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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922747/frailty-and-subsequent-disability-and-mortality-among-patients-with-critical-illness
#1
Nathan E Brummel, Susan P Bell, Timothy D Girard, Pratik P Pandharipande, James C Jackson, Alessandro Morandi, Jennifer L Thompson, Rameela Chandrasekhar, Gordon R Bernard, Robert S Dittus, Thomas M Gill, E Wesley Ely
INTRODUCTION The prevalence of frailty (diminished physiologic reserve) and its effect on outcomes for those ≥18 years old with critical illness is unclear. We hypothesized greater frailty would be associated with subsequent mortality, disability, and cognitive impairment, regardless of age. METHODS At enrollment, we measured frailty using the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS, range 1 [very fit] to 7 [severely frail]). At 3 and 12 months post-discharge, we assessed vital status, instrumental and basic activities of daily living (IADLs and BADLs), and cognition...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922694/cpkc%C3%AE-membrane-translocation-is-involved-in-herkinorin%C3%A2-induced-neuroprotection-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-mice
#2
Xiaochen Gui, Xu Cui, Haiping Wei, Guang Feng, Xuezheng Zhang, Yongjin He, Junfa Li, Tianzuo Li
Herkinorin is an opiate analgesic with limited adverse effects, functioning as a primary selective atypical opioid µ agonist. The present study aimed to identify whether herkinorin has a positive effect on ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups: i) Naïve, ii) sham, iii) I/R, iv) I/R with dimethyl sulfoxide (I/R+D) and v) I/R with herkinorin (I/R+H). The I/R injury model was induced by occluding the middle cerebral artery for 1 h followed by 24 h or 7 days of reperfusion...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922595/memories-of-opiate-withdrawal-emotional-states-correlate-with-specific-gamma-oscillations-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#3
Cyril Dejean, Mathieu Sitko, Paul Girardeau, Amine Bennabi, Stéphanie Caillé, Martine Cador, Thomas Boraud, Catherine Le Moine
Affective memories associated with the negative emotional state experienced during opiate withdrawal are central in maintaining drug-taking, seeking and relapse. Nucleus accumbens (NAC) is a key structure both for acute withdrawal and withdrawal memories reactivation, however NAC neuron coding properties underpinning the expression of these memories remain largely unknown. Here we aimed at deciphering the role of NAC neurons in the encoding and retrieval of opiate withdrawal memory. Chronic single neuron and local field potentials recordings were performed in morphine-dependent rats and placebo-controls...
December 6, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919294/heantos-4-a-natural-plant-extract-used-in-the-treatment-of-drug-addiction-modulates-t-type-calcium-channels-and-thalamocortical-burst-firing
#4
Stuart M Cain, Soyon Ahn, Esperanza Garcia, Yiming Zhang, Zeina Waheed, John R Tyson, Yi Yang, Tran Van Sung, Anthony G Phillips, Terrance P Snutch
Heantos-4 is a refined combination of plant extracts currently approved to treat opiate addiction in Vietnam. In addition to its beneficial effects on withdrawal and prevention of relapse, reports of sedation during clinical treatment suggest that arousal networks in the brain may be recruited during Heantos administration. T-type calcium channels are implicated in the generation of sleep rhythms and in this study we examined whether a Heantos-4 extraction modulates T-type calcium channel currents generated by the Cav3...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919289/correlates-of-sex-trading-among-male-non-injecting-drug-users-in-myanmar-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Yu Mon Saw, Thu Nandar Saw, Kyi Mar Wai, Krishna C Poudel, Hla Hla Win
BACKGROUND: Sex trading is a recognized risk factor for human immune deficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted infections among non-injecting drug users (NIDUs). However, very little research has addressed the factors associated with sex trading among male NIDUs in Myanmar. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2010 using the respondent-driven sampling method. In total, 210 NIDUs aged between 18 and 49 years, with no history of injecting drug use, and who used non-injected illicit drugs in the last 6 months were recruited...
December 5, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916216/endocarditis-as-a-marker-for-new-epidemics-of-injection-drug-use
#6
Susana Williams Keeshin, Judith Feinberg
BACKGROUND: We examined discharges for infective endocarditis (IE) at an academic teaching hospital for over 10 years to evaluate if an increase in hospitalizations for IE and increase in hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients with IE could predict a new epidemic of injection drug use (IDU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective medical record review of discharged patients with the diagnosis of IE as defined by the modified Duke criteria. Student's t test, chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test were used to calculate P values...
December 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916215/opiate-injection-associated-infective-endocarditis-in-the-southeastern-united-states
#7
Lauren Hartman, Erin Barnes, Laura Bachmann, Katherine Schafer, James Lovato, Daniel Clark Files
BACKGROUND: Opiate pain reliever (OPR) misuse by injection is increasing in the United States. Infective endocarditis (IE), a devastating complication of injection OPR use, has been understudied. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of IE cases at an academic tertiary care hospital in North Carolina. Hospital admissions from 2009-2014 were screened for cases of definite IE. Subjects reporting injection drug use (IDU) were classified as IDU-IE, and compared to those without reported IDU, classified as No IDU-IE...
December 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915259/-standing-outside-the-junkie-door-service-users-experiences-of-using-community-pharmacies-to-access-treatment-for-opioid-dependency
#8
Andrew Radley, Karen Melville, Phyllis Easton, Brian Williams, John F Dillon
AIM: To explore experiences of service users attending a community pharmacy to receive opiate replacement therapy (ORT). METHOD: Qualitative study involving seven focus groups undertaken within care centres and prison educational centre in Tayside, Scotland using 41 participants. Thematic analysis undertaken of experiences of different groups of service users and carers. RESULTS: Participants described the social context surrounding attendance at community pharmacies...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909965/correction-of-negative-effect-of-antenatal-hypoxia-on-liver-tissue-homeostasis-in-newborn-albino-rats-with-opioid-peptides
#9
O G Pinaeva, E N Sazonova, O A Lebed'ko, S S Timoshin
We studied the possibility of correction of the negative effects of antenatal hypoxia on the liver tissue homeostasis in 7-day-old albino rats by administration of opioid peptides in a dose of 100 μg/kg on postnatal days 2-6. Administration of mixed μ/δ-opioid receptor agonist Dalargin neutralized deviations of gravimetric indicators, parameters of proliferative activity, and activity of the nucleolar apparatus of hepatocytes. Administration of the non-opiate Leu-enkephalin analogue did not normalize gravimetric parameters and nucleolar apparatus parameters, however, it significantly increased the pool of proliferating hepatocytes...
December 2, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906937/transversus-abdominis-plane-block-in-the-management-of-acute-postoperative-pain-syndrome-after-caesarean-section-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#10
Pierfrancesco Fusco, Vincenza Cofini, Emiliano Petrucci, Paolo Scimia, Tullio Pozone, Giuseppe Paladini, Gaspare Carta, Stefano Necozione, Battista Borghi, Franco Marinangeli
BACKGROUND: The international literature is unclear regarding the analgesic efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane block (TAPB) after a Caesarean section (CS). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether a correctly performed ultrasound-guided TAPB (USG-TAPB) could provide better control of acute postoperative pain during the first 72 hours after CS and if it could provide a faster postoperative recovery. STUDY DESIGN: A double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial on pregnant women who underwent CS...
November 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901585/a-review-of-positron-emission-tomography-studies-exploring-the-dopaminergic-system-in-substance-use-with-a-focus-on-tobacco-as-a-co-variate
#11
Thulasi Thiruchselvam, Saima Malik, Bernard Le Foll
With the evolving sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) and the emergence of novel radiotracers, greater insight has been gained into the dopaminergic system as it relates to substance use. In this review, we summarize PET investigations from the last ten years that explore the dopaminergic system in tobacco, alcohol, stimulant, opiates, and cannabis addiction. In light of the prevalence of substance co-use, this review will also explore the effect of tobacco and other substance abuse co-morbidity on the dopaminergic system across study samples in the reviewed literature...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899388/strategy-to-reduce-bortezomib-induced-paralytic-ileus-in-patients-with-myeloma-and-impaired-renal-function
#12
Matthew Keating, Constantin A Dasanu
While bortezomib is known to cause adverse effects involving the autonomic nervous system, gastrointestinal side effects are typically mild. We describe herein a series of patients with myeloma and impaired renal function who developed severe paralytic ileus secondary to bortezomib use. Our patients had other risk factors for paralytic ileus including electrolyte abnormalities and opiate use. The striking commonality in our patients is the development of paralytic ileus with intravenous bortezomib in the setting of reduced renal function, followed by ileus resolution with bortezomib dose reduction...
November 29, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894923/therapeutic-implications-of-toll-like-receptors-in-peripheral-neuropathic-pain
#13
REVIEW
Krishan K Thakur, Jyoti Saini, Kanika Mahajan, Dhyanendra Singh, Dinkar P Jayswal, Srishti Mishra, Anupam Bishyaee, Gautam Sethi, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara
Neuropathic pain is a state of chronic pain arising after peripheral or central nerve injury. These injuries can be mediated through the activation of various cells (astrocytes, microglia and Schwann cells), as well as the dissolution of distal axons. Recent studies have suggested that after nerve injury, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) involved in Wallerian degeneration and generation of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, these TLRs are responsible for the stimulation of astrocytes and microglia that can cause induction of the proinflammatory mediators and cytokines in the spinal cord, thereby leading to the generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain...
November 25, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891571/high-risk-medications-in-hospitalized-elderly-adults-are-we-making-it-easy-to-do-the-wrong-thing
#14
Nina L Blachman, Rosanne M Leipzig, Madhu Mazumdar, Jashvant Poeran
OBJECTIVES: To examine dosages of high-risk medications administered to elderly adults who fall in the hospital and to determine whether electronic default doses are appropriate for elderly adults. DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: Large urban academic hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older experiencing a fall. MEASUREMENTS: Prescribed daily dosages and use of high-risk medications (opiates, benzodiazepines, benzodiazepine-receptor agonists (BRAs), sleep medications, muscle relaxants, antipsychotics) administered within 24 hours before a fall were ascertained and compared with published recommended dosages for older adults and the hospital's electronic medical record (EMR) default doses for these drugs...
November 28, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890824/evaluating-a-switch-from-meconium-to-umbilical-cord-tissue-for-newborn-drug-testing-a-retrospective-study-at-an-academic-medical-center
#15
Kendra L Palmer, Kelly E Wood, Matthew D Krasowski
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare detection rates of newborn drug exposure at an academic medical center transitioning from meconium to umbilical cord tissue toxicology testing. METHODS: We performed an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective chart review on all newborns (n=2072) for whom newborn drug testing was ordered at our academic medical center between June 2012 and August 2015 (in August 2013, umbilical cord tissue became the preferred specimen)...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888979/corrigendum-to-a-comparison-of-suboxone-and-clonidine-treatment-outcomes-in-opiate-detoxification-archives-of-psychiatric-nursing-26-4-2012-316-323
#16
Anthony Steele, Patricia Cunningham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888955/emotion-dysregulation-mediates-between-childhood-emotional-abuse-and-motives-for-substance-use
#17
Usha Barahmand, Ali Khazaee, Goudarz Sadeghi Hashjin
The purpose of this study is to assess the relative mediating effects of impulsivity and emotion dysregulation in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and motives for opiate use. Seventy four adolescent users of Tramadol, a synthetic opiate, were recruited from a boot camp for de-addiction and rehabilitation services for the study. Data were collected between May, 2014 and November, 2014. Participants completed assessments of childhood abuse history, difficulties regulating emotions, impulsiveness and motives for substance use as well as a socio-demographic information sheet...
December 2016: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884570/a-gc-ms-method-for-the-detection-and-quantitation-of-ten-major-drugs-of-abuse-in-human-hair-samples
#18
A Orfanidis, O Mastrogianni, A Koukou, G Psarros, H Gika, G Theodoridis, N Raikos
A sensitive analytical method has been developed in order to identify and quantify major drugs of abuse (DOA), namely morphine, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, cocaine, ecgonine methyl ester, benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methylenedioxyamphetamine in human hair. Samples of hair were extracted with methanol under ultrasonication at 50°C after a three step rinsing process to remove external contamination and dirt hair. Derivatization with BSTFA was selected in order to increase detection sensitivity of GC/MS analysis...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878720/selank-inhibits-ethanol-induced-hyperlocomotion-and-manifestation-of-behavioral-sensitization-in-dba-2-mice
#19
L G Kolik, A V Nadorova, S B Seredenin
The effect of non-benzodiazepine anxiolytics on the ethanol-induced hyperlocomotion and behavioral sensitization was assessed in male DBA/2 mice. Selank that enhances activity of the endogenous opioid system (0.3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), similar to the nonselective opiate receptor blocker naloxone (1.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), prevented the development of ethanol-induced (2.0 g/kg intraperitoneally) hyperlocomotion, in contrast to σ1-receptors agonist Afobazole (1.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) that did not inhibit ethanol-induced behavioral stimulation...
November 23, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877102/inhibition-of-gabaergic-neurotransmission-by-hiv-1-tat-and-opioid-treatment-in-the-striatum-involves-%C3%AE-opioid-receptors
#20
Changqing Xu, Sylvia Fitting
Due to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is considered a chronic disease with high prevalence of mild forms of neurocognitive impairments, also referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Although opiate drug use can exacerbate HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal damage, it remains unknown how and to what extent opioids interact with Tat on the GABAergic system. We conducted whole-cell recordings in mouse striatal slices and examined the effects of HIV-1 Tat in the presence and absence of morphine (1 μM) and damgo (1 μM) on GABAergic neurotransmission...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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