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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149469/cuffed-versus-uncuffed-endotracheal-tubes-for-general-anaesthesia-in-children-aged-eight-years-and-under
#1
REVIEW
Flavia A De Orange, Rebeca Gac Andrade, Andrea Lemos, Paulo Sgn Borges, José N Figueiroa, Pete G Kovatsis
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of endotracheal intubation in paediatrics, uncuffed endotracheal tubes (ETTs) have been the standard of care for children under eight years old, based on the presumption that complications, particularly postoperative stridor, are higher with cuffed ETTs. The major disadvantages of uncuffed ETTs cited for this shift in procedure include the difficulty in achieving tidal volumes due to leakage around an uncuffed ETT. To seal the airway adequately, uncuffed tubes may need to be exchanged for another tube with a larger diameter, which sometimes requires several attempts before the appropriate size is found...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146240/channelled-tablets-an-innovative-approach-to-accelerating-drug-release-from-3d-printed-tablets
#2
Muzna Sadia, Basel Arafat, Waqar Ahmed, Robert E Forbes, Mohamed A Alhnan
Conventional immediate release dosage forms involve compressing the powder with a disintegrating agent that enables rapid disintegration and dissolution upon oral ingestion. Among 3D printing technologies, the fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing technique has considerable potential for patient-specific dosage form. However, the use of FDM 3D printing in tablet manufacturing requires large portion of polymer, which slows down drug release through erosion and diffusion mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time the use of a novel design approach of caplets with perforating channels to accelerate drug release from 3D printed tablets...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118957/morphological-peculiarities-of-neuromuscular-junctions-among-different-fiber-types-effect-of-exercise
#3
Teet Seene, Maria Umnova, Priit Kaasik
The aim of our research was to examine whether there are differences in the morphology of neuromuscular junctions of different types of muscle fibers in rodents, and after their adaptation to six weeks endurance exercise training. After 5-day acclimation, Wistar rats were subjected to run with the speed 35 m/min during 6 week, 5 days per week and the training volume reached 60 min per day. Muscle samples for ultrastructural studies were fixed, dehydrated and embedded in Epon-812. Ultra-thin sections were cut from longitudinally and transversely oriented blocs, using 4 blocks from each animal...
June 27, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107048/beyond-q1-q2-the-impact-of-manufacturing-conditions-and-test-methods-on-drug-release-from-plga-based-microparticle-depot-formulations
#4
John Garner, Sarah Skidmore, Haesun Park, Kinam Park, Stephanie Choi, Yan Wang
Drug-loaded polymeric microparticles have been used as long-acting injectable (LAI) depot formulations. To obtain FDA approval, a generic LAI depot product needs to be qualitatively (Q1) and quantitatively (Q2) the same in terms of inactive ingredients as its reference listed drug (RLD). However, Q1/Q2 sameness as the RLD does not guarantee the same in vitro drug release profile and in vivo performance, especially when the manufacturing methods are different. There is little consensus on how the in vitro testing needs to be done to examine the release profiles of LAI depot formulations...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098374/-per-aspera-ad-astra-implementation-of-electronic-patient-records-in-a-university-eye-hospital-experience-with-fidus-in-the-clinic-for-ophthalmology-at-the-saarland-university-medical-center-uks
#5
C Spira-Eppig, T Eppig, M Bischof, G Schießl, G Milioti, B Käsmann-Kellner, H Carstensen, B Schick, B Seitz
BACKGROUND: For more than 60 years patient records of the Department of Ophthalmology at the Saarland Medical Center in Homburg were documented on handwritten paper documents and filed in archives. Increasing requirements for medical documentation, exploding volumes of diagnostic data, overcrowded archives and unavailable files when needed, were the essential rationales for the implementation of an electronic patient archive (EPA). METHODS: The EPA has been specifically adapted to the requirements of the Department of Ophthalmology in order to guarantee a standardized unobstructed documentation and patient care across all sections of the department...
November 2, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079651/frequency-duration-and-cause-of-ventilator-alarms-on-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#6
Gusztav Belteki, Colin J Morley
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency and cause of neonatal ventilator alarms. Neonatal ventilators frequently alarm and also disturb babies, parents and nurses. If frequent they may cause alarm fatigue and be ignored. The number, frequency and details of neonatal ventilator alarms are unreported. METHODS: We developed programs for retrieving and analysing ventilator data each second on alarms and ventilation parameters from 46 babies ventilated with Dräger Babylog VN500 ventilators using various modes...
October 27, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067793/nanostructured-gemini-based-supramolecular-solvent-coupled-with-ultrasound-assisted-back-extraction-as-a-preconcentration-step-before-gc-ms
#7
Neda Feizi, Yadollah Yamini, Morteza Moradi, Qamar Salamat
Liquid-phase microextraction based on gemini-based supramolecular solvent was successfully applied as a preconcentration step before gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. To eliminate the interferences of gemini surfactant, the analytes were back-extracted into an immiscible organic solvent in the presence of ultrasonic sound waves. Three phthalate esters (di-n-butyl-, butylbenzyl-, bis(2-ethylhexyl)-, and di-n-octyl phthalatic esters) were used as target analytes. The effective parameters on extraction efficiency of the target analytes (i...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056708/a-preliminary-assessment-of-htst-processing-on-donkey-milk
#8
Marzia Giribaldi, Sara Antoniazzi, Gian Marco Gariglio, Alessandra Coscia, Enrico Bertino, Laura Cavallarin
Due to increasing attention from consumers on non-bovine milk types, and to the increase in the number of small dairy donkey farms in Italy, farmers require more advanced and reliable processing devices, in order to guarantee a safe product of high quality. To this aim, a new small-scale High-Temperature Short-Time (HTST) pasteurizer (72 °C for 15 s), prototyped by the authors, was tested on donkey milk. The efficacy of the HTST device was tested on raw donkey milk microflora by enumeration of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and Bacillus cereus...
October 9, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052557/determination-of-volatile-organic-compounds-in-exhaled-breath-of-heart-failure-patients-by-needle-trap-micro-extraction-coupled-with-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#9
Denise Biagini, Tommaso Lomonaco, Silvia Ghimenti, Francesca Giuseppa Bellagambi, Massimo Onor, Maria Chiara Scali, Valentina Barletta, Mario Marzilli, Pietro Salvo, Maria Giovanna Trivella, Roger Fuoco, Fabio Di Francesco
The analytical performances of needle trap micro-extraction (NTME) coupled with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were evaluated by analyzing a mixture of twenty-two representative breath VOCs belonging to different chemical classes (i.e. hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes, aromatics and sulfurs). NTME is an emerging technique that guarantees detection limits in pptv range by pre-concentrating low volumes of sample, and it is particularly suitable for breath analysis. For most VOCs, detection limits between 20 and 500 pptv were obtained by pre-concentrating 25 mL of a humidified standard gas mixture at a flow rate of 15 mL/min...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044912/sequential-coalescence-enabled-two-step-microreactions-in-triple-core-double-emulsion-droplets-triggered-by-an-electric-field
#10
Yankai Jia, Yukun Ren, Likai Hou, Weiyu Liu, Xiaokang Deng, Hongyuan Jiang
Advances in microfluidic emulsification have enabled the generation of exquisite multiple-core droplets, which are promising structures to accommodate microreactions. An essential requirement for conducting reactions is the sequential coalescence of the multiple cores encapsulated within these droplets, therefore, mixing the reagents together in a controlled sequence. Here, a microfluidic approach is reported for the conduction of two-step microreactions by electrically fusing three cores inside double-emulsion droplets...
October 16, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035982/comparison-of-the-effect-of-5-different-treatment-options-for-managing-patellar-tendinopathy-a-secondary-analysis
#11
Dafne van Rijn, Inge van den Akker-Scheek, Mirjam Steunebrink, Ron L Diercks, Johannes Zwerver, Henk van der Worp
OBJECTIVE: Currently, no treatments exist for patellar tendinopathy (PT) that guarantee quick and full recovery. Our objective was to assess which treatment option provides the best chance of clinical improvement and to assess the influence of patient and injury characteristics on the clinical effect of these treatments. DESIGN: A secondary analysis was performed on the combined databases of 3 previously performed double-blind randomized controlled trials. PATIENTS: In total, 138 patients with PT were included in the analysis...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972568/cfd-modeling-of-chamber-filling-in-a-micro-biosensor-for-protein-detection
#12
Meiirbek Islamov, Marzhan Sypabekova, Damira Kanayeva, Luis Rojas-Solórzano
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the main causes of human death around the globe. The mortality rate for patients infected with active TB goes beyond 50% when not diagnosed. Rapid and accurate diagnostics coupled with further prompt treatment of the disease is the cornerstone for controlling TB outbreaks. To reduce this burden, the existing gap between detection and treatment must be addressed, and dedicated diagnostic tools such as biosensors should be developed. A biosensor is a sensing micro-device that consists of a biological sensing element and a transducer part to produce signals in proportion to quantitative information about the binding event...
October 3, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962658/human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-as-cellular-drug-delivery-vectors-for-glioblastoma-therapy-a-good-deal
#13
Anne Clavreul, Milad Pourbaghi-Masouleh, Emilie Roger, Nolwenn Lautram, Claudia N Montero-Menei, Philippe Menei
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GB) is the most malignant brain tumor in adults. It is characterized by angiogenesis and a high proliferative and invasive capacity. Standard therapy (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy with temozolomide) is of limited efficacy. Innovative anticancer drugs targeting both tumor cells and angiogenesis are urgently required, together with effective systems for their delivery to the brain. We assessed the ability of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to uptake the multikinase inhibitor, sorafenib (SFN), and to carry this drug to a brain tumor following intranasal administration...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919003/inter-observer-agreement-in-gtv-delineation-of-bone-metastases-on-ct-and-impact-of-mr-imaging-a-multicenter-study
#14
A S Gerlich, J M van der Velden, A N T J Kotte, C L Tseng, G Fanetti, W S C Eppinga, N Kasperts, M P W Intven, F A Pameijer, M E P Philippens, H M Verkooijen, E Seravalli
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The use of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for bone metastases is increasing rapidly. Therefore, knowledge of the inter-observer differences in tumor volume delineation is essential to guarantee precise dose delivery. The aim of this study is to compare inter-observer agreement in bone metastases delineated on different imaging modalities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients with bone metastases treated with SBRT were selected...
September 14, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912258/frank-starling-mechanism-and-short-term-adjustment-of-cardiac-flow
#15
José Guilherme Chaui-Berlinck, Luiz Henrique Alves Monteiro
The Frank-Starling Law of the heart is a filling-force mechanism (FFm), a positive relationship between the distension of a ventricular chamber and its force of ejection, and such a mechanism is found across all the studied vertebrate lineages. The functioning of the cardiovascular system is usually described by means of the cardiac and vascular functions, the former related to the contractility of the heart and the latter related to the after-load imposed to the ventricle. The crossing of these functions is the so-called operation point, and the FFm is supposed to play a stabilizing role for the short-term variations in the working of the system...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899649/small-field-characterization-of-a-nanochamber-prototype-under-flattening-filter-free-photon-beams
#16
G Reggiori, A Stravato, P Mancosu, F Lobefalo, L Paganini, F Zucconi, V Palumbo, A Gaudino, M Scorsetti, S Tomatis
INTRODUCTION: Nanochambers present some advantages in terms of energy independence and absolute dose measurement for small field dosimetry in the SBRT scenario. Characterization of a micro-chamber prototype was carried out both under flattened and flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams with particular focus on stem effect. METHODS: The study included characterization of leakage and stem effects, dose rate and dose per pulse dependence, measurement of profiles, and percentage depth doses (PDDs)...
September 9, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836380/comparison-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood-processing-with-or-without-hydroxyethyl-starch
#17
Milad Souri, Mahin Nikougoftar Zarif, Mahboobeh Rasouli, Khadijeh Golzadeh, Mozhdeh Nakhlestani Hagh, Nasim Ezzati, Kamran Atarodi
BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) processing with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is the most common protocol in the cord blood banks. The quality of UCB volume reduction was guaranteed by minimum manipulation of cord blood samples in the closed system. This study aimed to analyze and compare cell recovery and viability of UCB processed using the Sepax automated system in the presence and absence of HES. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty UCB bags with a total nucleated cell (TNC) count of more than 2...
August 23, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834435/thermometry-of-plasmonic-heating-by-inelastic-electron-tunneling-spectroscopy-iets
#18
Nirit Nachman, Yoram Selzer
The electronic and lattice heating accompanying plasmonic structures under illumination is suggested to be utilized in a broad range of thermoplasmonic applications. Specifically, in molecular electronics precise determination of the temperature of illuminated junctions is crucial, because the temperature-dependent energy distribution of charge carriers in the leads affects the possibility to steer various light-controlled conductance processes. Existing optical methods to characterize the local temperature in all these applications lack the spatial resolution to probe the few nanometers in size hot spots and therefore typically report average values over a diffraction limited length scale...
September 13, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833568/polymer-microstructures-through-two-photon-crosslinking
#19
David Schwärzle, Xiaoqang Hou, Oswald Prucker, Jürgen Rühe
Two-photon crosslinking of polymers (2PC) is proposed as a novel method for the fabrication of freestanding microstructures via two-photon lithography. During this process in the confocal volume, two-photon absorption leads to (formal) C,H-insertion reactions, and consequently to a strictly localized crosslinking of the polymer. To achieve this, the polymer is coated as a solvent-free (glassy) film onto an appropriate substrate, and the desired microstructure is written by 2PC into this glass. In all regions outside of the focal volume where no two-photon process occurs, the polymer remains uncrosslinked and can be washed away during a developing process...
August 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795220/achieving-and-maintaining-lung-volume-in-the-preterm-infant-from-the-first-breath-to-the-nicu
#20
REVIEW
Gianluca Lista, Andrés Maturana, Fernando R Moya
The main goal for the neonatologist is to facilitate the adaptation to extra-uterine life during initial transition, while minimizing lung injury opening and protecting the premature lung from the first breath onwards. An appropriate management from birth should lead to the achievement of an early functional residual capacity (FRC), and the following steps should aim at maintaining an adequate lung volume. To date, different strategies are available to optimize fetal-neonatal transition and promote lung recruitment...
October 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
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