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Ajit S Narang, Timothy Stevens, Mario Hubert, Srinivasa Paruchuri, Kevin Macias, Dilbir Bindra, Zhihui Gao, Sherif Badawy
Real-time process monitoring using a process analytical technology for granule size distribution can enable quality-by-design in drug product manufacturing. In this study, the resolution and sensitivity of chord length distribution (CLD) measured inline inside a high shear granulator using focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) C35 probe was investigated using different particle size grades of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). In addition, the impact of water and impeller tip speed on the measurement accuracy as well as correlation with offline particle sizing techniques (FBRM, laser diffraction [Malvern Mastersizer(®)], microscopy [Sympatec QicPic(®)], and nested sieve analysis) was studied...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Javed Sayyed, Deepti Sharma, C P Meena, Sanket Singh, Pallavi Vij
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Ze D Jiang, Cui Wang
AIM: To examine brainstem auditory function at 36-37weeks of postconceptional age in preterm infants who are diagnosed to have neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD). STUDY DESIGN: Preterm infants, born at 31 and less weeks of gestation, were studied at 36-37weeks of postconceptional age when they were diagnosed to have neonatal CLD. Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) was recorded and analyzed at different click rates. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls at the same postconceptional age, the CLD infants showed a slightly increase in BAER wave V latency...
September 28, 2016: Early Human Development
Giorgio Maria Saracco, Andrea Evangelista, Sharmila Fagoonee, Giovannino Ciccone, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Gian Paolo Caviglia, Maria Lorena Abate, Mario Rizzetto, Rinaldo Pellicano, Antonina Smedile
AIM: To assess the etiology of chronic liver diseases (CLD) from 1998 to 2014 at the outpatient clinic of Gastroenterology of the main hospital in Northwest of Italy among those dedicated to hepatology. METHODS: A random sample of charts of patients referred to for increased liver enzymes between January 1998 and December 2006, and between January 2012 and December 2014 were reviewed. Etiology search included testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, Wilson's disease and hereditary hemocromatosis...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Nadine Kuttkat, Antje Mohs, Kim Ohl, Guido Hooiveld, Thomas Longerich, Klaus Tenbrock, Francisco Javier Cubero, Christian Trautwein
OBJECTIVE: Th17 cells are a subset of CD4(+) T-helper cells characterised by interleukin 17 (IL-17) production, a cytokine that plays a crucial role in inflammation-associated diseases. The cyclic AMP-responsive element modulator-α (CREMα) is a central mediator of T-cell pathogenesis, which contributes to increased IL-17 expression in patients with autoimmune disorders. Since an increased Th17 response is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with chronic liver injury, we investigated the relevance of Th17 cells for chronic liver disease (CLD) and hepatocarcinogenesis...
September 29, 2016: Gut
Mariangela Giunta, Dario Conte, Mirella Fraquelli
The development of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension (PH), one of its major complications, are structural and functional alterations of the liver, occurring in many patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). Actually the progressive deposition of hepatic fibrosis has a key role in the prognosis of CLD patients. The subsequent development of PH leads to its major complications, such as ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding and decompensation. Liver biopsy is still considered the reference standard for the assessment of hepatic fibrosis, whereas the measurement of hepatic vein pressure gradient is the standard to ascertain the presence of PH and upper endoscopy is the method of choice to detect the presence of oesophageal varices...
September 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Salina Louie, Benjamin Haley, Brett Marshall, Amy Heidersbach, Mandy Yim, Martina Brozynski, Danming Tang, Cynthia Lam, Bronislawa Petryniak, David Shaw, Jeongsup Shim, Aaron Miller, John B Lowe, Brad Snedecor, Shahram Misaghi
During antibody dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) the target cells are killed by monocytes and natural killer cells. ADCC is enhanced when the antibody heavy chain's core N-linked glycan lacks the fucose molecule(s). Several strategies have been utilized to generate fully afucosylated antibodies. A commonly used and efficient approach has been knocking out the FUT8 gene of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host cells, which results in expression of antibody molecules with fully afucosylated glycans. However, a major drawback of the FUT8-KO host is the requirement for undertaking two separate cell line development (CLD) efforts in order to obtain both primarily fucosylated and fully afucosylated antibody species for comparative studies in vitro and in vivo...
September 26, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Ki Tae Suk, Eun Jin Kim, Dong Joon Kim, Hyo Sun Kim, Chang Seok Bang, Tae Young Park, Gwang Ho Baik, Sung Eun Kim, Ji Won Park, Sang Hoon Park, Myung Seok Lee, Hyoung Su Kim, Myoung Kuk Jang, Seung Ha Park, Eunhee Choi, Chang H Kim, Hotaik Sung, Choong Kee Park
BACKGROUND & GOALS: Early identification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with improved survival for patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). We evaluated the prognostic significance of hemodynamic stage (HS) and clinical stage (CS) in predicting HCC in CLD patients. METHODS: Between January 2006 and May 2014, 801 patients with CLD who underwent hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement were prospectively enrolled. HS was classified by HVPG (mm Hg) as follows: HS-1 (HVPG≤6), HS-2 (6<HVPG≤10), HS-3 (10<HVPG≤12), HS-4 (12<HVPG≤20), and HS-5 (20<HVPG)...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
C Park, J Park, S Kim, S Lee, J Jun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Kate Diana Williamson, Madeleine G Gill, Jane Mary Andrews, Hugh Aj Harley
BACKGROUND: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) carries a significant cost burden, and often leads to inpatient care. It is unclear whether inpatient care for ALD is any more costly than admission for other reasons. AIMS: To compare the costs and outcomes of inpatient care for ALD to two groups: a control group of matched cases admitted in the same timeframe, and people admitted for other chronic liver diseases (CLD). METHODS: All admissions for ALD and other CLD in a 3-month period were retrospectively identified ...
September 19, 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
Michalis Tsamatsoulis, Chris J Kapelios, Lambros Katsaros, Stella Vakrou, Vasilis Sousonis, Stefania Sventzouri, Nicholas Michelinakis, Despoina N Perrea, Maria Anastasiou-Nana, Konstantinos Malliaras
BACKGROUND: The Translocator Protein (TSPO) of the mitochondrial membrane has been recognized as a potential therapeutic target for mitigation of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Administration of 4-chlorodiazepam (4-CLD), a TSPO ligand, has been shown to confer acute cardioprotective effects in small animals; however, long-term studies and studies in clinically-relevant large animal models are lacking. In the present study we investigated a potential cardioprotective effect of intracoronary administration of 4-CLD in small and large animal models of ischemia-reperfusion...
September 10, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Katherine N Gharibian, Venkatesh L Murthy, Bruce A Mueller
BACKGROUND: Regadenoson is a novel pharmacological stress agent whose disposition during hemodialysis is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the clearance of regadenoson under varying dialytic conditions using an in vitro hemodialysis model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Whole human blood was used to analyze the effect of hemodialysis on the clearance of regadenoson. Regadenoson transmembrane clearance (CLD) was assessed for both a standard permeability and a high permeability polysulfone hemodialyzer with blood/dialysate flow rates of 300/600 and 400/800 mL/min...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Hirayuki Enomoto, Hiroki Nishikawa, Naoto Ikeda, Nobuhiro Aizawa, Yoshiyuki Sakai, Kazunori Yoh, Ryo Takata, Kunihiro Hasegawa, Chikage Nakano, Takashi Nishimura, Akio Ishii, Tomoyuki Takashima, Yoshinori Iwata, Hiroko Iijima, Shuhei Nishiguchi
BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic liver diseases (CLDs), hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in particular may cause various metabolic disorders. We previously reported that the value of the ratio of branched-chain amino acids to tyrosine (BTR) decreased with the progression of liver fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the changes in clinical variables during interferon (IFN) treatment and assessed whether HCV eradication improved the amino acid imbalance in HCV infected patients...
June 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
Christophe Mouvet, Marie-Christine Dictor, Sébastien Bristeau, Dominique Breeze, Anne Mercier
Chlordecone (CLD), a highly persistent organochlorine pesticide commonly encountered in French West Indies (FWI) agricultural soils, represents a major source of contamination of FWI ecosystems. The potential of chemical reduction for remediation of CLD-contaminated soil has been investigated in laboratory pilot-scale 80 kg mesocosms for andosol, ferralsol, and nitisol from FWI banana plantations. Six cycles consisting of a 3-week reducing phase followed by a 1-week oxidizing phase were applied, with 2 % (dw/dw) Daramend® (organic plant matter fortified with zero valent iron) added at the start of each cycle...
September 15, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hans-Theo Schon, Ralf Weiskirchen
Chronic liver disease (CLD) features constant parenchymal injury and repair together with an increasing hepatic impairment, finally leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis and a heightened risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Closely related to the rise in obesity, the worldwide prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the most common form of CLD, has reached an epidemic dimension and is estimated to afflict up to 46% of the general population, including more than one out of three U.S. citizens. Up to now there is no effective drug treatment available, which is why recommendations encompass both exercise programs and changes in dietary habits...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Hartono Gunardi, Melanie Y Iskandar, Turyadi, Susan I Ie, Pramita G Dwipoerwantoro, Rino A Gani, David H Muljono
BACKGROUND: HBV-infected patients are potential sources of intra-familial transmission. We studied HBV transmission and molecular characteristics within families of HBV-related chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. METHODS: Family members [index cases (ICs), spouses, and 1-18-year-old children] of HBV-related CLD patients were tested for HBsAg, anti-HBc, and anti-HBs. HBsAg-positive subjects were tested for HBeAg/anti-HBe. Anti-HBc-positive children together with their family members were further investigated for HBV DNA...
September 13, 2016: Hepatology International
Yongsheng Wu, Charles G Hannah, Pramod Thupaki, Ruping Mo, Brent Law
Raindrops falling on the sea surface produce turbulence. The present study examined the influence of rain-induced turbulence on oil droplet size and dispersion of oil spills in Douglas Channel in British Columbia, Canada using hourly atmospheric data in 2011-2013. We examined three types of oils: a light oil (Cold Lake Diluent - CLD), and two heavy oils (Cold Lake Blend - CLB and Access Western Blend - AWB). We found that the turbulent energy dissipation rate produced by rainfalls is comparable to what is produced by wind-induced wave breaking in our study area...
September 5, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Gia A DeAngelis, Rachita Khot, Ziv J Haskal, Hillary S Maitland, Patrick G Northup, Neeral L Shah, Stephen H Caldwell
The coagulopathy of liver disease is distinctly different from therapeutic anticoagulation in a patient. Despite stable elevated standard clot-based coagulation assays, nearly all patients with stable chronic liver disease (CLD) have normal or increased clotting. Common unfamiliarity with the limitations of these assays in CLD may lead to inappropriate and sometimes harmful interventions, including blood product transfusions before a procedure. Knowledge of the distinct hemostatic alterations in CLD can allow identification of the small subset of patients with clinically significant coagulopathy who can benefit from hematologic optimization before invasive procedures...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
Somchit Jaruratanasirikul, Boonsin Tangtrakulwanich, Pornruedee Rachatawiriyakul, Hutcha Sriplung, Wannee Limpitikul, Pathikan Dissaneevate, Nattasit Khunnarakpong, Pongsak Tantichantakarun
This is the first population-based study in Thailand on the prevalence of congenital limb defects (CLD). Data were obtained from recently established birth defects registries in three southern Thailand provinces during 2009-2013. Entries in the birth defects registries included live births, stillbirths after 24 weeks gestational age, and terminations of pregnancy following a prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomaly. The total of 186 393 births recorded included 424 CLD cases, giving an average prevalence of 2...
September 2016: Congenital Anomalies
M Kooffreh-Ada, D C Okpokam, Z A Okaormhe, V U Nna
Hepatitis B (HBsAg) and C (HCV) virus are becoming a significant causative factors in the aetiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) worldwide. However, the information on the frequency of HBsAg and HCV virus co-infection in CLD is sparsely reported in Nigeria. In this study, we assessed the frequency of HBsAg and HCV co-infection in CLD. One hundred and eleven subjects aged 19 - 76 years, comprising of 76 CLD patients and 35 apparently healthy subjects without CLD were tested for both HBsAg and HCV virus antibodies using ELISA test kits...
2016: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
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