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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797080/zebrafish-as-a-model-to-study-cohesin-and-cohesinopathies
#1
Akihiko Muto, Thomas F Schilling
The cohesin protein complex regulates multiple cellular events including sister chromatid cohesion and gene expression. Several distinct human diseases called cohesinopathies have been associated with genetic mutations in cohesin subunit genes or genes encoding regulators of cohesin function. Studies in different model systems, from yeast to mouse have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms of action of cohesin/cohesin regulators and their implications in the pathogenesis of cohesinopathies. The zebrafish has unique advantages for embryonic analyses and quantitative gene knockdown with morpholinos during the first few days of development, in contrast to knockouts of cohesin regulators in flies or mammals, which are either lethal as homozygotes or dramatically compensated for in heterozygotes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797076/resolving-the-genomic-localization-of-the-kollerin-cohesin-loader-complex
#2
Kerstin S Wendt
The kollerin complex, consisting of Scc2/Scc4 in yeast and Nipbl/Mau2 in vertebrates, is crucial for the chromatin-association of the cohesin complex and therefore for the critical functions of cohesin in cell division, transcriptional regulation and chromatin organisation. Despite the recent efforts to determine the genomic localization of the kollerin complex in different cell lines, major questions still remain unresolved, for instance where cohesin is actually loaded onto chromatin. Further, Nipbl seems to have also additional roles, for instance as transcription factor...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637763/copy-number-variant-analysis-of-classic-heterotaxy-highlights-the-importance-of-body-patterning-pathways
#3
Erin M Hagen, Robert J Sicko, Denise M Kay, Shannon L Rigler, Aggeliki Dimopoulos, Shabbir Ahmad, Margaret H Doleman, Ruzong Fan, Paul A Romitti, Marilyn L Browne, Michele Caggana, Lawrence C Brody, Gary M Shaw, Laura L Jelliffe-Pawlowski, James L Mills
Classic heterotaxy consists of congenital heart defects with abnormally positioned thoracic and abdominal organs. We aimed to uncover novel, genomic copy-number variants (CNVs) in classic heterotaxy cases. A microarray containing 2.5 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was used to genotype 69 infants (cases) with classic heterotaxy identified from California live births from 1998 to 2009. CNVs were identified using the PennCNV software. We identified 56 rare CNVs encompassing genes in the NODAL (NIPBL, TBX6), BMP (PPP4C), and WNT (FZD3) signaling pathways, not previously linked to classic heterotaxy...
December 2016: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606622/the-hole-and-the-whole-lessons-from-manipulation-of-nipbl-deficiency
#4
Bruce D Gelb
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) affect 2%-3% of newborns and remain challenging clinically. There is an ongoing project to elucidate the causes of CHDs, focusing primarily on genetics as dictated by the epidemiology. In a paper published in this issue, Santos and colleagues describe studies of Cornelia de Lange syndrome-associated secundum atrial septal defects (ASDs) caused by NIPBL mutations, undertaken with a targeted trapping allele in mice. They show that Nipbl haploinsufficiency in either of two cell populations was sufficient to engender ASDs but that expression solely in either one of those populations was sufficient to rescue them...
September 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606604/conditional-creation-and-rescue-of-nipbl-deficiency-in-mice-reveals-multiple-determinants-of-risk-for-congenital-heart-defects
#5
Rosaysela Santos, Shimako Kawauchi, Russell E Jacobs, Martha E Lopez-Burks, Hojae Choi, Jamie Wikenheiser, Benedikt Hallgrimsson, Heather A Jamniczky, Scott E Fraser, Arthur D Lander, Anne L Calof
Elucidating the causes of congenital heart defects is made difficult by the complex morphogenesis of the mammalian heart, which takes place early in development, involves contributions from multiple germ layers, and is controlled by many genes. Here, we use a conditional/invertible genetic strategy to identify the cell lineage(s) responsible for the development of heart defects in a Nipbl-deficient mouse model of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome, in which global yet subtle transcriptional dysregulation leads to development of atrial septal defects (ASDs) at high frequency...
September 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576763/structural-aspects-of-hdac8-mechanism-and-dysfunction-in-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome-spectrum-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Matthew A Deardorff, Nicholas J Porter, David W Christianson
Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a broad spectrum of phenotypes characterized by distinctive craniofacial abnormalities, limb malformations, growth retardation, and intellectual disability. CdLS spectrum disorders are referred to as cohesinopathies, with ∼70% of patients having a mutation in a gene encoding a core cohesin protein (SMC1A, SMC3, or RAD21) or a cohesin regulatory protein (NIPBL or HDAC8). Notably, the regulatory function of HDAC8 in cohesin biology has only recently been discovered...
November 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445573/an-adverse-reaction-in-the-pediatric-sleep-laboratory
#7
Diana Reppucci, Debra Medin, Suhail Al-Saleh, Mary Jane Smith, Jill Barter, Reshma Amin
We present a case of a 15-month-old boy with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (NIPBL gene mutation). On a PSG, central sleep apnea (central apnea-hypopnea index of 19/hour) and nocturnal hypoventilation (transcutaneous CO2 > 50 mmHg for 53% of the night) were found. A positive pressure initiation study was aborted because the patient developed a serious adverse reaction. The differential diagnosis included a skin fragility condition versus an allergic contact dermatitis to the interface; this could be from the povidone-iodine solution used to clean the NiPPV interface or from the plastic of the interface itself...
2016: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27291393/unusual-association-of-non-anaplastic-wilms-tumor-and-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome-case-report
#8
Claudia Santoro, Andrea Apicella, Fiorina Casale, Angela La Manna, Martina Di Martino, Daniela Di Pinto, Cristiana Indolfi, Silverio Perrotta
BACKGROUND: Cornelia de Lange syndrome is the prototype for cohesinopathy disorders, which are characterized by defects in chromosome segregation. Kidney malformations, including nephrogenic rests, are common in Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Only one post-mortem case report has described an association between Wilms tumor and Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Here, we describe the first case of a living child with both diseases. CASE PRESENTATION: Non-anaplastic triphasic nephroblastoma was diagnosed in a patient carrying a not yet reported mutation in NIPBL (c...
2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207471/cohesin-mutations-in-human-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Victoria K Hill, Jung-Sik Kim, Todd Waldman
Cohesin is a highly-conserved protein complex that plays important roles in sister chromatid cohesion, chromatin structure, gene expression, and DNA repair. In humans, cohesin is a ubiquitously expressed, multi-subunit protein complex composed of core subunits SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21, STAG1/2 and regulatory subunits WAPL, PDS5A/B, CDCA5, NIPBL, and MAU2. Recent studies have demonstrated that genes encoding cohesin subunits are somatically mutated in a wide range of human cancers. STAG2 is the most commonly mutated subunit, and in a recent analysis was identified as one of only 12 genes that are significantly mutated in four or more cancer types...
August 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164022/special-cases-in-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome-the-spanish-experience
#10
REVIEW
Juan Pié, Beatriz Puisac, Maria Hernández-Marcos, Maria Esperanza Teresa-Rodrigo, Maria Gil-Rodríguez, Carolina Baquero-Montoya, Maria Ramos-Cáceres, Maria Bernal, Ariadna Ayerza-Casas, Inés Bueno, Paulino Gómez-Puertas, Feliciano J Ramos
Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is an autosomal dominant (NIPBL, SMC3, and RAD21) or X-linked (SMC1A and HDAC8) disorder, characterized by distinctive craniofacial appearance, growth retardation, intellectual disability, and limb anomalies. In 2005, the Spanish CdLS Reference Center was started and now we have more than 270 cases in our database. In this special issue, we describe some of the unique or atypical patients studied by our group, whose clinical features have contributed to the expansion of the CdLS classical phenotype, helping clinicians to diagnose it...
June 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125329/nipbl-expression-levels-in-cdls-probands-as-a-predictor-of-mutation-type-and-phenotypic-severity
#11
Maninder Kaur, Devanshi Mehta, Sarah E Noon, Matthew A Deardorff, Zhe Zhang, Ian D Krantz
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous multisystem developmental disorder with a high degree of variability in its clinical presentation. Approximately 65% of probands harbor mutations in genes that encode core components (SMC1A, SMC3, and RAD21) or regulators (NIPBL, HDAC8) of the cohesin complex, of which mutations in NIPBL are the most common. Cohesin plays a canonical role in sister chromatid cohesion during cell division and non-canonical roles in DNA repair, stem cell maintenance and differentiation, and regulation of gene expression...
June 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27120335/genetic-candidate-variants-in-two-multigenerational-families-with-childhood-apraxia-of-speech
#12
Beate Peter, Ellen M Wijsman, Alejandro Q Nato, Mark M Matsushita, Kathy L Chapman, Ian B Stanaway, John Wolff, Kaori Oda, Virginia B Gabo, Wendy H Raskind
Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a severe and socially debilitating form of speech sound disorder with suspected genetic involvement, but the genetic etiology is not yet well understood. Very few known or putative causal genes have been identified to date, e.g., FOXP2 and BCL11A. Building a knowledge base of the genetic etiology of CAS will make it possible to identify infants at genetic risk and motivate the development of effective very early intervention programs. We investigated the genetic etiology of CAS in two large multigenerational families with familial CAS...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27120260/characterization-of-limb-differences-in-children-with-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome
#13
Devanshi Mehta, Samantha A Schrier Vergano, Matthew Deardorff, Sarika Aggarwal, Akash Barot, Drew M Johnson, Nathan F Miller, Sarah E Noon, Maninder Kaur, Laird Jackson, Ian D Krantz
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a well-described multisystem developmental disorder characterized by dysmorphic facial features, growth and behavioral deficits, and cardiac, gastrointestinal, and limb anomalies. The limb defects seen in CdLS can be mild, with small feet or hands only, or can be severe, with variable deficiency defects involving primarily the ulnar structures and ranging from mild hypoplasia of the fifth digit to complete absence of the forearm. Interestingly, the upper limbs are typically much more involved than the lower extremities that generally manifest with small feet and 2-3 syndactyly of the toes and shortened fourth metatarsal...
June 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27120109/genetic-enhancement-of-limb-defects-in-a-mouse-model-of-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome
#14
Martha E Lopez-Burks, Rosaysela Santos, Shimako Kawauchi, Anne L Calof, Arthur D Lander
Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is characterized by a wide variety of structural and functional abnormalities in almost every organ system of the body. CdLS is now known to be caused by mutations that disrupt the function of the cohesin complex or its regulators, and studies of animal models and cell lines tell us that the effect of these mutations is to produce subtle yet pervasive dysregulation of gene expression. With many hundreds of mostly small gene expression changes occurring in every cell type and tissue, identifying the etiology of any particular birth defect is very challenging...
June 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27120001/using-mouse-and-zebrafish-models-to-understand-the-etiology-of-developmental-defects-in-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome
#15
Shimako Kawauchi, Rosaysela Santos, Akihiko Muto, Martha E Lopez-Burks, Thomas F Schilling, Arthur D Lander, Anne L Calof
Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem birth defects disorder that affects every tissue and organ system in the body. Understanding the factors that contribute to the origins, prevalence, and severity of these developmental defects provides the most direct approach for developing screens and potential treatments for individuals with CdLS. Since the majority of cases of CdLS are caused by haploinsufficiency for NIPBL (Nipped-B-like, which encodes a cohesin-associated protein), we have developed mouse and zebrafish models of CdLS by using molecular genetic tools to create Nipbl-deficient mice and zebrafish (Nipbl(+/-) mice, zebrafish nipbl morphants)...
June 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26925417/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-two-intronic-nipbl-mutations-in-two-patients-with-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome
#16
María E Teresa-Rodrigo, Juliane Eckhold, Beatriz Puisac, Jelena Pozojevic, Ilaria Parenti, Carolina Baquero-Montoya, María C Gil-Rodríguez, Diana Braunholz, Andreas Dalski, María Hernández-Marcos, Ariadna Ayerza, María L Bernal, Feliciano J Ramos, Dagmar Wieczorek, Gabriele Gillessen-Kaesbach, Juan Pié, Frank J Kaiser
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare genetically heterogeneous disorder with a high phenotypic variability including mental retardation, developmental delay, and limb malformations. The genetic causes in about 30% of patients with CdLS are still unknown. We report on the functional characterization of two intronic NIPBL mutations in two patients with CdLS that do not affect a conserved splice-donor or acceptor site. Interestingly, mRNA analyses showed aberrantly spliced transcripts missing exon 28 or 37, suggesting the loss of the branch site by the c...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26898469/chromosome-cohesion-established-by-rec8-cohesin-in-fetal-oocytes-is-maintained-without-detectable-turnover-in-oocytes-arrested-for-months-in-mice
#17
Sabrina Burkhardt, Máté Borsos, Anna Szydlowska, Jonathan Godwin, Suzannah A Williams, Paula E Cohen, Takayuki Hirota, Mitinori Saitou, Kikuë Tachibana-Konwalski
Sister chromatid cohesion mediated by the cohesin complex is essential for chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis [1]. Rec8-containing cohesin, bound to Smc3/Smc1α or Smc3/Smc1β, maintains bivalent cohesion in mammalian meiosis [2-6]. In females, meiotic DNA replication and recombination occur in fetal oocytes. After birth, oocytes arrest at the prolonged dictyate stage until recruited to grow into mature oocytes that divide at ovulation. How cohesion is maintained in arrested oocytes remains a pivotal question relevant to maternal age-related aneuploidy...
March 7, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26725122/nipbl-controls-rna-biogenesis-to-prevent-activation-of-the-stress-kinase-pkr
#18
Kobe C Yuen, Baoshan Xu, Ian D Krantz, Jennifer L Gerton
NIPBL, a cohesin loader, has been implicated in transcriptional control and genome organization. Mutations in NIPBL, cohesin, and its deacetylase HDAC8 result in Cornelia de Lange syndrome. We report activation of the RNA-sensing kinase PKR in human lymphoblastoid cell lines carrying NIPBL or HDAC8 mutations, but not SMC1A or SMC3 mutations. PKR activation can be triggered by unmodified RNAs. Gene expression profiles in NIPBL-deficient lymphoblastoid cells and mouse embryonic stem cells reveal lower expression of genes involved in RNA processing and modification...
January 5, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26701315/a-series-of-38-novel-germline-and-somatic-mutations-of-nipbl-in-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome
#19
M Nizon, M Henry, C Michot, C Baumann, A Bazin, B Bessières, S Blesson, M-P Cordier-Alex, A David, A Delahaye-Duriez, A-L Delezoïde, A Dieux-Coeslier, M Doco-Fenzy, L Faivre, A Goldenberg, V Layet, P Loget, S Marlin, J Martinovic, S Odent, L Pasquier, G Plessis, F Prieur, A Putoux, M Rio, H Testard, J-P Bonnefont, V Cormier-Daire
Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a multisystemic developmental disorder mainly related to de novo heterozygous NIPBL mutation. Recently, NIPBL somatic mosaicism has been highlighted through buccal cell DNA study in some patients with a negative molecular analysis on leukocyte DNA. Here, we present a series of 38 patients with a Cornelia de Lange syndrome related to a heterozygous NIPBL mutation identified by Sanger sequencing. The diagnosis was based on the following criteria: (i) intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal short stature, (ii) feeding difficulties and/or gastro-oesophageal reflux, (iii) microcephaly, (iv) intellectual disability, and (v) characteristic facial features...
May 2016: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26663098/recognition-of-the-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome-phenotype-with-facial-dysmorphology-novel-analysis
#20
L Basel-Vanagaite, L Wolf, M Orin, L Larizza, C Gervasini, I D Krantz, M A Deardoff
Facial analysis systems are becoming available to healthcare providers to aid in the recognition of dysmorphic phenotypes associated with a multitude of genetic syndromes. These technologies automatically detect facial points and extract various measurements from images to recognize dysmorphic features and evaluate similarities to known facial patterns (gestalts). To evaluate such systems' usefulness for supporting the clinical practice of healthcare professionals, the recognition accuracy of the Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) phenotype was examined with FDNA's automated facial dysmorphology novel analysis (FDNA) technology...
May 2016: Clinical Genetics
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