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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109140/-transplantation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-improves-antioxidant-capacity-and-immune-activity-of-aging-model-rats
#1
Zhihong Wang, Yun Lin, Weimin Chen, Jin Shang, Tiannan Wei
Objective To investigate the impact of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation on the antioxidant capacity and immune activity of aging rats induced by D-galactose. Methods Ten healthy male SD rats served as a control group (aged 2 months). To establish aging models, healthy SD rats were daily injected subcutaneously with D-galactose (400 mg/kg). Then the aging model rats were randomized into aging model group and BMSC group (ten rats in each group). The BMSC group was injected with 3×10(6) BMSCs via tail vein...
February 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108558/irf4-expression-in-thymic-epithelium-is-critical-for-thymic-regulatory-t-cell-homeostasis
#2
Uku Haljasorg, James Dooley, Martti Laan, Kai Kisand, Rudolf Bichele, Adrian Liston, Pärt Peterson
The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ required for the induction and maintenance of central tolerance. The main function of the thymus is to generate an immunocompetent set of T cells not reactive to self. During negative selection in the thymus, thymocytes with autoreactive potential are either deleted or differentiated into regulatory T cells (Tregs). The molecular basis by which the thymus allows high-efficiency Treg induction remains largely unknown. In this study, we report that IFN regulatory factor 4 (Irf4) is highly expressed in murine thymic epithelium and is required to prime thymic epithelial cells (TEC) for effective Treg induction...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108557/low-level-mhc-class-ii-expression-leads-to-suboptimal-th-cell-response-increased-autoaggression-and-heightened-cytokine-inducibility
#3
Yi-Ting Chen, Yu-Chia Su, Mei-Ling Chang, Pi-Fang Tsai, John T Kung
The development and activation of MHC class II (MHC-II)-restricted CD4(+) T cells are distinct immunological processes that are strictly MHC-II-dependent. To address their relative dependence on MHC-II, we established a novel ENU-induced mutant mouse on the C57BL/6 background, named I-A(12%), with ∼8-fold reduced I-A expression on the surface of B cells, dendritic cells, cortical thymic epithelial cells, and medullary thymic epithelial cells. I-A(100%) and I-A(12%) mice are highly similar with respect to the numbers of double-positive thymocytes, CD4(+)CD8(-) T cells, regulatory T cells, CD4(+) T cell marker expression, lifespan, and Th/regulatory T cell function...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108555/immune-dysregulation-may-contribute-to-disease-pathogenesis-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy-mice
#4
Marc-Olivier Deguise, Yves De Repentigny, Emily McFall, Nicole Auclair, Subash Sad, Rashmi Kothary
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) has long been solely considered a neurodegenerative disorder. However, recent work has highlighted defects in many other cell types that could contribute to disease aetiology. Interestingly, the immune system has never been extensively studied in SMA. Defects in lymphoid organs could exacerbate disease progression by neuroinflammation or immunodeficiency. Smn depletion led to severe alterations in the thymus and spleen of two different mouse models of SMA. The spleen from Smn depleted mice was dramatically smaller at a very young age and its histological architecture was marked by mislocalization of immune cells in the Smn(2B/-) model mice...
January 19, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108486/regulation-of-the-immune-response-by-tgf-%C3%AE-from-conception-to-autoimmunity-and-infection
#5
Shomyseh Sanjabi, Soyoung A Oh, Ming O Li
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in both suppressive and inflammatory immune responses. After 30 years of intense study, we have only begun to elucidate how TGF-β alters immunity under various conditions. Under steady-state conditions, TGF-β regulates thymic T-cell selection and maintains homeostasis of the naïve T-cell pool. TGF-β inhibits cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), Th1-, and Th2-cell differentiation while promoting peripheral (p)Treg-, Th17-, Th9-, and Tfh-cell generation, and T-cell tissue residence in response to immune challenges...
January 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108299/mouse-model-of-hydroquinone-hypersensitivity-via-innate-and-acquired-immunity-and-its-promotion-by-combined-reagents
#6
Kanan Bando, Yukinori Tanaka, Toshinobu Kuroishi, Keiichi Sasaki, Teruko Takano-Yamamoto, Shunji Sugawara, Yasuo Endo
We established a mouse model of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) to hydroquinone (HQ), a widespread chemical in our environment. HQ was painted onto flanks. Then, HQ was challenged by painting onto ear-pinnas on days 7 and 14. The CHS after the 2(nd) challenge was markedly greater than that after the 1(st) challenge. Both challenges increased thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and Th2 cytokines in ear-pinnas, while IFN-γ (typical Th1 cytokine) was decreased, despite an increase in IL-18 (typical IFN-γ inducer)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106503/ct-and-mri-findings-of-thymic-carcinoid
#7
Aya Shimamoto, Kazuto Ashizawa, Yasuo Kido, Hideyuki Hayashi, Takeshi Nagayasu, Atsushi Kawakami, Hiroshi Mukae, Tomayoshi Hayashi, Mayumi Ohtsubo, Kazuto Shigematsu, Takahiko Nakazono, Hidetake Yabuuchi, Masataka Uetani
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of thymic carcinoid and to compare these findings with previously published findings of thymoma. METHODS: Eleven cases of pathologically proven thymic carcinoid were reviewed retrospectively. Three patients had typical carcinoid and eight patients had atypical carcinoid. The characteristics of the tumours and related thoracic abnormalities were assessed in each case on CT and/or MRI by two chest radiologists...
January 20, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106477/thymosin-alpha-1-and-hiv-1-recent-advances-and-future-perspectives
#8
Claudia Matteucci, Sandro Grelli, Emanuela Balestrieri, Antonella Minutolo, Ayele Argaw-Denboba, Beatrice Macchi, Paola Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Carlo Federico Perno, Antonio Mastino, Enrico Garaci
In spite of the consistent benefits for HIV-1 infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy, a complete immune reconstitution is usually not achieved. Actually, antiretroviral therapy may be frequently accompanied by immunological unresponsiveness, persistent inflammatory conditions and inefficient cytotoxic T-cell response. Thymosin alpha 1 is a thymic peptide that demonstrates a peculiar ability to restore immune system homeostasis in different physiological and pathological conditions (i.e., infections, cancer, immunodeficiency, vaccination and aging) acting as multitasking protein depending on the host state of inflammation or immune dysfunction...
January 20, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103645/prognostic-impact-of-lymphocyte-subpopulations-in-peripheral-blood-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-hematologic-malignancies
#9
Sang Hyuk Park, Chan-Jeoung Park, Borae G Park, Mi-Hyun Bae, Bo-Hyun Kim, Young-Uk Cho, Seongsoo Jang, Ae Ja Park, Dae-Young Kim, Jung-Hee Lee, Je-Hwan Lee, Kyoo-Hyung Lee
BACKGROUND: We prospectively evaluated prognostic value of lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT)-recipients. METHODS: 113 allogeneic HSCT (47 sibling matched, 37 unrelated matched, 29 haploidentical)-performed patients diagnosed as AML (n=66), ALL (n=28) and MDS (n=19) were prospectively enrolled. 14 lymphocyte subpopulations were quantified by flow cytometry of PB at specific time-points after HSCT, and their prognostic impacts were analyzed...
January 19, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102221/epigenetic-orchestration-of-thymic-treg-cell-development
#10
Marc Beyer, Jochen Huehn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100409/effect-of-thymectomy-for-thymic-atrophy-in-myasthenia-gravis-a-retrospective-study-on-93-patients
#11
Keiichi Nakahara, Shunya Nakane, Makoto Nakajima, Satoshi Yamashita, Takeshi Mori, Yukio Ando
To clarify the efficacy of thymectomy among myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with and without thymoma. We classified MG patients who underwent thymectomy into 3 groups, such as thymic atrophy group, thymic follicular hyperplasia (TFH) group and thymoma group. We compared the data of clinical features and postoperative prognosis at very short-term, short-term, and medium-term. The clinical course of MG patients with atrophic thymus after thymectomy was even better than those of TFH or thymoma, in this retrospective study...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095872/an-unusual-combined-thymic-carcinoma-composed-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-type-ab-thymoma-a-rare-case-report
#12
Yufeng Jiang, Yang Liu, Xiuying Shi, Xiaoyun Mao, Yang Zhao, Chuifeng Fan
BACKGROUND: Combined thymic carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm of the thymus recently added to the 4th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the lung, pleura, thymus and heart. It involves at least one type of thymic carcinoma and another thymic epithelial tumor. The previously used term "combined thymic epithelial tumor" has been abandoned. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present an unusual case of combined thymic carcinoma of the thymus in a 44-year-old male who had suffered from fever, chest pain, chest tightness and shortness of breath...
January 17, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094759/thymic-findings-before-and-after-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-for-severe-systemic-sclerosis-a-retrospective-study-using-computed-tomography-in-the-pre-and-post-transplantation-setting
#13
Joerg C Henes, Stefan Wirths, Wichard Vogel, Theodoros Xenitidis, Lothar Kanz, Marius Horger
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January 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092372/direct-control-of-regulatory-t-cells-by-keratinocytes
#14
Mariko Kashiwagi, Junichi Hosoi, Jen-Feng Lai, Janice Brissette, Steven F Ziegler, Bruce A Morgan, Katia Georgopoulos
Environmental challenges to epithelial cells trigger gene expression changes that elicit context-appropriate immune responses. We found that the chromatin remodeler Mi-2β controls epidermal homeostasis by regulating the genes involved in keratinocyte and immune-cell activation to maintain an inactive state. Mi-2β depletion resulted in rapid deployment of both a pro-inflammatory and an immunosuppressive response in the skin. A key target of Mi-2β in keratinocytes is the pro-inflammatory cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)...
January 16, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091621/differential-susceptibility-and-maturation-of-thymocyte-subsets-during-salmonella-typhimurium-infection-insights-on-the-roles-of-glucocorticoids-and-interferon-gamma
#15
Shamik Majumdar, Mukta Deobagkar-Lele, Vasista Adiga, Abinaya Raghavan, Nitin Wadhwa, Syed Moiz Ahmed, Supriya Rajendra Rananaware, Subhashish Chakraborty, Omana Joy, Dipankar Nandi
The thymus is known to atrophy during infections; however, a systematic study of changes in thymocyte subpopulations has not been performed. This aspect was investigated, using multi-color flow cytometry, during oral infection of mice with Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). The major highlights are: First, a block in the developmental pathway of CD4(-)CD8(-) double negative (DN) thymocytes is observed. Second, CD4(+)CD8(+) double positive (DP) thymocytes, mainly in the DP1 (CD5(lo)CD3(lo)) and DP2 (CD5(hi)CD3(int)), but not DP3 (CD5(int)CD3(hi)), subsets are reduced...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090785/thymic-cytoarchitecture-changes-in-mice-exposed-to-vanadium
#16
Martha Ustarroz-Cano, Isabel Garcia-Pelaez, Silvana Cervantes-Yepez, Nelly Lopez-Valdez, Teresa I Fortoul
The thymus is a vital immune system organ wherein selection of T-lymphocytes occurs in a process regulated by dendritic and epithelial thymic cells. Previously, we have reported that in a mouse model of vanadium inhalation, a decrease in CD11c dendritic cells was observed. In the present study, we report on a thymic cortex-medulla distribution distortion in these hosts due to apparent effects of the inhaled vanadium on cytokeratin-5 (K5(+)) epithelial cells in the same mouse model - after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of exposure - by immunohistochemistry...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088985/lymphocyte-generation-and-population-homeostasis-throughout-life
#17
REVIEW
Rolando E Yanes, Claire E Gustafson, Cornelia M Weyand, Jörg J Goronzy
Immune aging is a multi-faceted process that manifests as reduced competence to fight infections and malignant cells, as well as diminished tissue repair, unprovoked inflammation, and increased autoreactivity. The aging adaptive immune system, with its high complexity in functional cell subpopulations and diversity of B- and T-cell receptors, has to cope with the challenge of maintaining homeostasis while responding to exogenous stimuli and compensating for reduced generative capacity. With thymic involution, naïve T cells begin to function as quasi-stem cells and maintain the compartment through peripheral homeostatic proliferation that shapes the T-cell repertoire through peripheral selection and the activation of differentiation pathways...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087968/thymic-carcinoma-presenting-with-an-unusual-and-delayed-metastasis-to-the-neural-foramen-mimicking-thoracic-spinal-radiculopathy
#18
H M Low, C F Wong, M W H'ng
We report a case of metastatic thymic carcinoma which presented as an enhancing mass located in the neural foramen of the thoracic spine. More common tumours which arise in the neural foramen would include a neurogenic tumour or developmental anomalies such as a foregut duplication cyst. This case is singular firstly because the lesion present as radiculopathy which mimics a neurogenic tumour. Secondly, the presentation was unusually delayed as the patient presented to our centre more than a decade after the resection of the primary tumour in another institution...
December 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075445/a-clinical-and-molecular-analysis-of-a-patient-with-emanuel-syndrome
#19
Jin-Wen Luo, Huan Yang, Zhi-Ping Tan, Ming Tu, Hong Luo, Yi-Feng Yang, Li Xie
Emanuel syndrome (ES) is the most frequent type of recurrent non‑Robertsonian translocation that is characterized by numerous anomalies. Over 100 patients with ES have been described in the literature. The phenotype of this syndrome varies but often consists of facial dysmorphism, microcephaly, severe intellectual disability, developmental retardation, congenital heart disease and genital anomalies. The present study describes a 2‑year‑old boy with multiple malformations, including facial dysmorphism, severe intellectual disability, growth retardation, congenital heart disease, cleft lip and palate, genital malformation (micropenis), amblyopia, thymic dysplasia and hearing impairment...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074473/predicting-cd4-t-cell-reconstitution-following-paediatric-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#20
Rollo L Hoare, Paul Veys, Nigel Klein, Robin Callard, Joseph F Standing
Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an increasingly common treatment for children with a range of haematological disorders. Conditioning with cytotoxic chemotherapy and total body irradiation leaves patients severely immunocompromised. T-cell reconstitution can take several years due to delayed restoration of thymic output. Understanding T-cell reconstitution in children is complicated by normal immune system maturation, heterogeneous diagnoses, and sparse uneven sampling due to the long time spans involved...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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