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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938687/mediastinal-lesions-across-the-age-spectrum-a-clinicopathological-comparison-between-pediatric-and-adult-patients
#1
Tingting Liu, Lika'a Fasih Y Al-Kzayer, Xiao Xie, Hua Fan, Shamil Naji Sarsam, Yozo Nakazawa, Lei Chen
The objective of this study was to identify the differences in histopathological distribution and clinical features of mediastinal lesions (MLs) across the age spectrum in Chinese series of patients and to compare with the available literature. A total of 409 cases of MLs, including 137 pediatric and 272 adult patients from a single institution, was reviewed and categorized into groups according to age. Among the 409 cases, the age showed a bimodal distribution with an increased incidence of MLs among (< 10 year) and (60-< 70 year) age groups...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937774/selective-non-steroidal-glucocorticoid-receptor-modulators-for-the-inhaled-treatment-of-pulmonary-diseases
#2
Martin Hemmerling, Stinabritt Nilsson, Karl Edman, Stefan Eirefelt, Wayne Russell, Ramon Hendrickx, Eskil Johnsson, Carina Kärrman-Mårdh, Markus Berger, Hartmut Rehwinkel, Anna Abrahamsson, Jan Dahm Eacute N, Anders R Eriksson, Balint Gabos, Krister Henriksson, Nafizal Hossain, Svetlana Ivanova, Anne-Helene Jansson, Tina J Jensen, Anders Jerre, Henrik Johansson, Tomas Klingstedt, Matti Lepistö, Martin Lindsjö, Irene Mile, Grigorios Nikitidis, John Steele, Ulrika Tehler, Lisa Wissler, Thomas Hansson
A class of potent, non-steroidal, selective indazole ether based glucocorticoid receptor modulators (SGRMs) was developed for the inhaled treatment of respiratory diseases. Starting from an orally available compound with demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity in rat, a soft drug strategy was implemented to ensure rapid elimination of drug candidates and minimize systemic GR activation. The first clinical candidate 1b (AZD5423) displayed potent inhibition of lung edema in a rat model of allergic airway inflammation following dry powder inhalation combined with a moderate systemic GR-effect, assessed as thymic involution...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937406/tolerance-in-xenotransplantation
#3
Kazuhiko Yamada, Megan Sykes, David H Sachs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes recent progress in tolerance-inducing strategies across xenogeneic immunological barriers as well as the potential benefit of a tolerance strategy for islets and kidney xenotransplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Using advanced gene editing technologies, xenotransplantation from multitransgenic alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout pigs has demonstrated marked prolongation of renal xenograft survival, ranging from days to greater than several months for life-supporting kidneys, and more than 2 years in a heterotopic nonlife-supporting cardiac xenograft model...
September 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936214/a-mucosal-and-cutaneous-chemokine-ligand-for-the-lymphocyte-chemoattractant-receptor-gpr15
#4
Borja Ocón, Junliang Pan, Theresa Thu Dinh, Wenjing Chen, Romain Ballet, Michael Bscheider, Aida Habtezion, Hua Tu, Brian A Zabel, Eugene C Butcher
Chemoattractants control lymphocyte recruitment from the blood, contributing to the systemic organization of the immune system. The G protein-linked receptor GPR15 mediates lymphocyte homing to the large intestines and skin. Here we show that the 9 kDa CC-motif containing cationic polypeptide AP57/colon-derived sushi containing domain-2 binding factor (CSBF), encoded by C10orf99 in the human and 2610528A11Rik in the mouse, functions as a chemokine ligand for GPR15 (GPR15L). GPR15L binds GPR15 and attracts GPR15-expressing T cells including lymphocytes in colon-draining lymph nodes and Vγ3(+) thymic precursors of dermal epithelial T cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932937/foxn1-deficiency-from-the-discovery-to-novel-therapeutic-approaches
#5
REVIEW
Vera Gallo, Emilia Cirillo, Giuliana Giardino, Claudio Pignata
Since the discovery of FOXN1 deficiency, the human counterpart of the nude mouse, a growing body of evidence investigating the role of FOXN1 in thymus and skin, has been published. FOXN1 has emerged as fundamental for thymus development, function, and homeostasis, representing the master regulator of thymic epithelial and T cell development. In the skin, it also plays a pivotal role in keratinocytes and hair follicle cell differentiation, although the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain to be fully elucidated...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932588/kras-mutation-positive-mucinous-adenocarcinoma-originating-in-the-thymus
#6
Ichiro Sakanoue, Hiroshi Hamakawa, Daichi Fujimoto, Yukihiro Imai, Kazuhiro Minami, Keisuke Tomii, Yutaka Takahashi
Thymic carcinoma is a rare, aggressive disease with a low 5-year survival rate. The most common histological neoplastic thymic tumor subtype is squamous cell. We describe an interesting case of a 39-year-old woman who presented with mucinous adenocarcinoma that originated in the thymus and was treated via radical resection and venoplasty of the superior vena cava (SVC). Macroscopically, the resected tumor contained a solid region and multiple cysts with abundant mucin. Microscopic examination showed a papillary growth pattern of goblet cells with round nuclei...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932541/multimodality-treatment-of-stage-ii-thymic-tumours
#7
Carolina Carillo, Daniele Diso, Sara Mantovani, Ylenia Pecoraro, Tiziano De Giacomo, Anna Maria Ciccone, Camilla Poggi, Flavia Longo, Raffaele Cassese, Vincenzo Tombolini, Erino Angelo Rendina, Federico Venuta, Marco Anile
BACKGROUND: Complete resection for stage II thymic tumors can be easily accomplished even if the capsula and adjacent mediastinal tissue are macroscopically involved; however, also at this stage, recurrence may occur, particularly for B2, B3 and thymic carcinoma. The criteria for the administration of adjuvant therapy remain controversial and it is unclear whether patients at this stage may benefit from it. We reviewed a series of patients at this stage receiving adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (chemo-RT) based on histology...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931895/defective-thymic-output-in-was-patients-is-associated-with-abnormal-actin-organization
#8
Wenyan Li, Xiaoyu Sun, Jinzhi Wang, Qin Zhao, Rongxin Dai, Yanping Wang, Lina Zhou, Lisa Westerberg, Yuan Ding, Xiaodong Zhao, Chaohong Liu
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) is a key regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. Defective T - cell function is a major cause for immune deficiency in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) patients. T cells originate in the bone marrow and develop in the thymus, and then migrate to peripheral tissues. TCR excision circles (TRECs) present in thymic output cells stably, which is used as a molecular marker for thymic output. We found that CD8(+) T naïve cells of classic WAS patients were significantly reduced, and TRECs in patients with classic WAS and X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT) dramatically decreased compared with that of HCs...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931604/sublethal-total-body-irradiation-causes-long-term-deficits-in-thymus-function-by-reducing-lymphoid-progenitors
#9
Shiyun Xiao, Ivo D Shterev, Wen Zhang, Lauren Young, Jae-Hung Shieh, Malcolm Moore, Marcel van den Brink, Gregory D Sempowski, Nancy R Manley
Total body irradiation (TBI) damages hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow and thymus; however, the long-term effects of irradiation with aging remain unclear. In this study, we found that the impact of radiation on thymopoiesis in mice varied by sex and dose but, overall, thymopoiesis remained suppressed for ≥12 mo after a single exposure. Male and female mice showed a long-term dose-dependent reduction in thymic cKit(+) lymphoid progenitors that was maintained throughout life. Damage to hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow was dose dependent, with as little as 0...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931462/paradoxical-development-of-polymyositis-like-autoimmunity-through-augmented-expression-of-autoimmune-regulator-aire
#10
Hitoshi Nishijima, Tatsuya Kajimoto, Yoshiki Matsuoka, Yasuhiro Mouri, Junko Morimoto, Minoru Matsumoto, Hiroshi Kawano, Yasuhiko Nishioka, Hisanori Uehara, Keisuke Izumi, Koichi Tsuneyama, Il-Mi Okazaki, Taku Okazaki, Kazuyoshi Hosomichi, Ayako Shiraki, Makoto Shibutani, Kunitoshi Mitsumori, Mitsuru Matsumoto
Autoimmunity is prevented by the function of the autoimmune regulator [AIRE (Aire in mice)], which promotes the expression of a wide variety of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) from medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and from a subset of peripheral antigen-presenting cells (APCs). We examined the effect of additive expression of human AIRE (huAIRE) in a model of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Unexpectedly, we observed that mice expressing augmented AIRE/Aire developed muscle-specific autoimmunity associated with incomplete maturation of mTECs together with impaired expression of Aire-dependent TRAs...
September 17, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931090/correction-long-term-oncological-outcome-of-thymoma-and-thymic-carcinoma-an-analysis-of-235-cases-from-a-single-institution
#11
Yen-Chiang Tseng, Yen-Han Tseng, Hua-Lin Kao, Chih-Cheng Hsieh, Teh-Ying Chou, Yih-Gang Goan, Wen-Hu Hsu, Han-Shui Hsu
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179527.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928735/the-expression-of-the-short-isoform-of-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-in-the-colon-is-regulated-by-the-nuclear-receptor-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-and-is-impaired-during-ulcerative-colitis
#12
Anthony Martin Mena, Audrey Langlois, Silvia Speca, Lucil Schneider, Pierre Desreumaux, Laurent Dubuquoy, Benjamin Bertin
The etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases remains largely unknown. We previously demonstrated that the expression of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) is downregulated in colonic epithelial cells of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). PPARγ is a nuclear receptor that modulates inflammation. We hypothesized that its deficiency may play a role in the loss of intestinal homeostasis through the control of immunomodulatory factors. We found that thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an epithelial cytokine with pleiotropic functions, is regulated by PPARγ...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927887/epidermal-overexpression-of-xenobiotic-receptor-pxr-impairs-the-epidermal-barrier-and-triggers-th2-immune-response
#13
Andreas Elentner, Matthias Schmuth, Nikolaos Yannoutsos, Thomas O Eichmann, Robert Gruber, Franz Pw Radner, Martin Hermann, Barbara Del Frari, Sandrine Dubrac
The skin is in daily contact with environmental pollutants, but the long-term effects of such exposure remain under-investigated. Many of these toxins bind and activate the pregnane x receptor (PXR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates genes central to xenobiotic metabolism. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of constitutive activation of PXR in the basal layer of the skin to mimic repeated skin exposure to noxious molecules. We designed a transgenic mouse model which overexpresses the human PXR gene linked to the herpes simplex VP16 domain under the control of the keratin 14 promoter...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927768/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-peptide-derived-tslp-inhibitors
#14
Seonghu Park, Yeeun Park, Sang-Hyun Son, Kiho Lee, Yong Woo Jung, Ki Yong Lee, Young Ho Jeon, Youngjoo Byun
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a type II cytokine which is associated with most inflammatory allergic disorders in humans. It is produced mainly by epithelial cells with important role in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases by activating T-helper cell type-2 (TH2) pathways. In this study, a total of 16 peptides were prepared by solid phase peptide synthesis based on amino acid sequences of the interface between TSLP and TSLP receptor. Their TSLP inhibition activities were determined by ELISA assay...
September 7, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925057/serum-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a-levels-reflect-itch-severity-in-mycosis-fungoides-and-s%C3%A3-zary-syndrome
#15
Minami Sakamoto, Tomomitsu Miyagaki, Hiroaki Kamijo, Tomonori Oka, Naomi Takahashi, Hiraku Suga, Ayumi Yoshizaki, Yoshihide Asano, Makoto Sugaya, Shinichi Sato
Angiogenesis is an important step to support progression of malignancies, including mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, a key player in angiogenesis, is secreted by tumor cells of MF/SS and its expression levels in lesional skin correlated with disease severity. In this study, we examined serum VEGF-A levels in MF/SS patients. Serum VEGF-A levels were elevated in patients with erythrodermic MF/SS and the levels decreased after treatment. Importantly, serum VEGF-A levels positively correlated with markers for pruritus...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921690/tissue-specific-and-time-dependent-clonal-expansion-of-enu-induced-mutant-cells-in-gpt-delta-mice
#16
Takafumi Nakayama, Tomoko Sawai, Ikuko Masuda, Shinya Kaneko, Kazumi Yamauchi, Benjamin J Blyth, Yoshiya Shimada, Akira Tachibana, Shizuko Kakinuma
DNA mutations play a crucial role in the origins of cancer, and the clonal expansion of mutant cells is one of the fundamental steps in multistage carcinogenesis. In this study, we correlated tumor incidence in B6C3F1 mice during the period after exposure to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) with the persistence of ENU-induced mutant clones in transgenic gpt delta B6C3F1 mice. The induced gpt mutations afforded no selective advantage in the mouse cells and could be distinguished by a mutational spectrum that is characteristic of ENU treatment...
September 16, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921451/distribution-of-malignant-lymphomas-in-the-anterior-mediastinum-a-single-institution-study-of-76-cases-in-japan-1997-2016
#17
Akiko Miyagi Maeshima, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Tomotaka Suzuki, Sayako Yuda, Kosuke Toyoda, Nobuhiko Yamauchi, Shinichi Makita, Suguru Fukuhara, Wataru Munakata, Dai Maruyama, Yukio Kobayashi, Kensei Tobinai
We analyzed the distribution of tumors and lymphomas of the anterior mediastinum diagnosed between 1997 and 2016 at the National Cancer Center Hospital, Japan. The median age of 283 patients with anterior mediastinal tumors was 48 (range 6-84) years, and 143 (51%) were male. The incidence of tumors was as follows: thymoma, 34%; thymic carcinoma, 16%; primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL), 13%; germ cell tumors, 10%; classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL), 9%; thymic cyst, 7%; metastatic tumors, 3%; T lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-LBL), 2%; other lymphomas, 3%; and others, 3%...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912776/human-cd5-innate-lymphoid-cells-are-functionally-immature-and-their-development-from-cd34-progenitor-cells-is-regulated-by-id2
#18
Maho Nagasawa, Kristine Germar, Bianca Blom, Hergen Spits
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have emerged as a key cell type involved in surveillance and maintenance of mucosal tissues. Mouse ILCs rely on the transcriptional regulator Inhibitor of DNA-binding protein 2 (Id2) for their development. Here, we show that Id2 also drives development of human ILC because forced expression of Id2 in human thymic progenitors blocked T cell commitment, upregulated CD161 and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF), and maintained CD127 expression, markers that are characteristic for human ILCs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912374/collagen-embedded-tumor-transplantations-in-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles
#19
Maureen Banach, Jacques Robert
The Xenopus laevis tadpole provides a valuable model for studying tumorigenesis and tumor immunity by intravital real-time microscopy. Using well-characterized thymic lymphoid tumor lines (15/0 and ff-2) that are transplantable into their compatible hosts (LG-15 isogenic clones and the F inbred strain, respectively), a system of semisolid tumor engraftment has been designed. Because these lymphoid tumor cell lines are not adherent and grow in suspension, they are first immobilized in a matrix of type I rat tail collagen before transplantation as a semisolid tumor graft under the transparent dorsal skin in the head region of a tadpole...
September 14, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912020/intestinal-dysbiosis-featuring-abundance-of-ruminococcus-gnavus-associates-with-allergic-diseases-in-infants
#20
Huey-Huey Chua, Hung-Chieh Chou, Ya-Ling Tung, Bor-Luen Chiang, Chien-Chia Liao, Hong-Hsing Liu, Yen-Hsuan Ni
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been associated with development of allergies in infants. However, it is not clear what microbes might contribute to this process. We investigated what microbe(s) might be involved in analyses of infant twins and mice. METHODS: We studied fecal specimens prospectively in a twin cohort (n=30) and age-matched singletons (n=14) born at National Taiwan University Children's Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, from April 2011 to March 2013...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
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