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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212276/preventive-effects-of-pentoxifylline-on-the-development-of-colonic-premalignant-lesions-in-obese-and-diabetic-mice
#1
Kazufumi Fukuta, Yohei Shirakami, Akinori Maruta, Koki Obara, Soichi Iritani, Nobuhiko Nakamura, Takahiro Kochi, Masaya Kubota, Hiroyasu Sakai, Takuji Tanaka, Masahito Shimizu
Obesity and its related metabolic abnormalities, including enhanced oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, are closely related to colorectal tumorigenesis. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a methylxanthine derivative, has been reported to suppress the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and possess anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of PTX on the development of carcinogen-induced colorectal premalignant lesions in obese and diabetic mice. Male C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice, which are severely obese and diabetic, were administered weekly subcutaneous injections of the colonic carcinogen azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight) for four weeks and then received drinking water containing 125 or 500 ppm PTX for eight weeks...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171715/cancer-mortality-to-incidence-ratio-as-an-indicator-of-cancer-management-outcomes-in-oecd-countries
#2
Eunji Choi, Sangeun Lee, Bui Cam Nhung, Mina Suh, Boyoung Park, Jae Kwan Jun, Kui Son Choi
PURPOSE: Assessing long-term success and efficiency is essential to evaluating cancer control programs. Mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) can serve as an insightful indicator of cancer management outcomes for individual nations. Calculating MIRs for the top five cancers among Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, the current study attempted to outline the outcomes of national cancer management policies according to the health system ranking of each country...
February 5, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161819/optimizing-resection-of-large-colorectal-polyps
#3
REVIEW
Steven J Heitman, David J Tate, Michael J Bourke
Polypectomy reduces the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC). The widespread adoption of CRC screening, more rigorous colonoscopy techniques, and advancements in endoscopic imaging have led to a greater awareness of complex polyps. Whereas surgery was once considered necessary for many large sessile or laterally spreading lesions (LSLs) in the colorectum, the majority can now be removed endoscopically. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is an established technique for treatment of colorectal LSLs...
February 4, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124286/colokinetic-effect-of-somatostatin-in-the-spinal-defecation-center-in-rats
#4
Kiyotada Naitou, Takahiko Shiina, Hiroyuki Nakamori, Yuuki Sano, Hiroki Shimaoka, Yasutake Shimizu
Somatostatin and its receptors are expressed in the spinal cord, but the functional roles of the peptide remain unknown. In this study, we examined the colokinetic effect of somatostatin in the spinal defecation center in anesthetized rats. Intrathecal application of somatostatin into the lumbo-sacral cord caused propulsive contractions of the colorectum. However, somatostatin administered intravenously or intrathecally to the thoracic cord failed to enhance colorectal motility. Transection of the thoracic cord had no significant impact on the colokinetic action of somatostatin...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122812/psychological-distress-in-relation-to-site-specific-cancer-mortality-pooling-of-unpublished-data-from-16-prospective-cohort-studies
#5
G David Batty, Tom C Russ, Emmanuel Stamatakis, Mika Kivimäki
OBJECTIVE:  To examine the role of psychological distress (anxiety and depression) as a potential predictor of site specific cancer mortality. DESIGN:  Pooling of individual participant data from 16 prospective cohort studies initiated 1994-2008. SETTING:  Nationally representative samples drawn from the health survey for England (13 studies) and the Scottish health survey (three studies). PARTICIPANTS:  163 363 men and women aged 16 or older at study induction, who were initially free of a cancer diagnosis, provided self reported psychological distress scores (based on the general health questionnaire, GHQ-12) and consented to health record linkage...
January 25, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041542/-deep-infection-from-colorectum-to-femur-with-a-massive-gas-development-in-a-chronic-multimorbid-male
#6
Melek Inal, Leif Broeng
A serious complication to colorectal carcinoma is perforation and abscess. In this case report of a 75-year-old male an unusual case of deep infection in the femur secondary to colorectal perforation is described. Sepsis, leg pain and swelling may be the only symptom of intraabdominal disease without abdominalia.
December 19, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026023/effects-of-long-term-ethanol-consumption-and-aldh1b1-depletion-on-intestinal-tumourigenesis-in-mice
#7
Mike F Müller, Ying Zhou, David J Adams, Mark J Arends
Ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde have been classified as carcinogens for the upper aerodigestive tract, liver, breast and colorectum. Whereas mechanisms related to oxidative stress and Cyp2e1 induction seem to prevail in the liver, and acetaldehyde has been proposed to play a crucial role in the upper aerodigestive tract, pathological mechanisms in the colorectum have not yet been clarified. Moreover, all evidence for a pro-carcinogenic role of ethanol in colorectal cancer is derived from correlations observed in epidemiological studies or from rodent studies with additional carcinogen application or tumour suppressor gene inactivation...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938333/pseudomyxoma-peritonei-of-a-mature-ovarian-teratoma-caused-by-mismatch-repair-deficiency-in-a-patient-with-lynch-syndrome-a-case-report
#8
Yoshimasa Gohda, Rei Noguchi, Tomoko Horie, Toru Igari, Harumi Nakamura, Yasunori Ohta, Kiyoshi Yamaguchi, Tsuneo Ikenoue, Seira Hatakeyama, Nozomi Yusa, Yoichi Furukawa, Hideaki Yano
BACKGROUND: Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare disease with an estimated incidence of 1-2 cases per million individuals per year. PMP is characterized by the accumulation of abundant mucinous or gelatinous fluid derived from disseminated tumorous cells. Most of the tumorous cells are originated from rupture of appendiceal neoplasms, but some are from the metastasis of cancer of the colon, ovary, fallopian tube, urachus, colorectum, gallbladder, stomach, pancreas, lung and breast. Although frequent mutations in KRAS and/or GNAS genes have been reported, precise molecular mechanism underlying PMP remains to be elucidated...
December 9, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935033/detection-of-colorectal-neoplasia-combination-of-eight-blood-based-cancer-associated-protein-biomarkers
#9
Michael Wilhelmsen, Ib J Christensen, Louise Rasmussen, Lars N Jørgensen, Mogens R Madsen, Jesper Vilandt, Thore Hillig, Michael Klaerke, Knud T Nielsen, Søren Laurberg, Nils Brünner, Susan Gawel, Xiaoqing Yang, Gerard Davis, Annemieke Heijboer, Frans Martens, Hans J Nielsen
Serological biomarkers may be an option for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study assessed eight cancer-associated protein biomarkers in plasma from subjects undergoing first time ever colonoscopy due to symptoms attributable to colorectal neoplasia. Plasma AFP, CA19-9, CEA, hs-CRP, CyFra21-1, Ferritin, Galectin-3 and TIMP-1 were determined in EDTA-plasma using the Abbott ARCHITECT® automated immunoassay platform. Primary endpoints were detection of (i) CRC and high-risk adenoma and (ii) CRC...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926665/clinicopathological-analysis-and-risk-factors-of-advanced-colorectal-neoplasms-incidentally-detected-by-18f-fdg-pet-ct
#10
Seung Min Chung, Kyeong Ok Kim, Ihn Ho Cho, Tae Nyeun Kim
BACKGROUND: As the clinical use of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET-computed tomography (F-FDG PET-CT) has increased, the incidental finding of F-FDG uptake with subsequent diagnosis of advanced neoplasm at colorectum has increased. The aim of this study is to analyze the characteristics and risk factors of advanced colorectal neoplasm incidentally detected by F-FDG PET-CT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent colonoscopy because of an incidental finding of F-FDG uptake at the colorectum from January 2006 to January 2015 at Yeungnam University Hospital were reviewed retrospectively...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892680/artificial-light-at-night-and-cancer-global-study
#11
Redhwan Ahmed Al-Naggar, Shirin Anil
Background: Artificial light at night (ALAN) has been linked to increased risk of cancers in body sites like the breast and colorectum. However exposure of ALAN as an environmental risk factor and its relation to cancers in humans has never been studied in detail. Objective: To explore the association of ALAN with all forms of cancers in 158 countries. Materials and Methods: An ecological study encompassing global data was conducted from January to June 2015, with age-standardized rates (ASR) of cancers as the outcome measure...
1, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888281/the-actions-of-relaxin-family-peptides-on-signal-transduction-pathways-activated-by-the-relaxin-family-peptide-receptor-rxfp4
#12
Sheng Y Ang, Dana S Hutchinson, Bronwyn A Evans, Mohammed A Hossain, Nitin Patil, Ross A D Bathgate, Martina Kocan, Roger J Summers
The relaxin family peptide receptor 4 (RXFP4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed in the colorectum with emerging roles in metabolism and appetite regulation. It is activated by its cognate ligand insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) that is expressed in enteroendocrine L cells in the gut. Whether other evolutionarily related peptides such as relaxin-2, relaxin-3, or INSL3 activate RXFP4 signal transduction mechanisms with a pattern similar to or distinct from INSL5 is still unclear. In this study, we compare the signaling pathways activated by various relaxin family peptides to INSL5...
January 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882232/metastatic-gastric-cancer-to-the-female-genital-tract
#13
Hiroshi Matsushita, Kazushi Watanabe, Akihiko Wakatsuki
Metastases to the female genital tract from gastric cancer are rare, but they significantly worsen the prognosis of such patients. The potential routes for metastasis to the female genital tract from gastric cancer include hematogenous spread, lymphatic spread and surface implantation. The rate of lymphatic metastasis to the ovary from gastric cancer has been reported to be higher compared with that from colorectal cancer. Uterine or Fallopian tube metastases are usually secondary to ovarian metastases, which are typically identified prior to the detection of gastric cancer in half of all synchronous cases, with complaints of abdominal distention, pain, palpable mass, or abnormal uterine bleeding...
November 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876571/fusobacterium-nucleatum-increases-proliferation-of-colorectal-cancer-cells-and-tumor-development-in-mice-by-activating-toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-to-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BA-up-regulating-expression-of-microrna-21
#14
Yongzhi Yang, Wenhao Weng, Junjie Peng, Leiming Hong, Lei Yang, Yuji Toiyama, Renyuan Gao, Minfeng Liu, Mingming Yin, Cheng Pan, Hao Li, Bomin Guo, Qingchao Zhu, Qing Wei, Mary-Pat Moyer, Ping Wang, Sanjun Cai, Ajay Goel, Huanlong Qin, Yanlei Ma
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nearly 20% of the global cancer burden can be linked to infectious agents. Fusobacterium nucleatum promotes tumor formation by epithelial cells via unclear mechanisms. We aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) induced by F nucleatum and evaluate their ability to promote colorectal carcinogenesis in mice. METHODS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines were incubated with F nucleatum or control reagents and analyzed in proliferation and would healing assays...
November 19, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831506/causes-of-death-among-cancer-patients
#15
N G Zaorsky, T M Churilla, B L Egleston, S G Fisher, J A Ridge, E M Horwitz, Je Meyer Md
BACKGROUND: The purpose of our study was to characterize the causes of death among cancer patients as a function of objectives: (I) calendar year, (II) patient age, and (III) time after diagnosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: US death certificate data in SEER Stat 8.2.1 were used to categorize cancer patient death as being due to index-cancer, non-index-cancer, and non-cancer cause from 1973 to 2012. In addition, data were characterized with standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), which provide the relative risk of death compared to all persons...
November 9, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816465/european-code-against-cancer-4th-edition-alcohol-drinking-and-cancer
#16
Chiara Scoccianti, Michele Cecchini, Annie S Anderson, Franco Berrino, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Carolina Espina, Timothy J Key, Michael Leitzmann, Teresa Norat, Hilary Powers, Martin Wiseman, Isabelle Romieu
Alcohol consumption is the third leading risk factor for disease and mortality in Europe. As evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs, a causal relationship is established for consumption of alcoholic beverages and cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver, colorectum and female breast, even at low and moderate alcohol intakes. The higher the amount of alcohol consumed, the higher the risk of developing cancer. In Europe, an estimated 10% (95% CI: 7%-13%) of all cancer cases in men and 3% (95% CI: 1%-5%) of all cancer cases in women are attributable to alcohol consumption...
December 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811909/fusobacterium-nucleatum-in-colorectal-carcinoma-tissue-according-to-tumor-location
#17
Kosuke Mima, Yin Cao, Andrew T Chan, Zhi Rong Qian, Jonathan A Nowak, Yohei Masugi, Yan Shi, Mingyang Song, Annacarolina da Silva, Mancang Gu, Wanwan Li, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Keisuke Kosumi, Akiko Hanyuda, Li Liu, Aleksandar D Kostic, Marios Giannakis, Susan Bullman, Caitlin A Brennan, Danny A Milner, Hideo Baba, Levi A Garraway, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Wendy S Garrett, Curtis Huttenhower, Matthew Meyerson, Edward L Giovannucci, Charles S Fuchs, Reiko Nishihara, Shuji Ogino
OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests a possible role of Fusobacterium nucleatum in colorectal carcinogenesis, especially in right-sided proximal colorectum. Considering a change in bowel contents and microbiome from proximal to distal colorectal segments, we hypothesized that the proportion of colorectal carcinoma enriched with F. nucleatum might gradually increase along the bowel subsites from rectum to cecum. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 1,102 colon and rectal carcinomas in molecular pathological epidemiology databases of the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study...
November 3, 2016: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801847/different-susceptibilities-between-apoe-and-ldlr-deficient-mice-to-inflammation-associated-colorectal-carcinogenesis
#18
Takuji Tanaka, Takeru Oyama, Shigeyuki Sugie, Masahito Shimizu
Hypercholesterolemia resulting in atherosclerosis is associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the roles of apoliprotein (Apo) E (Apoe) and low-density lipoprotein (Ldl) receptor (Ldlr) in colorectal carcinogenesis have not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined the susceptibility of Apoe-deficient and Ldlr-deficient mice, which are genetic animal models of atherosclerosis to azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colorectal carcinogenesis...
October 28, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793797/adherence-to-the-wcrf-aicr-dietary-recommendations-for-cancer-prevention-and-risk-of-cancer-in-elderly-from-europe-and-the-united-states-a-meta-analysis-within-the-chances-project
#19
Nicole Jankovic, Anouk Geelen, Renate M Winkels, Blaise Mwungura, Veronika Fedirko, Mazda Jenab, Anne K Illner, Hermann Brenner, José M Ordóñez-Mena, Jessica C Kiefte de Jong, Oscar H Franco, Philippos Orfanos, Antonia Trichopoulou, Paolo Boffetta, Antonio Agudo, Petra H Peeters, Anne Tjønneland, Göran Hallmans, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Yikyung Park, Edith J Feskens, Lisette C de Groot, Ellen Kampman
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether dietary recommendations for cancer prevention are applicable to the elderly. We analyzed WCRF/AICR recommendations in cohorts of European and U.S. adults ages 60 years and above. METHODS: Individual participant data meta-analysis included 362,114 participants (43% women), from seven prospective cohort studies, free from cancer at enrollment. The WCRF/AICR diet score was based on: (i) energy-dense foods and sugary drinks, (ii) plant foods, (iii) red and processed meat, and (iv) alcoholic drinks...
January 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775761/state-level-cancer-mortality-attributable-to-cigarette-smoking-in-the-united-states
#20
Joannie Lortet-Tieulent, Ann Goding Sauer, Rebecca L Siegel, Kimberly D Miller, Farhad Islami, Stacey A Fedewa, Eric J Jacobs, Ahmedin Jemal
Importance: State-specific information about the health burden of smoking is valuable because state-level initiatives are at the forefront of tobacco control. Smoking-attributable cancer mortality estimates are currently available nationally and by cancer, but not by state. Objective: To calculate the proportion of cancer deaths among adults 35 years and older that were attributable to cigarette smoking in 2014 in each state and the District of Columbia. Design, Setting, and Participants: The population-attributable fraction (PAF) of cancer deaths due to cigarette smoking was computed using relative risks for 12 smoking-related cancers (acute myeloid leukemia and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx; esophagus; stomach; colorectum; liver; pancreas; larynx; trachea, lung, and bronchus; cervix uteri; kidney and renal pelvis; and urinary bladder) from large US prospective studies and state-specific smoking prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System...
December 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
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