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Neonatal ventilation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726790/improvements-in-the-delivery-of-resuscitation-and-newborn-care-after-helping-babies-breathe-training
#1
B D Kamath-Rayne, S Josyula, A R L Rule, J C Vasquez
BACKGROUND: To evaluate changes in neonatal resuscitation and postnatal care following Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) training at a community hospital in rural Honduras. We hypothesized that HBB training would improve resuscitation and essential newborn care interventions. METHODS: Direct observation and video recording of delivery room care spanned before and after an initial HBB workshop held in August 2013. Rates of essential newborn care interventions were compared in resuscitations performed by individuals who had and had not received HBB training, and run charts recording performance of newborn care practices over time were developed...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724490/murine-astrovirus-infection-and-transmission-in-neonatal-cd1-mice
#2
Susan R Compton, Carmen J Booth, James D Macy
Murine astrovirus (MuAstV) is a recently identified, widespread infection among laboratory mice. Our goal was to determine the duration of MuAstV infection, susceptibility of pups, and efficacy of soiled-bedding sentinels and environmental monitoring. Eight CD1 dams and their litters of 3-d-old pups and 8 CD1 dams and their litters of 13-d-old mice were inoculated orally with MuAstV. Neither dams nor offspring demonstrated any clinical signs, and MuAstV had little to no effect on weight gain in pups. MuAstV RNA was detected in feces from 15 of the 16 dams through postnatal day (PND) 21, and 9 dams were still shedding MuAstV at PND 42...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723921/postnatal-dexamethasone-respiratory-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-at-two-years-in-babies-born-extremely-preterm
#3
Gordon Qin, Jessica W Lo, Neil Marlow, Sandy A Calvert, Anne Greenough, Janet L Peacock
IMPORTANCE: Postnatal dexamethasone is associated with reduction in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. There remains, however, concern that its short-term benefits are accompanied by long-term adverse effects e.g. poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the effects of administration of postnatal dexamethasone on respiratory and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years of age after adjusting for neonatal and infant risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 412 infants born at 23-28 weeks of gestation, 29% had received postnatal dexamethasone...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723800/effects-of-somatostatin-octreotide-treatment-in-neonates-with-congenital-chylothorax
#4
Rong Yin, Rong Zhang, Jin Wang, Lin Yuan, Liyuan Hu, Siyuan Jiang, Chao Chen, Yun Cao
The influence of somatostatin/octreotide treatment on outcomes of neonates with congenital chylothorax remains controversial. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with somatostatin/octreotide therapy in neonates with this very rare disease.Fourteen neonates with congenital chylothorax who were treated with somatostatin (3.5-7 μg/kg/h, before 2016) or octreotide (1-6 μg/kg/h, after January 2016), along with traditional management between 2013 and 2016, were retrospectively reviewed in this observational study...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718356/comparison-of-three-non-invasive-ventilation-strategies-nsippv-bipap-ncpap-for-rds-in-vlbw-infants
#5
Vincenzo Salvo, Gianluca Lista, Enrica Lupo, Alberto Ricotti, Luc J I Zimmermann, Antonio W D Gavilanes, Eloisa Gitto, Micaela Colivicchi, Valeria Ferraù, Diego Gazzolo
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) significantly changed the management of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants. Further perspectives for neonatologists regard the assessment of different NIV strategies in terms of availability, effectiveness and failure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of three different NIV strategies: nasal continuous pressure (N-CPAP), nasal synchronized intermittent positive pressure ventilation (N-SIPPV) and nasal bilevel CPAP (BiPAP), as first intention treatment for RDS in very low birth-weight infants (VLBW)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716018/prediction-of-extubation-readiness-in-extremely-preterm-infants-by-the-automated-analysis-of-cardiorespiratory-behavior-study-protocol
#6
Wissam Shalish, Lara J Kanbar, Smita Rao, Carlos A Robles-Rubio, Lajos Kovacs, Sanjay Chawla, Martin Keszler, Doina Precup, Karen Brown, Robert E Kearney, Guilherme M Sant'Anna
BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm infants (≤ 28 weeks gestation) commonly require endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation (MV) to maintain adequate oxygenation and gas exchange. Given that MV is independently associated with important adverse outcomes, efforts should be made to limit its duration. However, current methods for determining extubation readiness are inaccurate and a significant number of infants fail extubation and require reintubation, an intervention that may be associated with increased morbidities...
July 17, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711963/transfer-of-neonates-with-critical-congenital-heart-disease-within-a-regionalized-network
#7
Michael F Swartz, Jill M Cholette, Jennifer M Orie, Marshall L Jacobs, Jeffrey P Jacobs, George M Alfieris
Regionalization of pediatric cardiac surgical care varies between and within states. In most geographic regions, at least some neonates with critical heart disease are transferred from their birth hospital to a different hospital for surgery. The impact of neonatal transfer for surgery, particularly over a considerable distance (>10 miles), has been largely unexplored. We sought to examine the impact of transferring neonates for cardiac surgery. We queried the New York State Cardiac Surgery database (2005-2014) from a single institution to identify neonates born within the cardiac surgery center and those transferred for surgery...
July 15, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711179/immediate-birth-an-analysis-of-women-and-their-babies-undergoing-time-critical-birth-in-a-tertiary-referral-obstetric-hospital
#8
M H Warren, J Kamania, A T Dennis
BACKGROUND: At our institution, the emergency obstetric 'code green' activates the system for immediate birth, usually by caesarean section. This study aimed to determine the incidence of immediate birth, indications, modes of anaesthesia, and short-term neonatal and maternal outcomes. METHOD: A review was performed for all women at the Royal Women's Hospital, Parkville, Australia who underwent immediate birth over a two-year period: January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709662/neonatal-aortic-arch-reconstruction-with-direct-splanchnic-perfusion-avoids-deep-hypothermia
#9
Muhammad Aanish Raees, Clinton D Morgan, Venessa L Pinto, Ashly C Westrick, Chevis N Shannon, Karla G Christian, Bret A Mettler, David P Bichell
BACKGROUND: Neonatal aortic arch reconstruction, typically performed with deep hypothermia and selective cerebral perfusion, leaves splanchnic organ protection dependent on hypothermia alone. A simplified method of direct in-field descending aortic perfusion during neonatal arch reconstruction permits the avoidance of deep hypothermia. We hypothesize that direct splanchnic perfusion at mild hypothermia provides improved or equivalent safety compared with deep hypothermia and may contribute to postoperative extracardiac organ recovery...
July 11, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707987/neonatal-caffeine-treatment-and-respiratory-function-at-11-years-in-children-1251-g-birth-weight
#10
Lex W Doyle, Sarath Ranganathan, Jeanie L Y Cheong
RATIONALE: Caffeine in the newborn period shortens the duration of assisted ventilation and reduces the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, but its effects on respiratory function in later childhood are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine if children born <1251 g birthweight who were treated with neonatal caffeine had improved respiratory function at 11 years of age compared with children treated with placebo. METHODS: Children enrolled in the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity randomized controlled trial and assessed at the Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne at 11 years of age had expiratory flow rates measured according to the standards of the American Thoracic Society...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707404/sustained-versus-standard-inflations-during-neonatal-resuscitation-to-prevent-mortality-and-improve-respiratory-outcomes
#11
REVIEW
Matteo Bruschettini, Colm Pf O'Donnell, Peter G Davis, Colin J Morley, Lorenzo Moja, Simona Zappettini, Maria Grazia Calevo
BACKGROUND: At birth, infants' lungs are fluid-filled. For newborns to have a successful transition, this fluid must be replaced by air to enable effective breathing. Some infants are judged to have inadequate breathing at birth and are resuscitated with positive pressure ventilation (PPV). Giving prolonged (sustained) inflations at the start of PPV may help clear lung fluid and establish gas volume within the lungs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of an initial sustained (> 1 second duration) lung inflation versus standard inflations (≤ 1 second) in newly born infants receiving resuscitation with intermittent PPV...
July 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704817/outcome-of-preterm-neonates-with-a-birth-weight-1-500-g-with-severe-hypoxemic-respiratory-failure-rescued-by-inhaled-nitric-oxide-therapy-and-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation
#12
Atoosa Golfar, Jagmeet Bhogal, Barbara Kamstra, Ann Hudson-Mason, Mosarrat Qureshi, Georg M Schmölzer, Po-Yin Cheung
BACKGROUND: Despite being an experimental therapy in preterm neonates, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is used as a rescue therapy when high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and other conventional therapies fail. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the outcomes of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates with hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF) who had received iNO after maximal conventional therapies. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed preterm neonates (<33 weeks of gestation with a birth weight <1,500 g) who had all received HFOV and then iNO from March 1, 2009 to April 1, 2014 at the Royal Alexandra Hospital...
July 14, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704815/relaxation-rate-of-the-respiratory-muscles-and-prediction-of-extubation-outcome-in-prematurely-born-infants
#13
Theodore Dassios, Ourania Kaltsogianni, Anne Greenough
BACKGROUND: Accurate prediction of extubation outcome could result in a significant reduction of respiratory morbidity in premature neonates. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether the respiratory muscle time constant of relaxation (τ) predicted extubation outcome in mechanically ventilated, premature infants. METHODS: Forty-six mechanically ventilated infants with a median gestational age of 26 (interquartile range [IQR] 25-29) weeks were prospectively studied...
July 14, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702694/mortality-and-morbidity-in-oesophageal-atresia
#14
Robert T Peters, Hany Ragab, Malachy O Columb, James Bruce, Ralph J MacKinnon, Ross J Craigie
BACKGROUND: Several classification systems exist to predict mortality in oesophageal atresia, the most widely quoted of these being over 20 years old. No classification system exists to predict morbidity. We sought to test whether these classification systems remain relevant and to determine whether they can be useful to predict morbidity. In addition, we aimed to identify independent risk factors for predicting mortality and morbidity. METHODS: Neonates presenting with oesophageal atresia over a 20-year period (1990-2010) were retrospectively reviewed...
July 12, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701321/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-drives-cardiorespiratory-responses-to-heat-stress-in-neonatal-mice
#15
Karlene T Barrett, John Andrew Daubenspeck, Richard J A Wilson
The neuropeptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), has emerged as a principal and rate-limiting regulator of physiological stress responses in adult rodents and has been implicated in SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome). Recent studies show that PACAP plays a role in neonatal cardiorespiratory responses to hypoxia, hypercapnia and hypothermia, but not hyperthermia, which is often associated with SIDS. Here we tested the hypothesis that, consistent with a role in SIDS, PACAP is involved in regulating the neonatal cardiorespiratory responses to severe heat...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694575/early-thoracoscopic-plication-of-diaphragm-in-a-newborn-with-brachial-plexus-palsy-and-concurrent-phrenic-nerve-palsy
#16
Saurabh Shyam Garge, Gouri Rao Passi, Devendra Ghanekar
Phrenic nerve palsy is a rare cause of respiratory distress in a newborn. When conservative measures fail to achieve adequate ventilation, then early surgical plication has been found to be associated with good outcome. We report a case of neonate with phrenic nerve palsy in whom an early thoracoscopic diaphragmatic plication was done.
July 2017: Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690941/a-simulation-based-quality-improvement-approach-to-improve-pediatric-resident-competency-with-required-procedures
#17
Michelle Starr, Taylor Sawyer, Maya Jones, Maneesh Batra, Heather McPhillips
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric residents report a lack of confidence and competence with procedural skills at graduation. Training programs could benefit from improved approaches to target these needs. Using the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) Model for Improvement and three Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles, we examined the impact of a procedure simulation boot camp on self-reported procedural confidence and competence as well as the longitudinal impacts of these sequential interventions on Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Graduating Resident Survey (GRS) results...
June 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687938/a-scoring-system-predicting-the-clinical-course-of-clpb-defect-based-on-the-foetal-and-neonatal-presentation-of-31-patients
#18
Ewa Pronicka, Mariola Ropacka-Lesiak, Joanna Trubicka, Magdalena Pajdowska, Markus Linke, Elsebet Ostergaard, Carol Saunders, Sandra Horsch, Clara van Karnebeek, Joy Yaplito-Lee, Felix Distelmaier, Katrin Õunap, Shamima Rahman, Martin Castelle, John Kelleher, Safa Baris, Katarzyna Iwanicka-Pronicka, Colin G Steward, Elżbieta Ciara, Saskia B Wortmann
Recently, CLPB deficiency has been shown to cause a genetic syndrome with cataracts, neutropenia, and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. Surprisingly, the neurological presentation ranges from completely unaffected to patients with virtual absence of development. Muscular hypo- and hypertonia, movement disorder and progressive brain atrophy are frequently reported. We present the foetal, peri- and neonatal features of 31 patients, of which five are previously unreported, using a newly developed clinical severity scoring system rating the clinical, metabolic, imaging and other findings weighted by the age of onset...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682316/neonatal-outcomes-based-on-mode-and-intensity-of-delivery-room-resuscitation
#19
A Bashir, B Bird, L Wu, S Welles, H Taylor, E Anday, V Bhandari
OBJECTIVE: To examine outcomes of neonates based on the mode and intensity of resuscitation received in the delivery room (DR). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study of 439 infants with birth weight ⩽1500 g receiving DR resuscitation at two hospital centers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. RESULTS: Of 439 infants, 22 (5%) received routine care, 188 (43%) received noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (PPV) and 229 (52%) received endotracheal tube (ETT) intubation in the DR...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682001/weight-correction-of-carbon-dioxide-diffusion-coefficient-dco2-reduces-its-inter-individual-variability-and-improves-its-correlation-with-blood-carbon-dioxide-levels-in-neonates-receiving-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation
#20
Gusztav Belteki, Benjamin Lin, Colin J Morley
BACKGROUND: Carbon-dioxide elimination during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is thought to be proportional to the carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient (DCO2 ) which is calculated as frequency x (tidal volume)(2) . DCO2 can be used to as an indicator of CO2 elimination but values obtained in different patients cannot be directly compared. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the relationship between DCO2 , the weight-corrected DCO2 (DCO2 corr) and blood gas PCO2 values obtained from infants receiving HFOV...
July 6, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
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