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Abdul-Amir Yassine, William Kingsford, Yiwen Xu, Jeffrey Cassidy, Lothar Lilge, Vaughn Betz
Finding a high-quality treatment plan is an essential, yet difficult, stage of Photodynamic therapy (PDT) as it will determine the therapeutic efficacy in eradicating malignant tumors. A high-quality plan is patient-specific, and provides clinicians with the number of fiber-based spherical diffusers, their powers, and their interstitial locations to deliver the required light dose to destroy the tumor while minimizing the damage to surrounding healthy tissues. In this work, we propose a general convex light source power allocation algorithm that, given light source locations, guarantees optimality of the resulting solution in minimizing the over/under-dosage of volumes of interest...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Xiulin Fan, Jie Yue, Fudong Han, Ji Chen, Tao Deng, Xiuquan Zhou, Singyuk Hou, Chunsheng Wang
Room temperature all solid-state Na-S batteries (ASNSBs) using sulfide solid electrolytes are a promising next-generation battery technology due to the high energy, enhanced safety, and earth abundant resources of both sodium and sulfur. Currently, the sulfide electrolyte ASNSBs are fabricated by simple cold-pressing process leaving with high residential stress. Even worse, the large volume change of S/Na2S during charge/discharge cycles induces additional stress, seriously weakening the less-contacted interfaces among the solid electrolyte, active materials and the electron conductive agent that are formed in the cold-pressing process...
March 16, 2018: ACS Nano
Anqi Dong, Yan Zhao, Xinqing Zhao, Qiyong Yu
Out-of-autoclave prepreg typically needs a long cure cycle to guarantee good properties as the result of low processing pressure applied. It is essential to reduce the manufacturing time, achieve real cost reduction, and take full advantage of out-of-autoclave process. The focus of this paper is to reduce the cure cycle time and production cost while maintaining high laminate quality. A rapidly cured out-of-autoclave resin and relative prepreg were independently developed. To determine a suitable rapid cure procedure for the developed prepreg, the effect of heating rate, initial cure temperature, dwelling time, and post-cure time on the final laminate quality were evaluated and the factors were then optimized...
March 13, 2018: Materials
Ester Orlandi, Salvatore Alfieri, Christian Simon, Annalisa Trama, Lisa Licitra
Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a rare disease that can affect different sites and is characterized by variable incidence and 5-year survival rates across Europe. Multiple factors need to be considered when choosing the most appropriate treatment for HNC patients, such as age, comorbidities, social issues, and especially whether to prefer surgery or radiation-based protocols. Given the complexity of this scenario, the creation of a highly specialized multidisciplinary team is recommended to guarantee the best oncological outcome and prevent or adequately treat any adverse effect...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Chunliang Zhang, Ming Chen
An upsurge of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) is emerging in China, which means a potential monumental environmental crisis. The approach of disassembly line is expected to be an effective solution to such increasing volumes. Due to the complexity of vehicle product and uncertainties of disassembly processes, a complete set of disassembly line system should be taken into detailed consideration. We have designed and constructed a novel disassembly line using a flexible transition technique with the objective of complete disassembly...
February 19, 2018: Waste Management
David Rosenberger, Nico F A van der Vegt
Systematically derived coarse grained (CG) models for molecular liquids do not inherently guarantee transferability to a state point different from its reference, especially when derived on the basis of structure based CG methods like Inverse Monte Carlo (IMC). Several efforts made in the past years to improve the transferability of these models focused on including thermodynamic constraints or on the application of multistate parametrization. Das and Andersen (DA) [Das et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2010, 132, 164106...
February 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Anatoly Dymarsky, Nima Lashkari, Hong Liu
Motivated by the qualitative picture of canonical typicality, we propose a refined formulation of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) for chaotic quantum systems. This formulation, which we refer to as subsystem ETH, is in terms of the reduced density matrix of subsystems. This strong form of ETH outlines the set of observables defined within the subsystem for which it guarantees eigenstate thermalization. We discuss the limits when the size of the subsystem is small or comparable to its complement...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Juliane Gallenkamp, Gerrit Spanier, Elisabeth Wörle, Markus Englbrecht, Michael Kirschfink, Roman Greslechner, Regine Braun, Nicole Schäfer, Richard J Bauer, Diana Pauly
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common tumors within the oral cavity. Early diagnosis and prognosis tools are urgently needed. This study aimed to investigate the activation of the complement system in OSCC patients as potential biomarker. Therefore, an innovative complement activation array was developed. Characterized antibodies detecting the complement activation specific epitopes C3a, C5a and sC5b-9 along with control antibodies were implemented into a suspension bead array. Human serum from a healthy (n = 46) and OSCC patient (n = 57) cohort were used to investigate the role of complement activation in oral tumor progression...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Jan O Jansen, Ernest E Moore, Handing Wang, Jonathan J Morrison, James D Hutchison, Marion K Campbell, Angela Sauaia
BACKGROUND: Trauma center designation in excess of need risks dilution of experience, reduction in research and training opportunities, and increased costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of a novel data-driven approach (whole-system mathematical modelling of patient flow) to compare the configuration of an existing trauma system with a mathematically optimized design, using the State of Colorado as a case study. METHODS: Geographical network analysis and multi-objective optimization...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Alessandro Lunardi, Rosa Cervelli, Duccio Volterrani, Saverio Vitali, Carlo Lombardo, Giulia Lorenzoni, Laura Crocetti, Irene Bargellini, Daniela Campani, Luca Emanuele Pollina, Roberto Cioni, Davide Caramella, Ugo Boggi
PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility of radiological stage-1 ALPPS, associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy, by combining portal vein embolization (PVE) with percutaneous intrahepatic split by ablation (PISA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three patients (mean age 65.0 ± 7.3 years) underwent PVE and PISA. PISA was performed 21 days after PVE by microwave ablation to create a continuous intrahepatic cutting plane. Abdominal CT examinations were performed before and after PVE and PISA...
January 22, 2018: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Gijae Seo
The purpose of this study is to understand the reality of imperial medicine by exploring the strategic attitude of the Japanese authority targeting the public who were not patients of Hansen's disease. For this purpose, this study examines the mass media data related to Hansen's disease published in Korea and Japan during the Japanese colonial rule. Research on Hansen's disease can be divided into medical, sociohistorical, social welfare, and human rights approach. There are medical studies and statistics on the dissemination of medical information about Hansen's disease and management measures, the history of the management of the disease, guarantee of the rights of the patients and the welfare environment, and studies on the autobiographical, literary writings and oral statements on the life and psychological conflicts of the patients...
December 2017: Ŭi Sahak
Cong Huang, Wen-Zong Liu, Zhi-Ling Li, Shu-Ming Zhang, Fan Chen, Hua-Rong Yu, Sen-Lin Shao, Jun Nan, Ai-Jie Wang
Elemental sulfur (S0) is always produced during bio-denitrification and desulfurization process, but the S0 yield and purification quality are too low. Till now, no feasible approach has been carried out to efficiently recover S0. In this study, we report the S0 generation and recovery by a newly designed, compact, biofilm formed membrane filtration reactor (BfMFR), where S0 was generated within a Thauera sp. strain HDD-formed biofilm on membrane surface, and then timely separated from the biofilm through membrane filtration...
November 24, 2017: Water Research
Héctor Fernández-Susavila, Ramón Iglesias-Rey, Antonio Dopico-López, María Pérez-Mato, Tomás Sobrino, José Castillo, Francisco Campos
Proper occlusion of the medial cerebral artery, as determined by laser Doppler monitoring, during cerebral ischaemia in rat models is an important inclusion criterion in experimental studies. However, successful occlusion of the artery does not always guarantee a reproducible infarct volume, which is crucial for validating the efficacy of new protective drugs. In a rat intraluminal ischaemic model, laser Doppler monitoring alone was compared with laser Doppler monitoring in combination with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)...
December 19, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
M Mosing, J M Senior
In the first edition of this journal, Barbara Weaver wrote a review titled 'Equine Anaesthesia', stating that, at that time, it was quickly becoming accepted practice that many horses were being anaesthetised 'by essentially similar procedures, i.e. premedication, induction and then maintenance by controlled inhalation'. To celebrate the 50th anniversary of the first edition of this journal, this review covers the development of understanding and practice of inhalational anaesthesia and controlled ventilation in horses over the last 50 years...
December 14, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
Robin Michelet, Lien Dossche, Charlotte Van Herzeele, Jan Van Bocxlaer, An Vermeulen, Johan Vande Walle
PURPOSE: For a new formulation of a drug, only pharmacokinetic bioequivalence with the original formulation has to be demonstrated in healthy, young adults. However, "children are not small adults," and to guarantee a safe and effective treatment, age-adapted drug development is required. Desmopressin, a vasopressin analogue prescribed for nocturnal enuresis in children, was studied as an example formulation first developed in adults and then extrapolated to a pediatric indication...
March 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
A Pesenti, E Carlesso, T Langer, T Mauri
The main target of extracorporeal support is to achieve viable gas exchange, while minimizing the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury, achieved through a decreased mechanical ventilation load on the natural lung. However, during veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), mechanical ventilation is still necessary in order to prevent lung collapse and/or if extracorporeal blood flow is not sufficient to guarantee adequate gas exchange. In this review, we will summarize the physiology of extracorporeal support and the rationale for continuing mechanical ventilation in this context...
February 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Neetu Singh, Matthew J McNally, Robert A Darnall
BACKGROUND: Despite many advances in respiratory care and mechanical ventilation, neonatologists lack an objective tool to aid in decision making for timely extubation. Electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi ), a measure of neural respiratory drive and inspiratory load, may be a useful predictor of extubation success in preterm neonates. The objective of this work was to investigate whether peak EAdi could distinguish successful versus failed extubation in mechanically ventilated preterm infants...
February 2018: Respiratory Care
Wen Luo, Zdeněk P Bažant
Nacre, the iridescent material of the shells of pearl oysters and abalone, consists mostly of aragonite (a form of CaCO3 ), a brittle constituent of relatively low strength ([Formula: see text]10 MPa). Yet it has astonishing mean tensile strength ([Formula: see text]150 MPa) and fracture energy ([Formula: see text]350 to 1,240 J/m2 ). The reasons have recently become well understood: ( i ) the nanoscale thickness ([Formula: see text]300 nm) of nacre's building blocks, the aragonite lamellae (or platelets), and ( ii ) the imbricated, or staggered, arrangement of these lamellea, bound by biopolymer layers only [Formula: see text]25 nm thick, occupying [Formula: see text] of volume...
December 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Flavia A De Orange, Rebeca Gac Andrade, Andrea Lemos, Paulo Sgn Borges, José N Figueiroa, Pete G Kovatsis
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of endotracheal intubation in paediatrics, uncuffed endotracheal tubes (ETTs) have been the standard of care for children under eight years old, based on the presumption that complications, particularly postoperative stridor, are higher with cuffed ETTs. The major disadvantages of uncuffed ETTs cited for this shift in procedure include the difficulty in achieving tidal volumes due to leakage around an uncuffed ETT. To seal the airway adequately, uncuffed tubes may need to be exchanged for another tube with a larger diameter, which sometimes requires several attempts before the appropriate size is found...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Muzna Sadia, Basel Arafat, Waqar Ahmed, Robert T Forbes, Mohamed A Alhnan
Conventional immediate release dosage forms involve compressing the powder with a disintegrating agent that enables rapid disintegration and dissolution upon oral ingestion. Among 3D printing technologies, the fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing technique has a considerable potential for patient-specific dosage forms. However, the use of FDM 3D printing in tablet manufacturing requires a large portion of polymer, which slows down drug release through erosion and diffusion mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time the use of a novel design approach of caplets with perforated channels to accelerate drug release from 3D printed tablets...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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