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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726028/should-we-all-be-scientists-re-thinking-laboratory-research-as-a-calling
#1
Louise Bezuidenhout, Nathaniel A Warne
In recent years there have been major shifts in how the role of science-and scientists-are understood. The critical examination of scientific expertise within the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS) are increasingly eroding notions of the "otherness" of scientists. It would seem to suggest that anyone can be a scientist-when provided with the appropriate training and access to data. In contrast, however, ethnographic evidence from the scientific community tells a different story. Scientists are quick to recognize that not everyone can-or should-be a scientist...
July 19, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716785/imbuing-medical-professionalism-in-relation-to-safety-a-study-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-intervention-focused-on-trialling-an-embedded-learning-approach-that-centres-on-the-use-of-a-custom-designed-board-game
#2
Marie Ward, Eilish McAuliffe, Éidín Ní Shé, Ann Duffy, Una Geary, Una Cunningham, Catherine Holland, Nick McDonald, Karen Egan, Christian Korpos
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare organisations have a responsibility for ensuring that the governance of workplace settings creates a culture that supports good professional practice. Encouraging such a culture needs to start from an understanding of the factors that make it difficult for health professionals to raise issues of concern in relation to patient safety. The focus of this study is to determine whether a customised education intervention, developed as part of the study, with interns and senior house officers (SHOs) can imbue a culture of medical professionalism in relation to patient safety and support junior doctors to raise issues of concern, while shaping a culture of responsiveness and learning...
July 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713505/risk-factors-associated-with-musculoskeletal-disorders-of-the-neck-and-shoulder-in-the-personnel-of-kerman-university-of-medical-sciences
#3
Farzan Madadizadeh, Leila Vali, Sima Rafiei, Zahra Akbarnejad
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) of the neck and shoulder are the most common and most influential factors causing disorder in the performance and absenteeism of work in administrative personnel. AIM: To identify risk factors which affect musculoskeletal disorders of neck and shoulder areas in headquarters staff of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on 282 headquarters personnel of Kerman University of Medical Sciences (Kerman, Iran)...
May 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708090/successful-community-based-conservation-the-story-of-millbank-and-pterourus-papilio-homerus
#4
Eric Garraway, John Parnell, Delano S Lewis
The literature on community-based environmental management is very extensive and the discussion of the pros and cons is continuing. Presented here is an example of a successful interaction between university-based entomologists and a local rural community, detailing the change in the attitude of the town of Millbank, Jamaica, from a Giant Swallowtail Butterfly collecting site to a model for community protection of a species and its environment. A review of some of the research work on community-based conservation efforts is included...
July 14, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708083/ten-year-trends-1999-2010-of-adherence-to-the-mediterranean-diet-among-the-balearic-islands-adult-population
#5
Maria Del Mar Bibiloni, Mónica González, Alicia Julibert, Isabel Llompart, Antoni Pons, Josep A Tur
The aim of this work was to assess ten-year trends (1999-2010) of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) among the Balearic Islands' adult population. Two independent cross-sectional dietary surveys (1999-2000, n = 1200 and 2009-2010 n = 1388, including participants aged 16-65 years) were carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain. Dietary habits were assessed by means of two 24 h diet recalls and a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire that covers 145 food items. Adherence to the MDP was defined according to a score constructed considering the consumption of nine MDP characteristic components: high monounsaturated fatty acids:saturated fatty acids (MUFA:SFA) ratio, moderate ethanol consumption, high legumes, cereals and roots, fruits, vegetables, and fish consumption, and low consumption of meat and milk...
July 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701968/perceived-enablers-and-barriers-to-optimal-health-among-music-students-a-qualitative-study-in-the-music-conservatoire-setting
#6
Rosie Perkins, Helen Reid, Liliana S Araújo, Terry Clark, Aaron Williamon
Student health and wellbeing within higher education has been documented as poor in relation to the general population. This is a particular problem among students at music conservatoires, who are studying within a unique educational context that is known to generate both physical and psychological challenges. This article examines how conservatoire students experience health and wellbeing within their institutional context, using a framework from health promotion to focus attention on perceived enablers and barriers to optimal health in relation to three levels: lifestyle, support services, and conservatoire environment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695217/death-and-the-media-infectious-disease-reporting-during-the-health-transition
#7
Dora L Costa, Matthew E Kahn
In the late 19th Century, cities in Western Europe and the United States suffered from high levels of infectious disease. Over a 40 year period, there was a dramatic decline in infectious disease deaths in cities. As such objective progress in urban quality of life took place, how did the media report this trend? At that time newspapers were the major source of information educating urban households about the risks they faced. By constructing a unique panel data base, we find that news reports were positively associated with government announced typhoid mortality counts and the size of this effect actually grew after the local governments made large investments in public water works to reduce typhoid rates...
July 2017: Economica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694842/factors-associated-with-intention-to-exclusive-breastfeed-in-central-women-s-hospital-yangon-myanmar
#8
Myat Pan Hmone, Mu Li, Kingsley Agho, Ashraful Alam, Michael J Dibley
BACKGROUND: Under-nutrition is a public health problem in Myanmar. Despite current efforts, the exclusive breastfeeding rate (EBF) for children under six months is only 24%. Intention to breastfeed is a strong predictor for long-term breastfeeding, however, little is known about pregnant women's breastfeeding intentions in Myanmar. We, therefore, aimed to identify the factors associated with women's intention to EBF. METHOD: Data in this article was collected in a baseline survey for a randomized controlled trial, which aimed to assess the impact of mobile text messages on the breastfeeding practices of women in Yangon, Myanmar...
2017: International Breastfeeding Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692377/the-interprofessional-learning-experience-findings-from-a-qualitative-study-based-in-an-outpatient-setting
#9
Flemming Jakobsen, Anne Mette Mørcke, Torben Bæk Hansen
Clinical interprofessional education has traditionally taken place in hospital wards, but much diagnosis and treatment have shifted to the outpatient setting. The logical consequence is to shift more students' clinical placements from the "bedside" to outpatient settings. However, it is unclear how we ensure that this shift maximises learning. The purpose of this article is to understand the authentic learning experience in an interprofessional outpatient clinic setting. We performed an exploratory case study with interviews of four nursing students, 13 medical students, and six staff members who worked in an interprofessional outpatient orthopaedic clinic from March 2015 to January 2016...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683558/supporting-university-students-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Ashleigh Hillier, Jody Goldstein, Deirdra Murphy, Rhoda Trietsch, Jacqueline Keeves, Eva Mendes, Alexa Queenan
Increasing numbers of students with autism spectrum disorder are entering higher education. Their success can be jeopardized by organizational, social/emotional, and academic challenges if appropriate supports are not in place. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group model for university students with autism spectrum disorder in improving psychological and functional outcomes. A curriculum guided the weekly discussions and consisted of topics such as time and stress management, managing group work, and social communication...
June 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673123/the-gender-gap-in-accrued-pension-rights-an-indicator-of-women-s-accumulated-disadvantage-over-the-course-of-working-life-the-hordaland-health-study-husk
#11
Jens Christoffer Skogen, Gunnel Hensing, Simon Øverland, Ann Kristin Knudsen, Børge Sivertsen, Jussi Vahtera, Grethe S Tell, Inger Haukenes
AIMS: Economic gender equality is one of the goals of the Nordic Welfare states. Despite this, there is a considerable gender gap in pensionable income in the European Union, and an unmet need for measures that absorb more of the complexity associated with accumulated (dis)advantages across gender and population groups. The aims of the present study were to examine the gender difference in association between average earned pension points and 1) education and 2) current occupational prestige, and to discuss pension points as a possible indicator of accumulated disadvantages...
July 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670578/postgraduate-courses-in-pharmaceutical-medicine-in-italy
#12
REVIEW
Domenico Criscuolo
Italy has a significant tradition of excellence in the area of clinical trials (CTRs): important achievements in the clinical development of rifampicin and adriamycin, the two most famous drugs discovered in the research laboratories of two Italian pharmaceutical companies, paved the way to the establishment of a culture of clinical development, mainly in the areas of antimicrobials and oncology. Despite the fact that now the Italian market of pharmaceuticals is largely dominated by multinational companies with headquarters outside Italy, the contribution of Italian studies to the clinical development of new drugs is still significant...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662794/lessons-learnt-from-past-incidents-and-accidents-in-radiation-oncology
#13
T Knöös
The purpose of this report is to review and compile what have been and can be learnt from incidents and accidents in radiation oncology, especially in external beam and brachytherapy. Some major accidents from the last 20 years will be discussed. The relationship between major events and minor or so-called near misses is mentioned, leading to the next topic of exploring the knowledge hidden among them. The main lessons learnt from the discussion here and elsewhere are that a well-functioning and safe radiotherapy department should help staff to work with awareness and alertness and that documentation and procedures should be in place and known by everyone...
June 26, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661111/-at-the-crossroads-the-role-of-laboratory-medicine-in-the-patient-care-process
#14
REVIEW
Yuval Geffen, Itzhak Zaidise
In recent decades, the laboratory medicine profession has undergone significant changes due to both technological developments and economic constraints. Technological innovations support automation, provide faster and more accurate equipment, and allow increased efficiency through the use of commercial test kits. These changes, combined with budgetary constraints, have led to mergers and centralization of medical laboratories to optimize work and cut costs. While this centralization may be a business necessity, it leads to a disconnection between the laboratory and the clinical context...
June 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655297/reduced-egfr-elevated-urine-protein-and-low-level-of-personal-protective-equipment-compliance-among-artisanal-small-scale-gold-miners-at-bibiani-ghana-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Justice Afrifa, Samuel Essien-Baidoo, Richard K D Ephraim, Daniel Nkrumah, Daniel Osei Dankyira
BACKGROUND: Mercury is a toxic metal with its effects on human health ranging from acute to chronic in a very short time of exposure. Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the main source of direct human exposure to mercury. AIM: To access the effect of mercury exposure on the renal function and level of personal protective equipment (PPE) compliance among small-scale gold miners in Bibiani District of the Western Region of Ghana METHOD: 110 consenting male gold miners were purposively recruited for this study...
June 27, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639330/listening-for-commissioning-a-participatory-study-exploring-young-people-s-experiences-views-and-preferences-of-school-based-sexual-health-and-school-nursing
#16
Kay Aranda, Lester Coleman, N S Sherriff, Chris Cocking, Laetitia Zeeman, Liz Cunningham
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the experiences, views and preferences of young people aged 11-19 years old regarding school-based sexual health and school nursing to inform commissioning for one local authority area in England during 2015. BACKGROUND: Promoting sexual health for young people remains a challenging, even controversial, but important public health issue. Concerns regarding accessibility, acceptability and efficacy in school-based sexual health and school nursing are evident in the literature...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633992/eating-out-in-four-nordic-countries-national-patterns-and-social-stratification
#17
T B Lund, U Kjærnes, L Holm
Using a survey conducted in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) in 2012, we investigated whether eating out in cafés and restaurants in these countries is best characterized as a workday pattern activity or a leisure activity; and, whether frequent eating at cafés and restaurants is related to socio-demographic factors and factors relevant to the organization of daily life. We found that eating out is not a fundamental part of everyday eating. It is something which takes place occasionally...
June 17, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633689/the-relationship-between-community-nutritionists-use-of-policy-systems-and-environmental-strategies-to-prevent-obesity-and-its-determinants-depends-on-networking
#18
Angela H Lu, Katherine L Dickin, Mark A Constas, Jamie S Dollahite
OBJECTIVE: To apply the Theory of Planned Behaviour to examine the relationship between the constructs of background factors and beliefs towards using policy, systems and environmental (PSE) strategies and reported use of PSE strategies to prevent obesity by a group of professional nutrition educators. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using self-reported survey. SETTING: Cooperative Extension in New York, USA. SUBJECTS: Nutrition educators (n 58); survey response rate 100 %...
June 21, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628736/-it-s-definitely-not-alzheimer-s-perceived-benefits-and-drawbacks-of-a-mild-cognitive-impairment-diagnosis
#19
Tim Gomersall, Sarah Kate Smith, Charlotte Blewett, Arlene Astell
OBJECTIVES: To understand the perceived benefits and drawbacks of a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnosis from the perspective of those living with the label. METHODS: Participants were included if they had recently (within 6 months) received a MCI diagnosis. We also recruited close family members to gain their perspectives. Each was interviewed separately with a semi-structured topic guide covering three areas: (1) experience of cognitive impairments and changes in the individual; (2) impact of cognitive impairment(s) on daily activities and social relationships; and (3) experience of the diagnosis process and living with the label...
June 19, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616495/zoos-and-public-health-a-partnership-on-the-one-health-frontier
#20
C Robinette, L Saffran, A Ruple, S L Deem
Today, accredited zoos are not just places for entertainment, they are actively involved in research for conservation and health. During recent decades in which the challenges for biodiversity conservation and public health have escalated, zoos have made significant changes to address these difficulties. Zoos increasingly have four key areas of focus: education, recreation, conservation, and research. These key areas are important in addressing an interrelated global conservation (i.e. habitat and wildlife loss) and public health crisis...
June 2017: One Health
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