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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544670/the-clinical-significance-of-esophagogastric-junction-outflow-obstruction-and-hypercontractile-esophagus-in-high-resolution-esophageal-manometry
#1
D Schupack, D A Katzka, D M Geno, K Ravi
BACKGROUND: Although major manometric abnormalities, the significance of esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction (EGJOO) and hypercontractile esophagus (HE) is poorly understood. We sought to determine long term outcomes for EGJOO and HE. METHODS: High-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM) studies conducted from 5/30/2012 to 8/1/2014 consistent with EGJOO and HE and normal studies from 5/30/12 to 11/1/12 were identified. Standardized follow up was conducted with a phone survey utilizing the impact dysphagia questionnaire (IDQ-10)...
May 23, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543087/death-due-to-complications-of-bowel-obstruction-following-raw-poppy-seed-ingestion
#2
Leah M Schuppener, Robert F Corliss
Eating poppy seeds can cause a positive urine drug screen, but it is unknown whether ingesting large quantities can result in opiate intoxication or toxicity. A 54-year-old woman with intractable vomiting was found unresponsive at home and later pronounced dead. At autopsy, a cast-like large bowel obstruction composed of poppy seeds was identified. Postmortem blood morphine level was < 10 ng/mL. Cause of death was determined to be complications of a bowel obstruction secondary to poppy seed ingestion. Deaths related to eating poppy seeds have not been described in the literature...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542470/differential-physiological-changes-following-internet-exposure-in-higher-and-lower-problematic-internet-users
#3
Phil Reed, Michela Romano, Federica Re, Alessandra Roaro, Lisa A Osborne, Caterina Viganò, Roberto Truzoli
Problematic internet use (PIU) has been suggested as in need of further research with a view to being included as a disorder in future Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association, but lack of knowledge about the impact of internet cessation on physiological function remains a major gap in knowledge and a barrier to PIU classification. One hundred and forty-four participants were assessed for physiological (blood pressure and heart rate) and psychological (mood and state anxiety) function before and after an internet session...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541461/screening-with-quantification-for-64-drugs-and-metabolites-in-human-urine-using-uplc-ms-ms-analysis-and-a-threshold-accurate-calibration
#4
Thomas G Rosano, Patrice Y Ohouo, Michelle Wood
Drug and metabolite (analytes) identification together with quantification is an important analytical tool in forensic and clinical toxicology. We report the development and validation of a definitive detection and quantification method (UPLC-MS-MS) for initial screening of 64 analytes in urine. The principle of the method is a quantitative extension of a recently reported threshold accurate calibration (TAC) technique which employs a rapid dual-specimen analysis i.e., with and without addition of a reference-analyte standard for normalization of matrix effects...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538539/pain-and-analgesia-requirements-with-hip-fracture-surgery
#5
Jamie AʼCourt, Deborah Lees, William Harrison, Thomas Ankers, Mike R Reed
BACKGROUND: Hip hemiarthroplasty and dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation are common procedures performed in trauma units, but there is little information regarding perioperative pain experience with respect to these treatment modalities. PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between pain, analgesia requirements, and type of procedure for hip fracture surgery. METHODS: An analysis was performed on consecutive patients presenting with a hip fracture in 2 hospitals over 2 years...
May 2017: Orthopaedic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537688/prevalence-of-alcohol-and-other-drugs-in-injured-drivers-and-their-association-with-clinical-outcomes
#6
F Cittadini, N De Giovanni, L Caradonna, G Vetrugno, A Oliva, N Fucci, C Zuppi, V L Pascali, M Covino
OBJECTIVE: Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs is a risk factor for motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). This issue has become an increasing concern for the governments of many European and North American countries, thereby encouraging the adoption of preventive policies. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between major clinical outcomes and alcohol or drug abuse among drivers involved in MVAs who were referred to an Italian Emergency Department. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of consecutive injured drivers who were admitted to the Emergency Department following an MVA during a period of one year...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536527/opiate-analgesics-as-negative-modulators-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-potential-implications-in-clinical-practice
#7
REVIEW
Valeria Bortolotto, Mariagrazia Grilli
During the past decade, studies of the mechanisms and functional implications of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (ahNG) have significantly progressed. At present, it is proposed that adult born neurons may contribute to a variety of hippocampal-related functions, including specific cognitive aspects and mood regulation. Several groups focussed on the factors that regulate proliferation and fate determination of adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC/NPC), including clinically relevant drugs. Opiates were the first drugs shown to negatively impact neurogenesis in the adult mammalian hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535456/effectiveness-of-treatment-for-opioid-use-disorder-a-national-five-year-prospective-observational-study-in-england
#8
Brian Eastwood, John Strang, John Marsden
BACKGROUND: This the first 5-year effectiveness study of publicly funded treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) in England. METHODS: All adults initiating treatment in 2008/09 in all 149 local treatment systems reporting to the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (n=54,347). Admission polydrug use sub-populations were identified by Latent Class Analysis. The treatment outcome measure was 'successful completion and no re-presentation within six months' (SCNR) analysed by multilevel, multivariable logistic regression and funnel plots to contrast outcome by treatment system...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534885/modeling-combination-hcv-prevention-among-hiv-infected-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-people-who-inject-drugs
#9
Natasha K Martin, Britt Skaathun, Peter Vickerman, David Stuart
People who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are key risk groups for HCV transmission. Mathematical modeling studies can help elucidate what level and combination of prevention intervention scale-up is required to control or eliminate epidemics among these key populations. We discuss the evidence surrounding HCV prevention interventions and provide an overview of the mathematical modeling literature projecting the impact of scaled-up HCV prevention among PWID and HIV-infected MSM...
May 23, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534187/total-hypothalamic-volume-is-reduced-in-postmortem-brains-of-male-heroin-addicts
#10
Ulf J Müller, Kolja Schiltz, Christian Mawrin, Henrik Dobrowolny, Thomas Frodl, Hans-Gert Bernstein, Bernhard Bogerts, Kurt Truebner, Johann Steiner
The hypothalamus is at the core of the stress responses systems of the brain. Most interestingly, even though changes of HPA-function have been observed in opiate addiction not much is known about structural changes of the hypothalamus. Volumes of hypothalamus in heroin addicts (n = 14) and healthy controls (n = 12) were assessed by using morphometry of serial whole-brain sections. Total brain volume was larger in the heroin group (mean 1478.85 ± 62.34 cm(3) vs. mean 1352.38 ± 103.24 cm(3)), as the heroin group was more than 10 years younger (p = 0...
May 22, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533165/analgesic-conopeptides-targeting-g-protein-coupled-receptors-reduce-excitability-of-sensory-neurons
#11
REVIEW
Mahsa Sadeghi, Jeffrey R McArthur, Rocio K Finol-Urdaneta, David J Adams
Conotoxins (conopeptides) are a diverse group of peptides isolated from the venom of marine cone snails. Conus peptides modulate pain by interacting with voltage-gated ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Opiate drugs targeting GPCRs have long been used, nonetheless, many undesirable side effects associated with opiates have been observed including addiction. Consequently, alternative avenues to pain management are a largely unmet need. It has been shown that various voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) respond to GPCR modulation...
May 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529193/laparoscopy-has-a-therapeutic-role-in-the-management-of-abdominal-trauma-a-matched-pair-analysis
#12
Saurav Chakravartty, Ameet Patel, Diwakar R Sarma, Muhammad Noor, Spyros Panagiotopoulos, Ameet G Patel
INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopy is increasingly utilised as a diagnostic tool in management of abdominal trauma; however its role in therapeutic intervention remains unexplored. The aim of this study is to compare laparoscopy with laparotomy in the treatment of abdominal trauma in haemodynamically stable patients. METHODS: A review of patients undergoing surgery for abdominal trauma between January 2004-2014 identified 25 patients who underwent laparoscopy for therapeutic intervention (TL)...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526156/essential-elements-of-multimodal-analgesia-in-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-eras-guidelines
#13
REVIEW
Anair Beverly, Alan D Kaye, Olle Ljungqvist, Richard D Urman
Perioperative multimodal analgesia uses combinations of analgesic medications that act on different sites and pathways in an additive or synergistic manner to achieve pain relief with minimal or no opiate consumption. Although all medications have side effects, opiates have particularly concerning, multisystemic, long-term, and short-term side effects, which increase morbidity and prolong admissions. Enhanced recovery is a systematic process addressing each aspect affecting recovery. This article outlines the evidence base forming the current multimodal analgesia recommendations made by the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Society (ERAS)...
June 2017: Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522270/lumbar-microdiscectomy-as-a-day-case-procedure-scope-for-improvement
#14
Neeraj Ahuja, Himanshu Sharma
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are no significant differences in outcomes between patients receiving inpatient and day-case lumbar microdiscectomy, but the latter is still underused in the NHS. Here we aimed to identify factors contributing to successful same-day discharge in day-case patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of patients undergoing elective lumbar microdiscectomy between August 2012 and December 2014. Age, gender, day of surgery, distance to hospital, ASA grade, regular opiate use, smoking status, order on the operating list, and side and level of surgery were examined by logistic regression to assess their influence on same-day discharge...
May 15, 2017: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521781/telling-our-stories-heroin-assisted-treatment-and-snap-activism-in-the-downtown-eastside-of-vancouver
#15
Susan Boyd, Dave Murray, Donald MacPherson
BACKGROUND: This article highlights the experiences of a peer-run group, SALOME/NAOMI Association of Patients (SNAP), that meets weekly in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. SNAP is a unique independent peer- run drug user group that formed in 2011 following Canada's first heroin-assisted treatment trial (HAT), North America Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI). SNAP's members are now made up of former research participants who participated in two heroin-assisted trials in Vancouver...
May 18, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520273/efficacy-of-a-targeted-drug-delivery-on-demand-bolus-option-for-chronic-pain
#16
Robert B Bolash, Tariq Niazi, Meera Kumari, Gerges Azer, Nagy Mekhail
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intrathecal targeted drug delivery systems historically required a physician's office visits for dose adjustment to manage fluctuating pain. A wireless device now enables patients to supplement their basal intrathecal infusion with a programmed on-demand bolus dose. We sought to quantify the change in oral breakthrough opioid need associated with the use of an intrathecal bolus in comparison to those treated with the basal infusion alone. METHODS: Demographic, dosage, bolus usage and longevity data were extracted from the historical medical record of 69 patients (18/51 bolus/non-bolus) followed continuously at our center...
May 18, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28519244/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-update-on-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-strategies
#17
Genny Raffaeli, Giacomo Cavallaro, K Karel Allegaert, Enno Diederik Wildschut, Monica Fumagalli, Massimo Agosti, Dick Tibboel, Fabio Mosca
Substance use among pregnant women is a major public health issue. Both prescription opioid use and illicit opioid abuse have increased dramatically in recent years. Prolonged in utero drug exposure may result in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), an acute multisystemic clinical entity that occurs in the first days of life. This syndrome is caused by abrupt discontinuation of fetal exposure to licit or illicit drugs chronically consumed by the mother during pregnancy and transmitted to the fetus through the placenta...
May 18, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516444/toxicological-analysis-of-opiates-from-alternative-matrices-collected-from-an-exhumed-body
#18
Marta Cippitelli, Dora Mirtella, Giovanni Ottaviani, Giovanna Tassoni, Rino Froldi, Mariano Cingolani
In this case study, the body of a 45-year-old man was exhumed after 1 year at the request of the public prosecutor to assess whether the death was caused by drug consumption. Toxicological analyses were performed on several matrices, including liver, kidney, and the alternative matrices hair and teeth. The systematic toxicological analysis (STA), which consisted of basic and acid liquid/liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, showed the presence of opiates in each of the matrices analyzed...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511485/spiritual-well-being-and-associated-factors-with-relapse-in-opioid-addicts
#19
Mohammad-Reza Noormohammadi, Masoud Nikfarjam, Fatemeh Deris, Neda Parvin
INTRODUCTION: Opioid dependence relapse is a complex and multidimensional problem, and lack of spiritual well-being is a major concern in opioid addicts. AIM: This study was conducted to determine spiritual well-being and factors associated with relapse among opioid addicts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2015 to September 2015. According to purposive sampling, 312 eligible addicted patients were enrolled in the study...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511099/the-social-exigencies-of-the-gateway-progression-to-the-use-of-illicit-drugs-from-adolescence-into-adulthood
#20
Roy Otten, Chung Jung Mun, Thomas J Dishion
BACKGROUND: There is limited empirical integration between peer clustering theory and the Gateway framework. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that friendship associations partly predict gateway escalations in the use of drugs from adolescence to adulthood. METHOD: This longitudinal study analyzed 3 waves of data from a community sample of 711 male and female participants without a history of illicit drug use reporting drug use at age 17, 22, and 27...
May 11, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
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