for gastroenterological surgeons. Reports documenting anastomotic strictures developing in the early postoperative phase are scant, and no established treatment is available. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 78-year-old man who had undergone a laparoscopic left hemicolectomy for lower colon cancer presented on postoperative day 12 because of abdominal pain and no bowel movement...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637487/the-nf1-somatic-mutational-landscape-in-sporadic-human-cancers
#16
REVIEW
Charlotte Philpott, Hannah Tovell, Ian M Frayling, David N Cooper, Meena Upadhyaya
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) #162200) is an autosomal dominantly inherited tumour predisposition syndrome. Heritable constitutional mutations in the NF1 gene result in dysregulation of the RAS/MAPK pathway and are causative of NF1. The major known function of the NF1 gene product neurofibromin is to downregulate RAS. NF1 exhibits variable clinical expression and is characterized by benign cutaneous lesions including neurofibromas and café-au-lait macules, as well as a predisposition to various types of malignancy, such as breast cancer and leukaemia...
June 21, 2017: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627675/distinctive-crypt-shape-in-a-sessile-serrated-adenoma-polyp-distribution-of-ki67-p16ink4a-wnt5a-positive-cells-and-intraepithelial-lymphocytes
#17
Kenji Hisamatsu, Kei Noguchi, Hiroyuki Tomita, Aoi Muto, Natsumi Yamada, Kazuhiro Kobayashi, Akihiro Hirata, Tomohiro Kanayama, Ayumi Niwa, Kazuhisa Ishida, Takayuki Nakashima, Yuichiro Hatano, Natsuko Suzui, Tatsuhiko Miyazaki, Akira Hara
Serrated lesions in the colorectum are currently predominantly classified as hyperplastic polyps (HPs), sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps), and traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs) according to their morphology. However, the histological morphology and the molecular changes in the serrated lesions are still unclear. We performed immunohistochemistry for Ki67, p16INK4a, and WNT5A in human HPs (n=22), SSA/Ps (n=41), and TSAs (n=19). The distribution of Ki67 and p16INK4a positive cells in TSAs was different from that in HPs and SSA/Ps...
June 15, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621689/age-adjusted-charlson-comorbidity-index-score-as-predictor-of-survival-of-patients-with-digestive-system-cancer-who-have-undergone-surgical-resection
#18
Yaohua Tian, Zhong Jian, Beibei Xu, Hui Liu
Comorbidities have considerable effects on survival outcomes. The primary objective of this retrospective study was to examine the association between age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) score and postoperative in-hospital mortality in patients with digestive system cancer who have undergone surgical resection of their cancers. Using electronic hospitalization summary reports, we identified 315,464 patients who had undergone surgery for digestive system cancer in top-rank (Grade 3A) hospitals in China between 2013 and 2015...
June 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619832/excess-mortality-among-hiv-infected-individuals-with-cancer-in-the-united-states
#19
Anna E Coghill, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Meredith S Shiels, Eric A Engels
Background: Human immunodefieciency virus (HIV)-infected persons are living longer in the era of effective HIV treatment, resulting in an increasing cancer burden in this population. The combined effects of HIV and cancer on mortality are incompletely understood.Methods: We examined whether individuals with both HIV and cancer have excess mortality using data from the HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study and the National Center for Health Statistics (1996-2010). We compared age, sex, and race-stratified mortality between people with and without HIV or one of the following cancers: lung, breast, prostate, colorectum, anus, Hodgkin lymphoma, or non-Hodgkin lymphoma...
July 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607593/chemoresistance-of-colorectal-cancer-to-5-fluorouracil-is-associated-with-silencing-of-the-bnip3-gene-through-aberrant-methylation
#20
Jianming He, Li Pei, Heng Jiang, Weiwen Yang, Jianfang Chen, Houjie Liang
Purpose To investigate the correlation between chemoresistance of colorectal cancer to 5-fluorouracil and BNIP3 and the underlying mechanism. Methods BNIP3 protein in specimens was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR and Western blot was employed to assay gene expression. The promoter methylation status of BNIP3 was examined by methylation-specific PCR. Drug sensitivity was assayed using MTT assay. Results Specimens from 81 patients with colorectal cancer receiving 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy were analyzed...
2017: Journal of Cancer
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