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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346656/host-responses-to-intestinal-nematodes
#1
Koubun Yasuda, Kenji Nakanishi
Helminth infection remains common in developing countries, where residents who suffer from the consequences of such infections can develop serious physical and mental disorders and often persist in the face of serious economic problems. Intestinal nematode infection induces the development of Th2-type immune responses including the B cell IgE response; additionally, this infection induces an increase in the numbers and activation of various types of effector cells, such as mast cells, eosinophils and basophils, as well as the induction of goblet cell hyperplasia, antimicrobial peptide production and smooth muscle contraction, all of which contribute to expel nematodes...
January 13, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344192/tslp-promotes-angiogenesis-of-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-by-strengthening-the-crosstalk-between-cervical-cancer-cells-and-eosinophils
#2
Bing Zhang, Chun-Yan Wei, Kai-Kai Chang, Jia-Jun Yu, Wen-Jie Zhou, Hui-Li Yang, Jun Shao, Jin-Jin Yu, Ming-Qing Li, Feng Xie
Our previous study demonstrated that thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) secreted by cervical cancer cells promotes angiogenesis and recruitment, and regulates the function of eosinophils (EOS). However, the function of TSLP in the crosstalk between EOS and vascular endothelial cells in cancer lesions remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of EOS caused by TSLP in in vitro angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results of the present study revealed that recombinant human TSLP protein (rhTSLP) increased the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but not fibroblast growth factors, in HL-60-eosinophils (HL-60E)...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343779/characterization-of-signaling-pathways-regulating-the-expression-of-pro-inflammatory-long-form-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-upon-human-metapneumovirus-infection
#3
Youxian Li, Cecilie Lund, Ida Nervik, Simon Loevenich, Henrik Døllner, Marit W Anthonsen, Ingvild B Johnsen
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is associated with several allergic diseases including asthma. Two isoforms of TSLP exist in humans, a long form (lfTSLP) and a short form (sfTSLP), displaying distinct immunological functions. Recently, TSLP was found to be upregulated in human airway cells upon human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infection, yet it remains unclear if the two isoforms are regulated differently during hMPV infection. Importantly, the molecular mechanisms underlying hMPV-mediated TSLP induction remain undescribed...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341423/variable-immune-deficiency-related-to-deletion-size-in-chromosome-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#4
Blaine Crowley, Melanie Ruffner, Donna M McDonald McGinn, Kathleen E Sullivan
The clinical features of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome include virtually every organ of the body. This review will focus on the immune system and the differences related to deletion breakpoints. A hypoplastic thymus was one of the first features described in this syndrome and low T cell counts, as a consequence of thymic hypoplasia, are the most commonly described immunologic feature. These are most prominently seen in early childhood and can be associated with increased persistence of viruses. Later in life, evidence of T cell exhaustion may be seen and secondary deficiencies of antibody function have been described...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340126/hepatosplenic-gamma-delta-t-cell-lymphoma-hsgdtcl-two-rare-case-reports-from-western-india
#5
Irappa Madabhavi, Gaurang Modi, Harsha Panchal, Apurva Patel, Swaroop Revannasiddaiah, Asha Anand, Sonia Parikh, Kshitij Joshi, Malay Sarkar
Peripheral T cell lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of post-thymic, mature lymphoid malignancies, accounting for approximately 10-15% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSGDTCL) is a rare entity, which is characterized by primary extra nodal disease with typical sinusoidal or sinusal infiltration of the liver and the spleen, respectively by expression of the T-cell receptor γδ chain, and by a number of other frequent clinicopathologic features, including aggressive course of disease...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339496/thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-drives-the-development-of-il-13-th2-cells
#6
Sotaro Ochiai, Ferdinand Jagot, Ryan L Kyle, Evelyn Hyde, Ruby F White, Melanie Prout, Alfonso J Schmidt, Hidehiro Yamane, Olivier Lamiable, Graham Le Gros, Franca Ronchese
T helper 2 (Th2) cells are pivotal in the development of allergy. Allergen exposure primes IL-4+ Th2 cells in lymph node, but production of effector cytokines including IL-5 and IL-13 is thought to require additional signals from antigen and the environment. Here we report that a substantial proportion of naive CD4+ T cells in spleen and lymph node express receptors for the epithelium-derived inflammatory cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). Culture of naive CD4+ T cells in anti-(a)CD3, aCD28, and TSLP-supplemented Th2 conditions enabled the development of a unique population of IL-13-single positive (IL-13-SP) CD4+ T cells; TSLP and Th2 conditions were both required for their development...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339444/light-hvem-signaling-in-keratinocytes-controls-development-of-dermatitis
#7
Rana Herro, Jr-Wen Shui, Sonja Zahner, Daniel Sidler, Yuko Kawakami, Toshiaki Kawakami, Koji Tamada, Mitchell Kronenberg, Michael Croft
Dermatitis is often associated with an allergic reaction characterized by excessive type 2 responses leading to epidermal acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, and dermal inflammation. Although factors like IL-4, IL-13, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) are thought to be instrumental for the development of this type of skin disorder, other cytokines may be critical. Here, we show that the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily protein LIGHT (homologous to lymphotoxin, exhibits inducible expression, and competes with HSV glycoprotein D for binding to HVEM, a receptor expressed on T lymphocytes) is required for experimental atopic dermatitis, and LIGHT directly controls keratinocyte hyperplasia, and production of periostin, a matricellular protein that contributes to the clinical features of atopic dermatitis as well as other skin diseases such as scleroderma...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339402/canonical-notch-signaling-is-dispensible-for-adult-steady-state-and-stress-myelo-erythropoiesis
#8
Sara Duarte, Petter S Woll, Natalija Buza-Vidas, Desmond Wai Loon Chin, Hanane Boukarabila, Tiago C Luís, Laura Stenson, Tiphaine Bouriez-Jones, Helen Ferry, Adam J Mead, Deborah Atkinson, Shaobo Jin, Sally-Ann Clark, Bishan Wu, Emmanouela Repapi, Nicki Gray, Stephen Taylor, Anders P Mutvei, Yat Long Tsoi, Claus Nerlov, Urban Lendahl, Sten Eirik W Jacobsen
While an essential role for canonical Notch signaling in generation of hematopoietic stem cells in the embryo and in thymic T cell development is well established, its role in adult bone marrow (BM) myelopoiesis remains unclear. Some studies, analyzing myeloid progenitors in adult mice with inhibited Notch signaling, implicated distinct roles of canonical Notch signaling in regulation of progenitors for the megakaryocyte, erythroid and granulocyte-macrophage cell lineages. However, these studies might also have targeted other pathways...
January 16, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339175/primary-thymic-adenocarcinomas-a-clinicopathological-and-immunohistochemical-study-of-16-cases-with-emphasis-on-the-morphological-spectrum-of-differentiation
#9
Neda Kalhor, Cesar A Moran
Sixteen cases of primary thymic adenocarcinoma are presented. The patients are 9 men and 7 women between the ages of 22 and 68 years (average: 45 years) who presented with non-specific symptoms including cough, chest pain, and dyspnea. Diagnostic imaging revealed the presence of an anterior mediastinal mass, which was surgically removed in all of the patients. Histologically, none of the tumors was encapsulated and showed different growth patterns including mucinous, non-mucinous, and papillary features. The majority of cases showed mixed growth pattern and the tumor was limited to the mediastinum with only a few cases extending to lymph nodes or pericardium...
January 12, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337047/imaging-flow-cytometry-a-method-for-examining-dynamic-native-foxo1-localization-in-human-lymphocytes
#10
Molly K Hritzo, Jean-Paul Courneya, Amit Golding
While flow cytometry can reliably assess surface and intracellular marker expression within small cell populations, it does not provide any information on protein localization. Several key transcription factors (TF) downstream of lymphocyte surface receptors are regulated by nuclear versus cytoplasmic localization, and one such TF is Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1). FOXO1 integrates antigen-binding, co-receptor activation and metabolic signals in lymphocytes, leading to proliferation and differentiation. Importantly, the nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of FOXO1 is key for gene expression leading to different lymphocyte phenotypes...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335648/rapid-chromatin-repression-by-aire-provides-precise-control-of-immune-tolerance
#11
Andrew S Koh, Erik L Miller, Jason D Buenrostro, David M Moskowitz, Jing Wang, William J Greenleaf, Howard Y Chang, Gerald R Crabtree
Aire mediates the expression of tissue-specific antigens in thymic epithelial cells to promote tolerance against self-reactive T lymphocytes. However, the mechanism that allows expression of tissue-specific genes at levels that prevent harm is unknown. Here we show that Brg1 generates accessibility at tissue-specific loci to impose central tolerance. We found that Aire has an intrinsic repressive function that restricts chromatin accessibility and opposes Brg1 across the genome. Aire exerted this repressive influence within minutes after recruitment to chromatin and restrained the amplitude of active transcription...
January 15, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335408/escape-from-thymic-deletion-and-anti-leukemic-effects-of-t-cells-specific-for-hematopoietic-cell-restricted-antigen
#12
Ji-Min Ju, Min Ho Jung, Giri Nam, Woojin Kim, Sehwa Oh, Hyun Duk Kim, Joo Young Kim, Jun Chang, Sung Hak Lee, Gyeong Sin Park, Chang-Ki Min, Dong-Sup Lee, Moon Gyo Kim, Kyungho Choi, Eun Young Choi
Whether hematopoietic cell-restricted distribution of antigens affects the degree of thymic negative selection has not been investigated in detail. Here, we show that T cells specific for hematopoietic cell-restricted antigens (HRA) are not completely deleted in the thymus, using the mouse minor histocompatibility antigen H60, the expression of which is restricted to hematopoietic cells. As a result, low avidity T cells escape from thymic deletion. This incomplete thymic deletion occurs to the T cells developing de novo in the thymus of H60-positive recipients in H60-mismatched bone marrow transplantation (BMT)...
January 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333007/utility-of-cluster-of-differentiation-5-and-cluster-of-differentiation-117-immunoprofile-in-distinguishing-thymic-carcinoma-from-pulmonary-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-study-on-1800-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer-cases
#13
Vidya Jha, Preeti Sharma, Ashish Kumar Mandal
Background: Mediastinum harbors a mixed bag of neoplastic lesions with varied therapeutic and prognostic implications. Distinguishing pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma from thymic carcinoma is a challenging task owing to rather nonspecific clinicoradiological features and a considerable overlap in histomorphological features. Thus, we evaluated the diagnostic utility of cluster of differentiation 5 (CD5) and CD117 immunohistochemical markers in distinguishing these tumors. Materials and Methods: The archives of department of histopathology were retrospectively reviewed from June 2012 to May 2016...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331646/progress-in-the-management-of-advanced-thoracic-malignancies-in-2017
#14
REVIEW
Roberto Ferrara, Laura Mezquita, Benjamin Besse
The treatment paradigm of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) underwent a major revolution during the course of 2017. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) brought remarkable improvements in response and overall survival (OS) both in unselected pretreated patients and in untreated patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50%. Furthermore, compelling preliminary results were reported for new combinations of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents with chemotherapy or anti-CTLA4 inhibitors. The success of the ICIs appeared to extend to patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), mesothelioma or thymic tumors...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331322/expression-level-of-risk-genes-of-mhc-class-ii-is-a-susceptibility-factor-for-autoimmunity-new-insights
#15
REVIEW
Carmen Gianfran, Laura Pisapia, Stefania Picascia, Maria Strazzullo, Giovanna Del Pozzo
To date, the study of the impact of major hystocompatibility complex on autoimmunity has been prevalently focused on structural diversity of MHC molecules in binding and presentation of (auto)antigens to cognate T cells. Recently, a number of experimental evidences suggested new points of view to investigate the complex relationships between MHC gene expression and the individual predisposition to autoimmune diseases. Irrespective of the nature of the antigen, a threshold of MHC-peptide complexes needs to be reached, as well as a threshold of T cell receptors engaged is required, for the activation and proliferation of autoantigen-reactive T cells...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330484/single-cell-rna-sequencing-resolves-self-antigen-expression-during-mtec-development
#16
Ricardo J Miragaia, Xiuwei Zhang, Tomás Gomes, Valentine Svensson, Tomislav Ilicic, Johan Henriksson, Gozde Kar, Tapio Lönnberg
The crucial capability of T cells for discrimination between self and non-self peptides is based on negative selection of developing thymocytes by medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). The mTECs purge autoreactive T cells by expression of cell-type specific genes referred to as tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs). Although the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein is known to promote the expression of a subset of TRAs, its mechanism of action is still not fully understood. The expression of TRAs that are not under the control of AIRE also needs further characterization...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330161/production-of-bmp4-by-endothelial-cells-is-crucial-for-endogenous-thymic-regeneration
#17
Tobias Wertheimer, Enrico Velardi, Jennifer Tsai, Kirsten Cooper, Shiyun Xiao, Christopher C Kloss, Katja J Ottmüller, Zeinab Mokhtari, Christian Brede, Paul deRoos, Sinéad Kinsella, Brisa Palikuqi, Michael Ginsberg, Lauren F Young, Fabiana Kreines, Sophia R Lieberman, Amina Lazrak, Peipei Guo, Florent Malard, Odette M Smith, Yusuke Shono, Robert R Jenq, Alan M Hanash, Daniel J Nolan, Jason M Butler, Andreas Beilhack, Nancy R Manley, Shahin Rafii, Jarrod A Dudakov, Marcel R M van den Brink
The thymus is not only extremely sensitive to damage but also has a remarkable ability to repair itself. However, the mechanisms underlying this endogenous regeneration remain poorly understood, and this capacity diminishes considerably with age. We show that thymic endothelial cells (ECs) comprise a critical pathway of regeneration via their production of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) ECs increased their production of BMP4 after thymic damage, and abrogating BMP4 signaling or production by either pharmacologic or genetic inhibition impaired thymic repair...
January 12, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325948/spinal-metastasis-resulting-from-atypical-thymic-carcinoid-a-case-report
#18
Xinjie Wu, Yingna Qi, Feng Yang, Mingsheng Tan, Jie Lin
BACKGROUND: Thymic carcinoid with spinal metastasis is an extremely rare entity. Clinically, the tumor presents either by its endocrine manifestations or by mechanical compression of surrounding structures. However, no previous studies reported a case with neck pain, and neurological deficit as initial presentation of an atypical thymic carcinoid. METHOD: A 56-year-old non-smoking man presented with 12-month history of intermittent neck pain and 1-month history of progressive numbness and weakness of the right upper limb...
January 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322496/wt1-peptide-based-immunotherapy-for-advanced-thymic-epithelial-malignancies
#19
Yusuke Oji, Masayoshi Inoue, Yoshito Takeda, Naoki Hosen, Yasushi Shintani, Manabu Kawakami, Takuya Harada, Yui Murakami, Miki Iwai, Mari Fukuda, Sumiyuki Nishida, Jun Nakata, Yoshiki Nakae, Satoshi Takashima, Toshiaki Shirakata, Hiroko Nakajima, Kana Hasegawa, Hiroshi Kida, Takashi Kijima, Soyoko Morimoto, Fumihiro Fujiki, Akihiro Tsuboi, Eiichi Morii, Satoshi Morita, Junichi Sakamoto, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Yoshihiro Oka, Meinoshin Okumura, Haruo Sugiyama
Thymic epithelial tumors are rare malignancies, and no optimal therapeutic regimen has been defined for patients with advanced disease. Patients with advanced thymic epithelial tumors, which were resistant or intolerable to prior therapies, were eligible for this study. Patients received 9 mer-WT1-derived peptide emulsified with Montanide ISA51 adjuvant via intradermal administration once a week as a monotherapy. After the 3 month-protocol treatment, the treatment was continued mostly at intervals of 2 to 4 weeks until disease progression or intolerable adverse events occurred...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321954/a-role-for-caspase-2-in-sphingosine-kinase-1-proteolysis-in-response-to-doxorubicin-in-breast-cancer-cells-implications-for-the-chk1-suppressed-pathway
#20
Brittany L Carroll, Joseph Bonica, Achraf A Shamseddine, Yusuf A Hannun, Lina M Obeid
Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) is a lipid kinase whose activity produces sphingosine 1-phosphate, a prosurvival lipid associated with proliferation, angiogenesis, and invasion. SK1 overexpression has been observed in numerous cancers. Recent studies have demonstrated that SK1 proteolysis occurs downstream of the tumor suppressor p53 in response to several DNA-damaging agents. Moreover, loss of SK1 in p53-knockout mice resulted in complete protection from thymic lymphoma, providing evidence that regulation of SK1 constitutes a major tumor suppressor function of p53...
January 2018: FEBS Open Bio
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