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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441380/comparison-of-general-obesity-and-measures-of-body-fat-distribution-in-older-adults-in-relation-to-cancer-risk-meta-analysis-of-individual-participant-data-of-seven-prospective-cohorts-in-europe
#1
Heinz Freisling, Melina Arnold, Isabelle Soerjomataram, Mark George O'Doherty, José Manuel Ordóñez-Mena, Christina Bamia, Ellen Kampman, Michael Leitzmann, Isabelle Romieu, Frank Kee, Konstantinos Tsilidis, Anne Tjønneland, Antonia Trichopoulou, Paolo Boffetta, Vassiliki Benetou, H B As Bueno-de-Mesquita, José María Huerta, Hermann Brenner, Tom Wilsgaard, Mazda Jenab
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the associations of anthropometric indicators of general obesity (body mass index, BMI), an established risk factor of various cancer, and body fat distribution (waist circumference, WC; hip circumference, HC; and waist-to-hip ratio, WHR), which may better reflect metabolic complications of obesity, with total obesity-related and site-specific (colorectal and postmenopausal breast) cancer incidence. METHODS: This is a meta-analysis of seven prospective cohort studies participating in the CHANCES consortium including 18 668 men and 24 751 women with a mean age of 62 and 63 years, respectively...
April 25, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425662/feasibility-of-colorectal-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-esd-carried-out-by-endoscopists-with-no-or-little-experience-in-gastric-esd
#2
Hisashi Shiga, Reina Ohba, Tamotsu Matsuhashi, Mario Jin, Masatake Kuroha, Katsuya Endo, Rintaro Moroi, Shoichi Kayaba, Katsunori Iijima
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is recommended to be carried out only by endoscopists with sufficient experience in gastric ESD. However, early gastric carcinoma is less common in Western countries than in Japan, and endoscopic maneuverability differs between the stomach and colorectum. We assessed the feasibility of colorectal ESD carried out by endoscopists with no or little experience in gastric ESD. METHODS: We analyzed en bloc resection, R0 resection and perforation rates in 180 consecutive colorectal ESD carried out by three endoscopists who had no or <5 cases of experience in gastric ESD...
April 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425064/a-pathway-to-personalizing-therapy-for-metastases-using-liver-on-a-chip-platforms
#3
A S Khazali, A M Clark, A Wells
Metastasis accounts for most cancer-related deaths. The majority of solid cancers, including those of the breast, colorectum, prostate and skin, metastasize at significant levels to the liver due to its hemodynamic as well as tumor permissive microenvironmental properties. As this occurs prior to detection and treatment of the primary tumor, we need to target liver metastases to improve patients' outcomes. Animal models, while proven to be useful in mechanistic studies, do not represent the heterogeneity of human population especially in drug metabolism lack proper human cell-cell interactions, and this gap between animals and humans results in costly and inefficient drug discovery...
April 19, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396341/bioactivity-of-oral-linaclotide-in-human-colorectum-for-cancer-chemoprevention
#4
David S Weinberg, Jieru E Lin, Nathan R Foster, Gary J Della'Zanna, Asad Umar, Drew K Seisler, Walter K Kraft, David M Kastenberg, Leo C Katz, Paul J Limburg, Scott A Waldman
Guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) is a tumor suppressing receptor silenced by loss of expression of its luminocrine hormones guanylin and uroguanylin early in colorectal carcinogenesis. This observation suggests oral replacement with a GUCY2C agonist may be an effective targeted chemoprevention agent. Linaclotide is an FDA approved oral GUCY2C agonist formulated for gastric release, inducing fluid secretion into the small bowel to treat chronic idiopathic constipation. The ability of oral linaclotide to induce a pharmacodynamic response in epithelial cells of the colorectum in humans remains undefined...
April 10, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352187/risk-of-subsequent-primary-malignancies-among-patients-with-prior-colorectal-cancer-a-population-based-cohort-study
#5
Jiao Yang, Shuting Li, Meng Lv, Yinying Wu, Zheling Chen, Yanwei Shen, Biyuan Wang, Ling Chen, Min Yi, Jin Yang
BACKGROUND: The site-distribution pattern and relative risk of subsequent primary malignancies (SPMs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients remains to be determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population-based cohort of 288,390 CRC patients diagnosed between 1973 and 2012 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was retrospectively reviewed. Standardized incidence ratios were calculated to estimate the relative risk for SPMs. RESULTS: The overall risk of SPMs increased in CRC patients (standardized incidence ratio 1...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342361/giant-leiomyosarcoma-of-the-rectum-with-lymph-node-metastasis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Hiroyuki Anzai, Hiroaki Nozawa, Junichiro Tanaka, Koji Yasuda, Kensuke Otani, Takeshi Nishikawa, Toshiaki Tanaka, Tomomichi Kiyomatsu, Keisuke Hata, Kazushige Kawai, Tetsuo Ushiku, Soichiro Ishihara, Toshimi Takano, Masashi Fukayama, Toshiaki Watanabe
INTRODUCTION: Leiomyosarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract is very rare, with a reported frequency of less than 0.1% of all malignancies of the colorectum. It is important to diagnose leiomyosarcoma definitively by immunohistochemical profiling of smooth muscle actin, desmin, and CD34. True leiomyosarcoma of the colorectum diagnosed by immunnohistochemical profiling is extremely rare that only 13 reports have been published in reviews of resected gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors after 1998...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301926/prediction-of-cancer-incidence-and-mortality-in-korea-2017
#7
Kyu-Won Jung, Young-Joo Won, Chang-Mo Oh, Hyun-Joo Kong, Duk Hyoung Lee, Kang Hyun Lee
Purpose: This study aimed to report on cancer incidence and mortality for the year 2017 in Korea in order to estimate the nation's current cancer burden. Materials and Methods: Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2014 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and cancer mortality data from 1993 to 2015 were acquired from Statistics Korea. Cancer incidence and mortality were projected by fitting a linear regression model to observe age-specific cancer rates against observed years, and then multiplying the projected age-specific rates by the age-specific population...
March 17, 2017: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293327/the-dynamic-dna-methylation-landscape-of-the-mutl-homolog-1-shore-is-altered-by-mlh1-93g-a-polymorphism-in-normal-tissues-and-colorectal-cancer
#8
Andrea J Savio, Miralem Mrkonjic, Mathieu Lemire, Steven Gallinger, Julia A Knight, Bharat Bapat
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancers (CRCs) undergo distinct genetic and epigenetic alterations. Expression of mutL homolog 1 (MLH1), a mismatch repair gene that corrects DNA replication errors, is lost in up to 15% of sporadic tumours due to mutation or, more commonly, due to DNA methylation of its promoter CpG island. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CpG island of MLH1 (MLH1-93G>A or rs1800734) is associated with CpG island hypermethylation and decreased MLH1 expression in CRC tumours...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279589/difference-of-stage-at-cancer-diagnosis-by-socioeconomic-status-for-four-target-cancers-of-the-national-cancer-screening-program-in-korea-results-from-the-gwangju-and-jeonnam-cancer-registries
#9
Sun-Seog Kweon, Min-Gyeong Kim, Mi-Ran Kang, Min-Ho Shin, Jin-Su Choi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether stage at cancer diagnosis differed according to patient economic status. METHODS: A total of 10,528 patients with cancer of the stomach, colorectum, breast, or cervix, which are target organs of the Korean National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP; fully implemented in 2005) were extracted from population-based cancer registries. The patients were classified into four groups based on socioeconomic status (SES), as determined using their National Health Insurance (NHI) monthly premium at the time of cancer diagnosis...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275959/clinicopathological-and-prognostic-analysis-of-primary-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor-presenting-with-gastrointestinal-bleeding-a-10-year-retrospective-study
#10
Zhijie Yin, Jinbo Gao, Weizhen Liu, Cheng Huang, Xiaoming Shuai, Guobin Wang, Kaixiong Tao, Peng Zhang
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this paper were to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic factors of GI-bleeding GIST patients and explore whether GI bleeding is a risk factor for GIST relapse. METHODS: Primary GIST patients with initial symptoms of GI bleeding or no GI bleeding were retrospectively studied. RESULTS: Up to 178 GI-bleeding GIST patients including 108 (60.7%) males and 70 (39.3%) females were evaluated for the clinicopathological characteristics...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271094/clinical-outcomes-of-gastric-polyps-and-neoplasms-in-patients-with-familial-adenomatous-polyposis
#11
Keiko Nakamura, Satoru Nonaka, Takeshi Nakajima, Tatsuo Yachida, Seiichiro Abe, Taku Sakamoto, Haruhisa Suzuki, Shigetaka Yoshinaga, Ichiro Oda, Takahisa Matsuda, Shigeki Sekine, Yukihide Kanemitsu, Hitoshi Katai, Yutaka Saito, Seiichi Hirota
Background and study aims Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant syndrome caused by a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, characterized by the presence of more than 100 adenomatous polyps in the colorectum. The upper gastrointestinal tract is an extracolonic site for malignancy in patients with FAP. The frequency of death in Japanese patients with FAP because of gastric cancer is 2.8 % and that because of colon cancer is 60.6 %. Few studies have reported upper gastrointestinal diseases in patients with FAP...
March 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265721/association-between-type-2-diabetes-and-risk-of-cancer-mortality-a-pooled-analysis-of-over-771-000-individuals-in-the-asia-cohort-consortium
#12
Yu Chen, Fen Wu, Eiko Saito, Yingsong Lin, Minkyo Song, Hung N Luu, Prakash C Gupta, Norie Sawada, Akiko Tamakoshi, Xiao-Ou Shu, Woon-Puay Koh, Yong-Bing Xiang, Yasutake Tomata, Kemmyo Sugiyama, Sue K Park, Keitaro Matsuo, Chisato Nagata, Yumi Sugawara, You-Lin Qiao, San-Lin You, Renwei Wang, Myung-Hee Shin, Wen-Harn Pan, Mangesh S Pednekar, Shoichiro Tsugane, Hui Cai, Jian-Min Yuan, Yu-Tang Gao, Ichiro Tsuji, Seiki Kanemura, Hidemi Ito, Keiko Wada, Yoon-Ok Ahn, Keun-Young Yoo, Habibul Ahsan, Kee Seng Chia, Paolo Boffetta, Wei Zheng, Manami Inoue, Daehee Kang, John D Potter
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aims of the study were to evaluate the association between type 2 diabetes and the risk of death from any cancer and specific cancers in East and South Asians. METHODS: Pooled analyses were conducted of 19 prospective population-based cohorts included in the Asia Cohort Consortium, comprising data from 658,611 East Asians and 112,686 South Asians. HRs were used to compare individuals with diabetes at baseline with those without diabetes for the risk of death from any cancer and from site-specific cancers, including cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, colorectum, colon, rectum, liver, bile duct, pancreas, lung, breast, endometrium, cervix, ovary, prostate, bladder, kidney and thyroid, as well as lymphoma and leukaemia...
March 7, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260946/the-clinical-impact-of-serrated-colorectal-polyps
#13
REVIEW
Brendon M O'Connell, Seth D Crockett
Serrated polyps (SPs) of the colorectum pose a novel challenge to practicing gastroenterologists. Previously thought benign and unimportant, there is now compelling evidence that SPs are responsible for a significant percentage of incident colorectal cancer worldwide. In contrast to conventional adenomas, which tend to be slow growing and polypoid, SPs have unique features that undermine current screening and surveillance practices. For example, sessile serrated polyps (SSPs) are flat, predominately right-sided, and thought to have the potential for rapid growth...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260712/a-case-of-turner-syndrome-46xxp-45x-complicated-with-crohn-s-disease-after-hormone-therapy
#14
Yutaro Ihara, Kazuoki Hizawa, Kouhei Fujita, Masahiro Iida, Ema Washio, Takahiro Kai, Tomoki Nitahata, Motohiro Esaki, Mitsuo Iida
A 19-year-old woman, who had been receiving hormone replacement therapy for 13 months before the diagnosis of mosaic Turner syndrome (46XXp-/45X), developed Crohn's colitis and erythema nodosum of the lower legs. Colonoscopy revealed an anal fistula and the presence of deep longitudinal ulcers with cobblestoning in the colorectum. Therapy with prednisolone and adalimumab was effective for the intestinal and skin lesions. To date, all seven case reports of Turner syndrome in Japan have also developed Crohn's disease after hormone therapy, suggesting a possible association of sex hormones in the pathogenesis...
2017: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228842/worldwide-malaria-incidence-and-cancer-mortality-are-inversely-associated
#15
Li Qin, Changzhong Chen, Lili Chen, Ran Xue, Ming Ou-Yang, Chengzhi Zhou, Siting Zhao, Zhengxiang He, Yu Xia, Jianxing He, Pinghua Liu, Nanshan Zhong, Xiaoping Chen
BACKGROUND: Investigations on the effects of malaria infection on cancer mortality are limited except for the incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) in African children. Our previous murine lung cancer model study demonstrated that malaria infection significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the life span of tumor-bearing mice. This study aims to assess the possible associations between malaria incidence and human cancer mortality. METHODS: We compiled data on worldwide malaria incidence and age-standardized mortality related to 30 types of cancer in 56 countries for the period 1955-2008, and analyzed their longitudinal correlations by a generalized additive mixed model (GAMM), adjusted for a nonlinear year effect and potential confounders such as country's income levels, life expectancies and geographical locations...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226180/a33-shows-similar-sensitivity-to-but-is-more-specific-than-cdx2-as-an-immunomarker-of-colorectal-carcinoma
#16
Newton A C S Wong, Lukasz A Adamczyk, Shanna Evans, Jayne Cullen, Anca Oniscu, Karin A Oien
AIMS: CDX2 is widely used as a sensitive and specific immunomarker for colorectal carcinoma (CRC) but neither this sensitivity nor specificity is absolute. This study is the first known comparison of CDX1 and A33 against CDX2 as immunomarkers for CRC. METHODS AND RESULTS: As a pilot study, whole sections of 51 cases of liver metastatic carcinoma of different origins - colorectum (n=32), breast (n=3), oesophagogastric tract (n=4), lung (n=3), pancreas (n=8), and prostate (n=1) - were immunostained with CDX1, CDX2 and A33...
February 22, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223433/global-cancer-in-women-burden-and-trends
#17
EDITORIAL
Lindsey A Torre, Farhad Islami, Rebecca L Siegel, Elizabeth M Ward, Ahmedin Jemal
This review is an abbreviated version of a report prepared for the American Cancer Society Global Health department and EMD Serono, Inc., a subsidiary of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, which was released at the Union for International Cancer Control World Cancer Congress in Paris in November 2016. The original report can be found at https://www.cancer.org/health-care-professionals/our-global-health-work/global-cancer-burden/global-burden-of-cancer-in-women.html. Staff in the Intramural Research Department of the American Cancer Society designed and conducted the study, including analysis, interpretation, and presentation of the review...
February 21, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212276/preventive-effects-of-pentoxifylline-on-the-development-of-colonic-premalignant-lesions-in-obese-and-diabetic-mice
#18
Kazufumi Fukuta, Yohei Shirakami, Akinori Maruta, Koki Obara, Soichi Iritani, Nobuhiko Nakamura, Takahiro Kochi, Masaya Kubota, Hiroyasu Sakai, Takuji Tanaka, Masahito Shimizu
Obesity and its related metabolic abnormalities, including enhanced oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, are closely related to colorectal tumorigenesis. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a methylxanthine derivative, has been reported to suppress the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and possess anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of PTX on the development of carcinogen-induced colorectal premalignant lesions in obese and diabetic mice. Male C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice, which are severely obese and diabetic, were administered weekly subcutaneous injections of the colonic carcinogen azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight) for four weeks and then received drinking water containing 125 or 500 ppm PTX for eight weeks...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171715/cancer-mortality-to-incidence-ratio-as-an-indicator-of-cancer-management-outcomes-in-oecd-countries
#19
Eunji Choi, Sangeun Lee, Bui Cam Nhung, Mina Suh, Boyoung Park, Jae Kwan Jun, Kui Son Choi
PURPOSE: Assessing long-term success and efficiency is essential to evaluating cancer control programs. Mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) can serve as an insightful indicator of cancer management outcomes for individual nations. Calculating MIRs for the top five cancers among Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, the current study attempted to outline the outcomes of national cancer management policies according to the health system ranking of each country...
February 5, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161819/optimizing-resection-of-large-colorectal-polyps
#20
REVIEW
Steven J Heitman, David J Tate, Michael J Bourke
Polypectomy reduces the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC). The widespread adoption of CRC screening, more rigorous colonoscopy techniques, and advancements in endoscopic imaging have led to a greater awareness of complex polyps. Whereas surgery was once considered necessary for many large sessile or laterally spreading lesions (LSLs) in the colorectum, the majority can now be removed endoscopically. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is an established technique for treatment of colorectal LSLs...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
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