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Akiyoshi Ishikawa, Keita Sakai, Takehiro Maki, Yuri Mizuno, Kimie Niimi, Yasuhiro Oda, Eiki Takahashi
To understand sleep mechanisms and develop treatments for sleep disorders, investigations using animal models are essential. The sleep architecture of rodents differs from that of diurnal mammals including humans and non-human primates. Sleep studies have been conducted in non-human primates; however, these sleep assessments were performed on animals placed in a restraint chair connected via the umbilical area to the recording apparatus. To avoid restraints, cables, and other stressful apparatuses and manipulations, telemetry systems have been developed...
October 18, 2016: Experimental Animals
Giovanni Filardo, Gorav Ailawadi, Benjamin D Pollock, Briget da Graca, Danielle M Sass, Teresa K Phan, Debbie E Montenegro, Vinod Thourani, Ralph Damiano
BACKGROUND: New-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) is associated with increased morbidity and poorer long-term survival. Although many studies show differences in outcome in women versus men after CABG, little is known about the sex-specific incidence and characteristics of post-CABG AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Overall, 11 236 consecutive patients without preoperative AF underwent isolated CABG from 2002 to 2010 at 4 US academic medical centers and 1 high-volume specialty cardiac hospital...
October 18, 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Christopher M Holbrook, Roger A Bergstedt, Jessica Barber, Gale A Bravener, Michael L Jones, Charles C Krueger
Physical removal (e.g., harvest via traps or nets) of mature individuals may be a cost-effective or socially acceptable alternative to chemical control strategies for invasive species, but requires knowledge of the spatial distribution of a population over time. We used acoustic telemetry to determine the current and possible future role of traps to control and assess invasive sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, in the St. Marys River, the connecting channel between Lake Superior and Lake Huron. Exploitation rates (i...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Matthew L Bush, Robin Thompson, Catherine Irungu, John Ayugi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of live telemedicine applications in hearing amplification and cochlear implantation. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: A systematic search was performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINALH, and Web of Science to identify peer-reviewed research. Inclusion criteria were titles containing words from the search terms 1) audiology, otolaryngology, and hearing impairment, 2) rehabilitative methods, and 3) telemedicine...
October 12, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Maja Svrakic, J Thomas Roland, Sean O McMenomey, Mario A Svirsky
OBJECTIVE: To describe our initial operative experience and hearing preservation results with the Advanced Bionics (AB) Mid Scala Electrode (MSE). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Sixty-three MSE implants in pediatric and adult patients were compared with age- and sex-matched 1j electrode implants from the same manufacturer. All patients were severe to profoundly deaf. INTERVENTION: Cochlear implantation with either the AB 1j electrode or the AB MSE...
October 12, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Yuanting Cui, Li Li, Peng Gao, Liqun Ma, Daoyan Liu, Zhiming Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is global healthy problem. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mainly expresses on brown adipose tissue (BAT), uncouples energy substrate oxidation from mitochondrial ATP production and results in the loss of potential energy as heat. Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily, member 1 (TRPV1) is the heat-gated cation ion channel. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo role of TRPV1 and UCP1 co-action in obesity. DESIGN AND METHOD: We generated and characterized UCP1 mice lacking TRPV1 activity (TRPV1/UCP1 mice)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Asadur Rahman, Yui Takeshige, Yoshihide Fujisawa, Hirofumi Hitomi, Daisuke Nakano, Akira Nishiyama
OBJECTIVE: Disrupted circadian rhythm of blood pressure is associated with cardiovascular events in metabolic syndrome and obesity. Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on circadian rhythm of blood pressure in a genetic model of obese metabolic syndrome (SHR/NDmcr-cp (+/+) (SHRcp)) and salt-treated obese Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. DESIGN AND METHOD: Luseogliflozin (10 mg/kg/day, p...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Xiaodong Li, Mona Hong, Dingliang Zhu, Pingjin Gao
OBJECTIVE: The sympathetic nervous system interacts with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) contributing to cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we sought to determine if renal denervation (RDN) inhibits aldosterone expression and associated cardiovascular pathophysiological changes in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension. DESIGN AND METHOD: Bilateral RDN or SHAM operation was performed before chronic 14-day Ang II infusion (200 ng/kg/min) in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Pierre Paradis, Suellen C Coelho, Sofiane Ouerd, Júlio C Fraulob-Aquino, Stefan Offermanns, Ernesto L Schiffrin
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms of blood pressure (BP) regulation by endothelin (ET)-1 produced by endothelial cells are complex and remain unclear. Recently, we developed a transgenic mouse with tamoxifen-inducible endothelium-restricted human ET-1 overexpression (ieET-1) using Cre/loxP technology. ieET-1 mice exhibited a BP increase after three weeks of induction in an ET type A receptor-dependent manner, in absence of evident vascular injury. It is unknown whether long-term exposure to ET-1 overexpression results in persistent BP elevation and vascular injury...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Pierre Paradis, Tlili Barhoumi, Muhammad Oneeb Rehman Mian, Julio C Fraulob-Aquino, Asia Rehman, Nourredine Idris-Khodja, Ernesto L Schiffrin
OBJECTIVE: Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) is involved in cardiovascular disease. Whether MMP2 plays a role in hypertension and vascular damage is unknown. We hypothesized that Mmp2 knockout will prevent angiotensin (Ang) II-induced hypertension and vascular injury. DESIGN AND METHOD: Mmp2 knockout (Mmp2) and wild-type (WT) mice were infused with Ang II (1000 ng/kg/min, SC) for 14 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by telemetry, and mesenteric artery (MA) endothelial function and vascular remodeling by pressurized myography...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Christopher Wilcox
OBJECTIVE: CKD progression is accelerated by hypertension and impaired myogenic responses (MRs) of renal afferent arterioles leading to renal barotrauma. We tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS) underlie both these processes and that ROS metabolism by tempol would thereby protect kidneys. DESIGN AND METHODS: Rat and mouse 5/6 nephrectomy models of reduced renal mass (RRM) vs sham were fed high salt for 3 months during BP telemetry. Individual afferent arterioles were isolated and perfused...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Wioletta Pijacka, Bethan Clifford, Dawid Walas, Chantal Tilburgs, Jaap A Joles, Sarah McMullen, Simon C Langley-Evans
OBJECTIVE: It is well established that autonomic nervous system and sympatho-vagal balance plays an important role in maintaining arterial blood pressure (ABP) (Salman IM., 2016) and that autonomic regulation of ABP differs between males and females (Hart EC et al., 2014). We hypothesised that sex hormones affect blood pressure via the autonomic nervous system and that the late development of hypertension in females is due to protective effects of ovarian steroids in females rather than due to detrimental effects of testosterone in males...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Akira Nishiyama, Hirofumi Hitomi, Daisuke Nakano, Yoshihide Fujisawa
OBJECTIVE: Clinical studies have indicated that renal denervation (RDN) suppresses sympathetic overactivity in hypertensive patients, suggesting that afferent renal nerve activity (ARNA) enhances sympathetic outflow via central nervous system. To investigate the possible role of ARNA in the pathophysiology of renovascular hypertension, we examined the effect of RDN on blood pressure and urinary norepinephrine in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt rats. DESIGN AND METHOD: Male Wister-Kyoto rats were divided 3 groups: sham, 2K1C and 2K1C with RDN...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jose Lopez-Novoa, Lucia Perez-Roque, Elena Nuñez-Gomez, Claudia Ollauri, Laura Ruiz-Remolina, Miguel Arevalo, Carmelo Bernabeu, Alicia Rodriguez-Barbero, Miguel Pericacho
OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria occurring after the twentieth week of pregnancy, is a major contributor to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in developed countries. The mechanisms mediating the pathogenesis preeclampsia are far from clear. Strong experimental evidence suggests that placental ischemia, resulting from the inappropriate remodeling of the maternal spiral arteries, stimulates the release of soluble factors causing hypertension and renal damage...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Wioletta Pijacka, Fiona McBryde, Anthony P Ford, Julian F R Paton
OBJECTIVE: Arterial hypertension is associated with increases in both peripheral chemoreceptor reflex sensitivity and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). We have shown that CB resection in SH rats reduces arterial pressure (AP; McBryde et al. 2013). Since P2X3 receptors exist in the rat CB and P2X3 receptor activity is associated with afferent hyperreflexia (Ford et al. 2015), we hypothesized that P2X3 receptor would be upregulated in the CB of SH vs normotensive (Wistar) control rats and that a selective P2X3 receptor antagonist (AF-219) would reduce chemoreflex hypersensitivity, AP and SNA in SH rats...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jan-Dieter Ludwigs, Markus Ebeling, Timothy B Fredricks, Roger C Murfitt, Steven Kragten
The registration of pesticides follows guidance published by the European Food Safety Authority, EFSA. As a default, the EFSA guidance document on risk assessment for birds and mammals assumes that animals feed exclusively on pesticide-treated fields. However, the guidance document suggests refining the risk via the proportion of food animals obtain from a treated field or specific crop (expressed via the so-called PT value). The EFSA guidance equalizes the portion of food taken from a treated area per day with the portion of time spent potentially foraging over the course of a day within this area...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Roisin Bartlam, Rajiv Mohanraj
BACKGROUND: Seizures can lead to cardiac arrhythmias by a number of mechanisms including activation/inhibition of cortical autonomic centers, increase in vagal tone through activation of brainstem reflex centers, and respiratory failure. Ictal asystole (IA) is a potential mechanism underlying sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). We analyzed the clinical features of 5 patients who developed IA requiring pacemaker implantation. METHODS: Patients with ictal arrhythmias were identified from the video-telemetry and ambulatory EEG database at Greater Manchester Neurosciences Centre, as well as an independent epilepsy residential care facility...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Shinnosuke Nakayama, Tobias Rapp, Robert Arlinghaus
Fast and slow life histories are proposed to covary with consistent individual differences in behaviour, but little is known whether it holds in the wild, where individuals experience natural fluctuations of the environment. We investigated whether individual differences in behaviour, such as movement traits and prey selection, are linked to variation in life-history traits in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) in the wild. Using high-resolution acoustic telemetry, we collected the positional data of fish in a whole natural lake and estimated individual movement traits by fitting a 2-state correlated random walk model...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Steven P Sears, Trevor W Getz, Christopher O Austin, William C Palmer, Evelyn A Boyd, Fernando F Stancampiano
BACKGROUND: Azithromycin has been associated with abnormalities of cardiac repolarization and development of torsades de pointes. Observational data suggest that the risk of death from cardiovascular causes is increased in patients taking azithromycin. Little is known regarding the risk of ventricular arrhythmia in patients with prolongation of the corrected QT interval who receive azithromycin. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of sustained ventricular tachycardia in patients with prolonged corrected QT (QTc) who subsequently received azithromycin...
March 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Benjamin A Keller, Sandra K Kabagambe, James C Becker, Y Julia Chen, Laura F Goodman, Julianna M Clark-Wronski, Kenneth Furukawa, Rebecca A Stark, Amy L Rahm, Shinjiro Hirose, Gary W Raff
BACKGROUND: Multimodal pain management strategies are used for analgesia following pectus excavatum repair. However, the optimal regimen has not been identified. We describe our early experience with intercostal cryoablation for pain management in children undergoing the Nuss procedure and compare early cryoablation outcomes to our prior outcomes using thoracic epidural analgesia. METHODS: A multi-institutional, retrospective review of fifty-two patients undergoing Nuss bar placement with either intercostal cryoablation (n=26) or thoracic epidural analgesia (n=26) from March 2013 to January 2016 was conducted...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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