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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311533/a-modern-history-of-imperial-medicine-surrounding-hansen-s-disease-strategies-to-manage-public-opinion-in-modern-japanese-media
#1
Gijae Seo
The purpose of this study is to understand the reality of imperial medicine by exploring the strategic attitude of the Japanese authority targeting the public who were not patients of Hansen's disease. For this purpose, this study examines the mass media data related to Hansen's disease published in Korea and Japan during the Japanese colonial rule. Research on Hansen's disease can be divided into medical, sociohistorical, social welfare, and human rights approach. There are medical studies and statistics on the dissemination of medical information about Hansen's disease and management measures, the history of the management of the disease, guarantee of the rights of the patients and the welfare environment, and studies on the autobiographical, literary writings and oral statements on the life and psychological conflicts of the patients...
December 2017: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306789/high-recycling-efficiency-and-elemental-sulfur-purity-achieved-in-a-biofilm-formed-membrane-filtration-reactor
#2
Cong Huang, Wen-Zong Liu, Zhi-Ling Li, Shu-Ming Zhang, Fan Chen, Hua-Rong Yu, Sen-Lin Shao, Jun Nan, Ai-Jie Wang
Elemental sulfur (S0) is always produced during bio-denitrification and desulfurization process, but the S0 yield and purification quality are too low. Till now, no feasible approach has been carried out to efficiently recover S0. In this study, we report the S0 generation and recovery by a newly designed, compact, biofilm formed membrane filtration reactor (BfMFR), where S0 was generated within a Thauera sp. strain HDD-formed biofilm on membrane surface, and then timely separated from the biofilm through membrane filtration...
November 24, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259024/inclusion-criteria-update-for-the-rat-intraluminal-ischaemic-model-for-preclinical-studies
#3
Héctor Fernández-Susavila, Ramón Iglesias-Rey, Antonio Dopico-López, María Pérez-Mato, Tomás Sobrino, José Castillo, Francisco Campos
Proper occlusion of the medial cerebral artery, as determined by laser Doppler monitoring, during cerebral ischaemia in rat models is an important inclusion criterion in experimental studies. However, successful occlusion of the artery does not always guarantee a reproducible infarct volume, which is crucial for validating the efficacy of new protective drugs. In a rat intraluminal ischaemic model, laser Doppler monitoring alone was compared with laser Doppler monitoring in combination with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)...
December 19, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239012/maintenance-of-equine-anaesthesia-over-the-last-50-years-controlled-inhalation-of-volatile-anaesthetics-and-pulmonary-ventilation
#4
REVIEW
M Mosing, J M Senior
In the first edition of this journal Barbara Weaver wrote a review titled 'Equine Anaesthesia' [1], stating, that, at that time it was quickly becoming accepted practice that many horses were being anaesthetised "by essentially similar procedures, i.e. premedication, induction and then maintenance by controlled inhalation". Her review focussed upon the last procedure. Maintenance of anaesthesia through controlled inhalation implies that an anaesthetic agent can be suitably delivered via the respiratory system and that ventilation is sufficiently maintained to deliver that agent and maintain adequate gas exchange...
December 14, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198064/claiming-desmopressin-therapeutic-equivalence-in-children-requires-pediatric-data-a-population-pkpd-analysis
#5
Robin Michelet, Lien Dossche, Charlotte Van Herzeele, Jan Van Bocxlaer, An Vermeulen, Johan Vande Walle
PURPOSE: For a new formulation of a drug, only pharmacokinetic bioequivalence with the original formulation has to be demonstrated in healthy, young adults. However, "children are not small adults," and to guarantee a safe and effective treatment, age-adapted drug development is required. Desmopressin, a vasopressin analogue prescribed for nocturnal enuresis in children, was studied as an example formulation first developed in adults and then extrapolated to a pediatric indication. METHODS: Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling was used to analyze previously published desmopressin data of 18 children suffering from nocturnal enuresis...
December 3, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184987/ventilation-during-extracorporeal-support-why-and-how
#6
REVIEW
A Pesenti, E Carlesso, T Langer, T Mauri
The main target of extracorporeal support is to achieve viable gas exchange, while minimizing the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury, achieved through a decreased mechanical ventilation load on the natural lung. However, during veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), mechanical ventilation is still necessary in order to prevent lung collapse and/or if extracorporeal blood flow is not sufficient to guarantee adequate gas exchange. In this review, we will summarize the physiology of extracorporeal support and the rationale for continuing mechanical ventilation in this context...
November 28, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184049/does-diaphragmatic-electrical-activity-in-preterm-infants-predict-extubation-success
#7
Neetu Singh, Matthew J McNally, Robert A Darnall
BACKGROUND: Despite many advances in respiratory care and mechanical ventilation, neonatologists lack an objective tool to aid in decision making for timely extubation. Electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi), a measure of neural respiratory drive and inspiratory load, may be a useful predictor of extubation success in preterm neonates. The objective of this work was to investigate whether peak EAdi could distinguish successful versus failed extubation in mechanically ventilated preterm infants...
November 28, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180402/fishnet-model-for-failure-probability-tail-of-nacre-like-imbricated-lamellar-materials
#8
Wen Luo, Zdeněk P Bažant
Nacre, the iridescent material of the shells of pearl oysters and abalone, consists mostly of aragonite (a form of CaCO3), a brittle constituent of relatively low strength ([Formula: see text]10 MPa). Yet it has astonishing mean tensile strength ([Formula: see text]150 MPa) and fracture energy ([Formula: see text]350 to 1,240 J/m2). The reasons have recently become well understood: (i) the nanoscale thickness ([Formula: see text]300 nm) of nacre's building blocks, the aragonite lamellae (or platelets), and (ii) the imbricated, or staggered, arrangement of these lamellea, bound by biopolymer layers only [Formula: see text]25 nm thick, occupying [Formula: see text] of volume...
November 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149469/cuffed-versus-uncuffed-endotracheal-tubes-for-general-anaesthesia-in-children-aged-eight-years-and-under
#9
REVIEW
Flavia A De Orange, Rebeca Gac Andrade, Andrea Lemos, Paulo Sgn Borges, José N Figueiroa, Pete G Kovatsis
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of endotracheal intubation in paediatrics, uncuffed endotracheal tubes (ETTs) have been the standard of care for children under eight years old, based on the presumption that complications, particularly postoperative stridor, are higher with cuffed ETTs. The major disadvantages of uncuffed ETTs cited for this shift in procedure include the difficulty in achieving tidal volumes due to leakage around an uncuffed ETT. To seal the airway adequately, uncuffed tubes may need to be exchanged for another tube with a larger diameter, which sometimes requires several attempts before the appropriate size is found...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146240/channelled-tablets-an-innovative-approach-to-accelerating-drug-release-from-3d-printed-tablets
#10
Muzna Sadia, Basel Arafat, Waqar Ahmed, Robert E Forbes, Mohamed A Alhnan
Conventional immediate release dosage forms involve compressing the powder with a disintegrating agent that enables rapid disintegration and dissolution upon oral ingestion. Among 3D printing technologies, the fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing technique has considerable potential for patient-specific dosage form. However, the use of FDM 3D printing in tablet manufacturing requires large portion of polymer, which slows down drug release through erosion and diffusion mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time the use of a novel design approach of caplets with perforating channels to accelerate drug release from 3D printed tablets...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118957/morphological-peculiarities-of-neuromuscular-junctions-among-different-fiber-types-effect-of-exercise
#11
Teet Seene, Maria Umnova, Priit Kaasik
The aim of our research was to examine whether there are differences in the morphology of neuromuscular junctions of different types of muscle fibers in rodents, and after their adaptation to six weeks endurance exercise training. After 5-day acclimation, Wistar rats were subjected to run with the speed 35 m/min during 6 week, 5 days per week and the training volume reached 60 min per day. Muscle samples for ultrastructural studies were fixed, dehydrated and embedded in Epon-812. Ultra-thin sections were cut from longitudinally and transversely oriented blocs, using 4 blocks from each animal...
June 27, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107048/beyond-q1-q2-the-impact-of-manufacturing-conditions-and-test-methods-on-drug-release-from-plga-based-microparticle-depot-formulations
#12
John Garner, Sarah Skidmore, Haesun Park, Kinam Park, Stephanie Choi, Yan Wang
Drug-loaded polymeric microparticles have been used as long-acting injectable (LAI) depot formulations. To obtain FDA approval, a generic LAI depot product needs to be qualitatively (Q1) and quantitatively (Q2) the same in terms of inactive ingredients as its reference listed drug (RLD). However, Q1/Q2 sameness as the RLD does not guarantee the same in vitro drug release profile and in vivo performance, especially when the manufacturing methods are different. There is little consensus on how the in vitro testing needs to be done to examine the release profiles of LAI depot formulations...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098374/-per-aspera-ad-astra-implementation-of-electronic-patient-records-in-a-university-eye-hospital-experience-with-fidus-in-the-clinic-for-ophthalmology-at-the-saarland-university-medical-center-uks
#13
C Spira-Eppig, T Eppig, M Bischof, G Schießl, G Milioti, B Käsmann-Kellner, H Carstensen, B Schick, B Seitz
BACKGROUND: For more than 60 years patient records of the Department of Ophthalmology at the Saarland Medical Center in Homburg were documented on handwritten paper documents and filed in archives. Increasing requirements for medical documentation, exploding volumes of diagnostic data, overcrowded archives and unavailable files when needed, were the essential rationales for the implementation of an electronic patient archive (EPA). METHODS: The EPA has been specifically adapted to the requirements of the Department of Ophthalmology in order to guarantee a standardized unobstructed documentation and patient care across all sections of the department...
November 2, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079651/frequency-duration-and-cause-of-ventilator-alarms-on-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#14
Gusztav Belteki, Colin J Morley
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency and cause of neonatal ventilator alarms. Neonatal ventilators frequently alarm and also disturb babies, parents and nurses. If frequent they may cause alarm fatigue and be ignored. The number, frequency and details of neonatal ventilator alarms are unreported. METHODS: We developed programs for retrieving and analysing ventilator data each second on alarms and ventilation parameters from 46 babies ventilated with Dräger Babylog VN500 ventilators using various modes...
October 27, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067793/nanostructured-gemini-based-supramolecular-solvent-coupled-with-ultrasound-assisted-back-extraction-as-a-preconcentration-step-before-gc-ms
#15
Neda Feizi, Yadollah Yamini, Morteza Moradi, Qamar Salamat
Liquid-phase microextraction based on gemini-based supramolecular solvent was successfully applied as a preconcentration step before gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. To eliminate the interferences of gemini surfactant, the analytes were back-extracted into an immiscible organic solvent in the presence of ultrasonic sound waves. Three phthalate esters (di-n-butyl-, butylbenzyl-, bis(2-ethylhexyl)-, and di-n-octyl phthalatic esters) were used as target analytes. The effective parameters on extraction efficiency of the target analytes (i...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056708/a-preliminary-assessment-of-htst-processing-on-donkey-milk
#16
Marzia Giribaldi, Sara Antoniazzi, Gian Marco Gariglio, Alessandra Coscia, Enrico Bertino, Laura Cavallarin
Due to increasing attention from consumers on non-bovine milk types, and to the increase in the number of small dairy donkey farms in Italy, farmers require more advanced and reliable processing devices, in order to guarantee a safe product of high quality. To this aim, a new small-scale High-Temperature Short-Time (HTST) pasteurizer (72 °C for 15 s), prototyped by the authors, was tested on donkey milk. The efficacy of the HTST device was tested on raw donkey milk microflora by enumeration of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and Bacillus cereus...
October 9, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052557/determination-of-volatile-organic-compounds-in-exhaled-breath-of-heart-failure-patients-by-needle-trap-micro-extraction-coupled-with-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#17
Denise Biagini, Tommaso Lomonaco, Silvia Ghimenti, Francesca Giuseppa Bellagambi, Massimo Onor, Maria Chiara Scali, Valentina Barletta, Mario Marzilli, Pietro Salvo, Maria Giovanna Trivella, Roger Fuoco, Fabio Di Francesco
The analytical performances of needle trap micro-extraction (NTME) coupled with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were evaluated by analyzing a mixture of twenty-two representative breath VOCs belonging to different chemical classes (i.e. hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes, aromatics and sulfurs). NTME is an emerging technique that guarantees detection limits in pptv range by pre-concentrating low volumes of sample, and it is particularly suitable for breath analysis. For most VOCs, detection limits between 20 and 500 pptv were obtained by pre-concentrating 25 mL of a humidified standard gas mixture at a flow rate of 15 mL/min...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044912/sequential-coalescence-enabled-two-step-microreactions-in-triple-core-double-emulsion-droplets-triggered-by-an-electric-field
#18
Yankai Jia, Yukun Ren, Likai Hou, Weiyu Liu, Xiaokang Deng, Hongyuan Jiang
Advances in microfluidic emulsification have enabled the generation of exquisite multiple-core droplets, which are promising structures to accommodate microreactions. An essential requirement for conducting reactions is the sequential coalescence of the multiple cores encapsulated within these droplets, therefore, mixing the reagents together in a controlled sequence. Here, a microfluidic approach is reported for the conduction of two-step microreactions by electrically fusing three cores inside double-emulsion droplets...
October 16, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035982/comparison-of-the-effect-of-5-different-treatment-options-for-managing-patellar-tendinopathy-a-secondary-analysis
#19
Dafne van Rijn, Inge van den Akker-Scheek, Mirjam Steunebrink, Ron L Diercks, Johannes Zwerver, Henk van der Worp
OBJECTIVE: Currently, no treatments exist for patellar tendinopathy (PT) that guarantee quick and full recovery. Our objective was to assess which treatment option provides the best chance of clinical improvement and to assess the influence of patient and injury characteristics on the clinical effect of these treatments. DESIGN: A secondary analysis was performed on the combined databases of 3 previously performed double-blind randomized controlled trials. PATIENTS: In total, 138 patients with PT were included in the analysis...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972568/cfd-modeling-of-chamber-filling-in-a-micro-biosensor-for-protein-detection
#20
Meiirbek Islamov, Marzhan Sypabekova, Damira Kanayeva, Luis Rojas-Solórzano
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the main causes of human death around the globe. The mortality rate for patients infected with active TB goes beyond 50% when not diagnosed. Rapid and accurate diagnostics coupled with further prompt treatment of the disease is the cornerstone for controlling TB outbreaks. To reduce this burden, the existing gap between detection and treatment must be addressed, and dedicated diagnostic tools such as biosensors should be developed. A biosensor is a sensing micro-device that consists of a biological sensing element and a transducer part to produce signals in proportion to quantitative information about the binding event...
October 3, 2017: Biosensors
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