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Gabriel A Leite, Izeni P Farias, André L S Gonçalves, Joseph E Hawes, Carlos A Peres
Patterns of habitat selection are influenced by local productivity, resource availability, and predation risk. Species have taken millions of years to hone the macro- and micro-habitats they occupy, but these may now overlap with contemporary human threats within natural species ranges. Wattled Curassow ( Crax globulosa ), an endemic galliform species of the western Amazon, is threatened by both hunting and habitat loss, and is restricted to white-water floodplain forests of major Amazonian rivers. In this study conducted along the Juruá River, Amazonas, Brazil, we quantified the ranging ecology and fine-scale patterns of habitat selection of the species...
2018: PeerJ
Dominique Endres, Dirk-M Altenmüller, Bernd Feige, Simon J Maier, Kathrin Nickel, Sabine Hellwig, Jördis Rausch, Christiane Ziegler, Katharina Domschke, John P Doerr, Karl Egger, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
Background: Schizophreniform syndromes can be divided into primary idiopathic forms as well as different secondary organic subgroups (e.g., paraepileptic, epileptic, immunological, or degenerative). Secondary epileptic explanatory approaches have often been discussed in the past, due to the high rates of electroencephalography (EEG) alterations in patients with schizophrenia. In particular, temporal lobe epilepsy is known to be associated with schizophreniform symptoms in well-described constellations. In the literature, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy has been linked to emotionally unstable personality traits, depression, anxiety, and executive dysfunction; however, the association with schizophrenia is largely unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Hoay Yan Cheah, Elena Gallon, Fabienne Dumoulin, See Ziau Hoe, Nina Japundžić-Žigon, Sofija Glumac, Hong Boon Lee, Prem Anand, Lip Yong Chung, Maria Jesus Vicent, Lik Voon Kiew
We previously developed a new zinc (II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc) derivative (Pc 1) conjugated to poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA) (1-PG) to address the limitations of ZnPc as part of an antitumor photodynamic therapy approach, which include hydrophobicity, phototoxicity and non-selectivity in biodistribution and tumor targeting. During this study, we discovered that 1-PG possessed high near infrared (NIR) light absorptivity (λmax = 675 nm), good singlet oxygen generation efficiency in an aqueous environment, and enhanced photocytotoxic efficacy and cancer cell uptake in vitro...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Ondřej Slavík, Pavel Horký, Matúš Maciak, Petra Horká, Iva Langrová
The movement of individuals within preferred areas is reduced by a high availability of food and information about its distribution, while high number of competitors promotes increased movement. Experienced animals use information about social and physical environment to improve resources exploitation, tended to maintain positions within the preferred areas and reuse the environment that is often referred to as site fidelity. In this study, radio-telemetry was used to observe the movements of 98 adult brown trout, Salmo trutta , in oligotrophic streams with different population densities; to determine subpopulation site fidelity, 5,195 conspecifics from 14 subpopulations were individually tagged during spring and autumn...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Payal Sud, Miles Gordon, Laura Tortora, Matthew Stripp, Damon Borg, Adam Berman
Introduction: Use of synthetic cannabinoids (SC) has recently emerged as a new drug epidemic. Our emergency departments (EDs) received a surge of SC users presenting with lethargy and bradycardia, contrasting prior reports of SC-induced tachycardia and agitation. Our goal was to describe these novel presentations and characterize the compounds. Methods: We present a case series of patients with SC intoxication who presented to our toxicology service covering two tertiary care EDs between 2/11/2015 and 6/23/2015...
May 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Stavros Stavrakis, Mary Beth Humphrey, Benjamin Scherlag, Omer Iftikhar, Purvi Parwani, Mubasher Abbas, Adrian Filiberti, Christian Fleming, Yanqing Hu, Paul Garabelli, Arthur McUnu, Marvin Peyton, Sunny S Po
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine the efficacy of low-level vagus nerve stimulation (LLVNS) in suppressing post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) and inflammatory cytokines in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. BACKGROUND: POAF often complicates cardiac surgery. METHODS: Patients undergoing cardiac surgery were randomized to active or sham LLVNS. In all patients, a bipolar wire was sutured to the vagus nerve pre-ganglionic fibers alongside the lateral aspect of the superior vena cava...
September 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
David V Gauvin, Zachary J Zimmermann, Joshua Yoder, Marci Harter, David Holdsworth, Quinn Kilgus, Jonelle May, Jill Dalton, Theodore J Baird
Three significant contributions to the field of safety pharmacology were recently published detailing the use of electroencephalography (EEG) by telemetry in a critical role in the successful evaluation of a compound during drug development (1] Authier, Delatte, Kallman, Stevens & Markgraf; JPTM 2016; 81:274-285; 2] Accardi, Pugsley, Forster, Troncy, Huang & Authier; JPTM; 81: 47-59; 3] Bassett, Troncy, Pouliot, Paquette, Ascaha, & Authier; JPTM 2016; 70: 230-240) . These authors present a convincing case for monitoring neocortical biopotential waveforms (EEG, ECoG, etc) during preclinical toxicology studies as an opportunity for early identification of a central nervous system (CNS) risk during Investigational New Drug (IND) Enabling Studies...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Defne A Magnetta, Brian Feingold, Lee B Beerman, Brian Blasiole, Gaurav Arora
Late-onset paroxysmal AVB has been described as a rare complication after HT and has been associated with AR or CAV. We describe 4 pediatric HT recipients who developed paroxysmal AVB hours after routine cardiac catheterization in the absence of AR, CAV, or underlying conduction system disease. Four pediatric HT recipients who were >1 year post-transplant had episodes of paroxysmal AVB hours after surveillance cardiac catheterization with EMB. Telemetry demonstrated high-grade block, ranging from 2:1 AVB to complete AVB without ventricular escape for several seconds...
May 10, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Pascal Houzé, Thomas Berthin, Jean-Herlé Raphalen, Alice Hutin, J Frédéric Baud
Objective: The efficiency of pralidoxime in the treatment of human organophosphates poisoning is still unclear. In a rat model, we showed that pralidoxime induced a complete but concentration-dependent reversal of paraoxon-induced respiratory toxicity. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of pralidoxime in a species other than rats. Methods: A dose of diethylparaoxon corresponding to 50% of the median lethal dose was administered subcutaneously to male F1B6D2 mice...
April 2018: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
Laith Cebe, Harpreet Singh
Reflex anoxic seizures (RAS) are essential in the differential diagnosis of non-epileptic paroxysmal seizures. They are precipitated by vagally mediated brief cardiac asystole, which in turn leads to transient cerebral ischaemia. RAS are usually seen in infants and preschool children, but in this case happened in a middle-aged man. Our patient is a 61-year-old man who presented with sudden, repeated contractions of his left upper arm and urine incontinence, followed by loss of consciousness for about 30 s...
May 8, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Michael L Hood
CONTEXT: The 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is an integral part of the diagnostic tools available for recognising a patient who is experiencing an ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI). Consequently, a great emphasis is placed on the rapid acquisition and expert interpretation of the 12-lead ECG so that the appropriate reperfusion management might be commenced to optimise patient outcomes by preventing further damage to the myocardium. With the advancement of telemetric and diagnostic abilities of the modern ECG machine, the role of frontline rural emergency clinicians is as important as ever...
May 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Inga M Zadvinskis, Kelli Schweitzer, Tristan Murry, Teresa Wood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2018: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
Nicole Chemaly, Astrid Nehlig, Catherine Chiron, Rima Nabbout
BACKGROUND: Early onset epileptic encephalopathies are rare paediatric diseases, with seizures resistant to drugs and impacting development of cognitive and motor functions. Many of them show monogenic aetiology and engineered animal models are crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms and propose treatment trials. These models have mostly been explored in vitro or in vivo under anaesthesia. This may affect the occurrence of epileptic activities and their clinical expression. These study conditions perturb social skills and are limited in time...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
R E Coon, T F Duffield, T J DeVries
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reducing the particle size of wheat straw in a total mixed ration (TMR) on cow behavior, health, and production in early lactation. For 28 d after calving, 41 multiparous Holstein cows were individually provided either 1 of 2 TMR with 9% wheat straw (dry matter basis) chopped (1) using a 2.54-cm screen (short; n = 21) or (2) using a 5.08-cm screen (long; n = 20). Cows were housed in freestall pens during both the dry and lactating period. Enrollment in the trial was on a rolling basis and cows were evenly distributed by parity and milk production between treatments...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Mathieu Trudel, Mathieu Côté, Daniel Philippon, David Simonyan, Noémie Villemure-Poliquin, Richard Bussières
OBJECTIVE: To compare scala vestibuli versus scala tympani cochlear implantation in terms of postoperative auditory performances and programming parameters in patients with severe scala tympani ossification. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: One hundred three pediatric and adult patients who underwent cochlear implant surgery between 2000 and 2016. Three groups were formed: a scala vestibuli group, a scala tympani with ossification group, and a scala tympani without ossification group...
April 26, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Meaghan Lunney, Raymond Lee, Karen Tang, Natasha Wiebe, Aminu K Bello, Chandra Thomas, Doreen Rabi, Marcello Tonelli, Matthew T James
Caring for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis is intensive and expensive. Telehealth may improve the access and efficiency of ESRD care. For this perspective, we systematically reviewed studies that examined the effectiveness of telehealth versus or in addition to usual care for ESRD management. 10 studies were identified, including 7 randomized trials and 3 cohort studies. Study populations, modes of delivery (including telephone, telemetry, or videoconferencing), and the outcomes evaluated varied substantially between studies...
April 23, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Mitsuhiro Nishimoto, Risuke Mizuno, Toshiro Fujita, Masashi Isshiki
In vascular endothelial cells, store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) activates endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and regulates nitric oxide (NO) production as well as flow-dependent mechanical stimuli. Stromal interaction molecule 1, or STIM1, was recently identified to be essential for SOCE, acting as a calcium sensor for intracellular calcium stores. However, how STIM1 affects endothelial function and blood pressure (BP) remains unclear. We generated STIM1 fl/fl mice and vascular endothelial cell-specific STIM1 knockout mice using the Cre-loxP system, and conducted experiments using these mice to clarify the physiological role of STIM1 in vascular endothelial function and BP as follows: (1) SOCE was analyzed in isolated aortic endothelial cells by calcium add-back with fluorescent Ca2+ indicators...
April 25, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Alejandro R Chade, Maxx L Williams, Jason E Engel, Erika Guise, Taylor W Harvey
Animal models of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are critical for understanding its pathophysiology and for therapeutic development. The cardiovascular and renal anatomy and physiology of the pig are virtually identical to humans. This study aimed to develop a novel translational model of CKD that mimics the pathological features of CKD in humans. CKD was induced in 7 domestic pigs by bilateral renal artery stenosis and diet-induced dyslipidemia. Animals were observed for a total of 14 weeks. Renal hemodynamics and function were quantified in vivo using multi-detector CT after 6, 10, and 14 weeks of CKD...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Sally J Krajewski-Hall, Elise M Blackmore, Jessi R McMinn, Naomi E Rance
Hot flushes are due to estrogen withdrawal and characterized by the episodic activation of heat dissipation effectors. Recent studies (in humans and rats) have implicated neurokinin 3 (NK3 ) receptor signaling in the genesis of hot flushes. Although transgenic mice are increasingly used for biomedical research, there is limited information on how 17β-estradiol and NK3 receptor signaling alters thermoregulation in the mouse. In this study, a method was developed to measure tail skin temperature (TSKIN ) using a small data-logger attached to the surface of the tail, which, when combined with a telemetry probe for core temperature (TCORE ), allowed us to monitor thermoregulation in freely-moving mice over long durations...
2018: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
Jussara M do Carmo, Alexandre A da Silva, John Nathan Freeman, Zhen Wang, Sydney P Moak, Michael W Hankins, Heather A Drummond, John E Hall
We determined whether deficiency of neuronal SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3)-a potential negative regulator of leptin signaling-amplifies the chronic effects of leptin on food intake, energy expenditure, glucose, and blood pressure (BP) and protects against adverse cardiometabolic effects of obesity. BP and heart rate were recorded by telemetry, and oxygen consumption (VO2 ) was monitored in 22-week-old mice with nervous system SOCS3 deficiency (SOCS3-Nestin-Cre) and control mice (SOCS3flox/flox ) fed normal or high-fat-high-fructose diet from 6 to 22 weeks of age...
April 23, 2018: Hypertension
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