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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646160/loss-of-g%C3%AE-i-proteins-impairs-thymocyte-development-disrupts-t-cell-trafficking-and-leads-to-an-expanded-population-of-splenic-cd4-pd-1-cxcr5-t-cells
#1
Il-Young Hwang, Kathleen Harrison, Chung Park, John H Kehrl
Thymocyte and T cell trafficking relies on signals initiated by G-protein coupled receptors. To address the importance of the G-proteins Gαi2 and Gαi3 in thymocyte and T cell function, we developed several mouse models. Gαi2 deficiency in hematopoietic progenitors led to a small thymus, a double negative (DN)1/DN2 thymocyte transition block, and an accumulation of mature single positive (SP) thymocytes. Loss at the double positive (DP) stage of thymocyte development caused an increase in mature cells within the thymus...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645430/thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-a-promising-target-in-the-treatment-of-asthma
#2
Iñigo Ojanguren, James G Martin, Catherine Lemiere
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643792/smarca4-deficient-thoracic-sarcoma-a-distinctive-clinicopathological-entity-with-undifferentiated-rhabdoid-morphology-and-aggressive-behavior
#3
Jennifer L Sauter, Rondell P Graham, Brandon T Larsen, Sarah M Jenkins, Anja C Roden, Jennifer M Boland
A distinct subset of thoracic sarcomas with undifferentiated rhabdoid morphology and SMARCA4 inactivation has recently been described, and potential targeted therapy for SMARC-deficient tumors is emerging. We sought to validate the clinicopathological features of SMARCA4-deficient thoracic sarcomas. Clinicopathological information was gathered for 40 undifferentiated thoracic tumors with rhabdoid morphology (mediastinum (n=18), lung (n=14), pleura (n=8)). Thymic carcinomas (n=11) were used as a comparison group...
June 23, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643111/thymic-carcinoma-initially-presented-with-geographic-destruction-of-scapula-in-a-child
#4
Won-Jong Bahk, An-Hi Lee, Eun-Deok Chang, Dong-Wook Min, Yong-Koo Kang
As the conventional histopathologic examination of thymic carcinoma (TC) is nonspecific, immunohistochemical studies along with correlative radiographic investigations are needed for its correct diagnosis. TC commonly occurs in the late 5th to early 6th decades of life but is extremely rare in childhood. It may be incidentally detected from chest radiographs taken as routine or for other reasons. However, most patients present with symptoms such as chest pain, cough, shortness of breath, dysphagia and hoarseness, which are directly attributable to the mediastinal mass...
June 23, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639924/cushing-syndrome-diagnostic-workup-and-imaging-features-with-clinical-and-pathologic-correlation
#5
Nicolaus A Wagner-Bartak, Ali Baiomy, Mouhammed Amir Habra, Shalini V Mukhi, Ajaykumar C Morani, Brinda R Korivi, Steven G Waguespack, Khaled M Elsayes
OBJECTIVE: Cushing syndrome (CS) is a constellation of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from chronic exposure to excess cortisol, either exogenous or endogenous. Exogenous CS is most commonly caused by administration of glucocorticoids. Endogenous CS is subdivided into two types: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependent and ACTH independent. CONCLUSION: Cushing disease, which is caused by a pituitary adenoma, is the most common cause of ACTH-dependent CS for which pituitary MRI can be diagnostic, with bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling useful in equivocal cases...
July 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637939/surgery-of-thymic-tumor-with-persistent-left-superior-vena-cava
#6
Masahiro Yanagiya, Jun Matsumoto, Hirotsugu Hashimoto, Yoshio Suzuki, Hajime Horiuchi
Because a persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is a rare congenital malformation in the thoracic venous system, surgery of the thymus in such patients has rarely been reported. We herein present a case involving a 68-year-old woman who was treated for a thymic tumor adhering to a PLSVC. She underwent complete resection of the thymic tumor through median sternotomy with left-sided video-assisted thoracic surgery. Although the tumor was close to the left phrenic nerve, this nerve was safely preserved. The pathological diagnosis was mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thymus...
June 22, 2017: Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636936/strong-tcr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-signaling-prohibits-thymic-development-of-il-17a-secreting-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells
#7
Nital Sumaria, Capucine L Grandjean, Bruno Silva-Santos, Daniel J Pennington
Despite a growing appreciation of γδ T cell contributions to numerous immune responses, the mechanisms that underpin their thymic development remain poorly understood. Here, using precursor/product relationships, we identify thymic stages in two distinct developmental pathways that generate γδ T cells pre-committed to subsequent secretion of either IL-17A or IFNγ. Importantly, this framework for tracking γδ T cell development has permitted definitive assessment of TCRγδ signal strength in commitment to γδ T cell effector fate; increased TCRγδ signal strength profoundly prohibited the development of all IL-17A-secreting γδ T cells, regardless of Vγ usage, but promoted the development of γδ progenitors along the IFNγ pathway...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636882/foxn1-italian-founder-mutation-in-indian-family-implications-in-prenatal-diagnosis
#8
Akella Radha Rama Devi, Nagesh Narayan Panday, Shaik Mohammad Naushad
The Forkhead box N1 (FOXN1) is a transcriptional factor regulating the development, differentiation and function of thymic epithelial cells; maintaining T-lineage progenitors in bone marrow; promoting terminal differentiation of epithelial cells of hair follicles. Mutation in FOXN1 was reported to cause a rare disorder characterized by rudimentary thymus gland, T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia and nail dystrophy within an Italian community. This is the first report of FOXN1 p.R255X mutation from India, outside this endogamous Italian community...
June 18, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634408/a-tightly-regulated-il-22-response-maintains-immune-functions-and-homeostasis-in-systemic-viral-infection
#9
Panpan Yi, Yuejin Liang, Denley Ming Kee Yuan, Zuliang Jie, Zakari Kwota, Yan Chen, Yingzi Cong, Xuegong Fan, Jiaren Sun
Interleukin-22 (IL-22) plays an important role in host immunity and tissue homeostasis in infectious and inflammatory diseases. However, the function and regulation of IL-22 in viral infection remain largely unknown. Here, we report that viral infection triggered early IL-22 production from the liver and lymphoid organs. γδ T cells are the main immune cells to produce IL-22 in the liver, a process mediated by the IL-23/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633732/to-err-is-human-can-american-medicine-learn-from-past-mistakes
#10
Jeffrey B Ritterman
The history of medicine includes many errors. Some persisted for decades and caused great harm. Several are highlighted in this article, including the mythical thymic diseases: thymic asthma and status thymicolymphaticus. Some medical mistakes, such as the diet-heart hypothesis of Ancel Keys, continue to cause harm. To avoid future errors and their associated harm, I suggest a cultural shift encouraging professional humility and greater questioning of medical dogma. Medical education focused on teaching students this history may help with this cultural shift...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633599/mechanism-of-deltamethrin-induced-thymic-and-splenic-toxicity-in-mice-and-its-protection-by-piperine-and-curcumin-in-vivo-study
#11
Anoop Kumar, Dinakar Sasmal, Neelima Sharma
Deltamethrin (DLM) is a well-known pyrethroid insecticide which is widely used in the agriculture and home pest control due to restriction on the sale of organophosphate. DLM induced apoptosis is well known but its mechanism is still unclear. This study has been designed to find out its mechanism of apoptosis with the help of computational methods along with in vivo methods. The QikProp and ProTox results have shown that DLM has good oral absorption. The docking results reveal that DLM has a strong binding affinity toward the CD4, CD8, CD28 and CD45 receptors...
February 28, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633354/multicentric-reticulohistiocytosis-associated-with-thymic-carcinoma
#12
Yasir Rudha, Ella Starobinska, Yasir Abdulqader, Amira Attya, Carlo Guerrero, Konstantinos Parperis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632791/long-term-oncological-outcome-of-thymoma-and-thymic-carcinoma-an-analysis-of-235-cases-from-a-single-institution
#13
Yen-Chiang Tseng, Yen-Han Tseng, Hua-Lin Kao, Chih-Cheng Hsieh, Teh-Ying Chou, Yih-Gang Goan, Wen-Hu Hsu, Han-Shui Hsu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Thymoma has a variable long-term oncological outcome after surgical resection. Survival and tumor recurrence were analyzed to determine the predisposing factors for tumor recurrence. METHODS: A total of 235 patients who underwent surgery for thymoma or thymic carcinoma from December 1997 to March 2013 were analyzed using Masaoka staging system and World Health Organization (WHO) histological classification. Surgical intervention included extended thymothymectomy via median sternotomy and thymomectomy via thoracotomy/ video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632719/a-rheostat-tuning-thymic-selection
#14
Gerald P Morris, Stephen M Hedrick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631887/thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-is-expressed-in-human-corneal-stromal-cells-and-secreted-upon-protease-activated-receptor-1-activation
#15
Hongbo Yin, Yan Tian, Rongying Luo, Yingping Deng
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an interleukin-7 (IL-7) like cytokine that triggers inflammatory responses through activating dendritic cell. It is demonstrated to be involved in a number of disorders, including cancer, gastrointestinal diseases, and autoimmune diseases. In addition, TSLP is also found to be able to induce itch sensation by directly activating the itch sensory neurons. The expression of human TSLP is detected in various tissues such as heart, liver, testis, and prostate. In this study, we report that TSLP was expressed in the human corneal stromal cells, the highly specialized cells that are critical for the function of the cornea...
June 20, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625631/cd52-cd22-cd26-eg5-and-igf-1r-expression-in-thymic-malignancies
#16
J Remon, N Abedallaa, E Taranchon-Clermont, V Bluthgen, C R Lindsay, B Besse, V Thomas de Montpréville
BACKGROUND: Thymic epithelial tumours are rare cancers for which new treatment options are required. Identification of putative predictive markers is important for developing clinical trials. We studied the expression of five putative predictive biomarkers, potentially actionable by approved experimental drugs. METHODS: CD52, CD22, CD26, EG5, and IGF-1R expression were investigated by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed surgical samples of thymic epithelial tumour patients...
June 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625630/improved-survival-with-postoperative-radiotherapy-in-thymic-carcinoma-a-propensity-matched-analysis-of-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-seer-database
#17
Yu Jin Lim, Changhoon Song, Jae-Sung Kim
OBJECTIVES: Thymic carcinoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis. Although postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) is used for obtaining better locoregional tumor control, its association with survival has not been established. This study evaluated the prognostic impact of PORT in thymic carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified patients diagnosed with thymic carcinoma between 2004 and 2013 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database...
June 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625092/factors-affecting-outcome-in-ocular-myasthenia-gravis
#18
Marco Mazzoli, Alessandra Ariatti, Franco Valzania, Shaniko Kaleci, Manuela Tondelli, Paolo F Nichelli, Giuliana Galassi
AIM OF THE STUDY: 50% to 60% of patients with ocular Myasthenia Gravis (OMG) progress to generalized disease (GMG) within 2 years.Aim of our study was to explore factors affecting prognosis of OMG and to test the predictive role of several independent clinical variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed a cohort of 168 Caucasian patients followed from September 2000 and January 2016. Several independent variables were considered as prognostic factors: gender, age of onset, results on electrophysiological tests, presence and level of antibodies against acetylcholine receptors (AChR-Abs), treatments, thymic abnormalities...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624025/quantitative-computed-tomography-texture-analysis-for-estimating-histological-subtypes-of-thymic-epithelial-tumors
#19
Koichiro Yasaka, Hiroyuki Akai, Masanori Nojima, Aya Shinozaki-Ushiku, Masashi Fukayama, Jun Nakajima, Kuni Ohtomo, Shigeru Kiryu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether high-risk thymic epithelial tumor (TET) (HTET) can be differentiated from low-risk TET (LTET) using computed tomography (CT) quantitative texture analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data of 39 patients (mean age, 58.6±14.1 years) (39 unenhanced CT (UECT) and 33 contrast-enhanced CT (CECT)) who underwent thymectomy for TET were retrospectively analyzed. A region of interest was placed to include the entire TET within the slice at its maximum diameter...
July 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620098/cytokine-signaling-in-the-development-and-homeostasis-of-regulatory-t-cells
#20
Kevin H Toomer, Thomas R Malek
Cytokine signaling is indispensable for regulatory T-cell (Treg) development in the thymus, and also influences the homeostasis, phenotypic diversity, and function of Tregs in the periphery. Because Tregs are required for establishment and maintenance of immunological self-tolerance, investigating the role of cytokines in Treg biology carries therapeutic potential in the context of autoimmune disease. This review discusses the potent and diverse influences of interleukin (IL)-2 signaling on the Treg compartment, an area of knowledge that has led to the use of low-dose IL-2 as a therapy to reregulate autoaggressive immune responses...
June 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
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