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Lipid Classification

Antonietta Pietrangelo, Neale D Ridgway
Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related proteins (ORPs) constitute a large eukaryotic gene family that transports and regulates the metabolism of sterols and phospholipids. The original classification of the family based on oxysterol-binding activity belies the complex dual lipid-binding specificity of the conserved OSBP homology domain (OHD). Additional protein- and membrane-interacting modules mediate the targeting of select OSBP/ORPs to membrane contact sites between organelles, thus positioning the OHD between opposing membranes for lipid transfer and metabolic regulation...
March 13, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Takuya Furuta, Hiroaki Miyoshi, Satoru Komaki, Fumiko Arakawa, Motohiro Morioka, Koichi Ohshima, Mitsutoshi Nakada, Yasuo Sugita
Epithelioid glioblastoma (eGBM) is a rare variant of GBM which was adopted in the 2016 WHO classification. eGBM and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) sometimes show overlapping features histologically and genetically, such as epithelioid pattern and a highly frequent V600E mutation in the gene for vRAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF), respectively. Accurate diagnosis of these rare tumors is challenging according to the new criteria in the revised 2016 WHO classification. It is an urgent task to elucidate the biological properties of the tumors and to select appropriate treatment...
March 13, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Marilize Le Roes-Hill, Kim Durrell, Alaric Prins, Paul R Meyers
The actinobacterium, strain M26T , was isolated from garden soil that was pre-treated with microwave radiation. The soil sample was collected in Roodepoort, Gauteng Province, South Africa as part of an antibiotic-screening programme. The isolate produced branched vegetative mycelium with sporangiophores bearing small sporangia ranging from 3 to 6 μm in diameter. Rapid genus identification revealed that the isolate belongs to the genus Streptosporangium. To confirm this result, the strain was subjected to polyphasic taxonomic characterisation...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
Kay-Tee Khaw, Stephen J Sharp, Leila Finikarides, Islam Afzal, Marleen Lentjes, Robert Luben, Nita G Forouhi
INTRODUCTION: High dietary saturated fat intake is associated with higher blood concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), an established risk factor for coronary heart disease. However, there is increasing interest in whether various dietary oils or fats with different fatty acid profiles such as extra virgin coconut oil may have different metabolic effects but trials have reported inconsistent results. We aimed to compare changes in blood lipid profile, weight, fat distribution and metabolic markers after four weeks consumption of 50 g daily of one of three different dietary fats, extra virgin coconut oil, butter or extra virgin olive oil, in healthy men and women in the general population...
March 6, 2018: BMJ Open
Francesco Masia, Iestyn Pope, Peter Watson, Wolfgang Langbein, Paola Borri
Microscopy based high-content and high-throughput analysis of cellular systems plays a central role in drug discovery. However, for contrast and specificity, the majority of assays require a fluorescent readout which always comes with the risk of alteration of the true biological conditions. In this work, we demonstrate a label-free imaging platform which combines chemically-specific hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with sparse sampling and Bessel beam illumination. This enabled us to screen multi-well plates at high speed while retaining the high-content chemical analysis of hyperspectral imaging...
March 5, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Ewelina Wiercigroch, Emilia Staniszewska-Slezak, Kinga Szkaradek, Tomasz Wojcik, Yukihiro Ozaki, Malgorzata Baranska, Kamilla Malek
Two endothelial cell lines were selected as models to investigate an effect of incubation with cytokine tumour necrosis factor type α (TNF-α) using FT-IR imaging spectroscopy. Both cell lines are often used in laboratories, and are typical lung vascular endothelial cells (HMLVEC) and derived from the fusion of umbilical vein endothelial cells with lung adenocarcinoma cells (EA.hy926). This study was focused on alteration of spectral changes accompanying inflammation at the cellular level by applying two resolution systems of FT-IR microscopy...
March 5, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Anna Wojakowska, Laura M Cole, Mykola Chekan, Katarzyna Bednarczyk, Magdalena Maksymiak, Małgorzata Oczko-Wojciechowska, Barbara Jarząb, Malcolm R Clench, Joanna Polańska, Monika Pietrowska, Piotr Widlak
INTRODUCTION: The distinction of papillary thyroid carcinomas from benign thyroid lesions has important implication for clinical man-agement. Classification based on histopathological features can be supported by molecular biomarkers, including lipidomic signatures, identified with the use of high-throughput mass spectrometry techniques. Formalin fixation is a standard procedure for stabilization and preservation of tissue samples, therefore this type of samples constitute highly valuable source of clinical material for retrospective molecular studies...
2018: Endokrynologia Polska
Kyoung-Soon Jang, Young Hwan Kim
Advances in mass spectrometry have enabled the investigation of various biological systems by directly analyzing diverse sets of biomolecules (i.e., proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates), thus making a significant impact on the life sciences field. Over the past decade, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been widely utilized as a rapid and reliable method for the identification of microorganisms. MALDI-TOF MS has come into widespread use despite its relatively low resolving power (full width at half maximum, FWHM: < 5,000) and its incompatibility with tandem MS analysis, features with which other high-resolution mass spectrometers are equipped...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Janneke Keemink, Christel A S Bergström
PURPOSE: To identify conditions allowing the use of cell-based models for studies of drug absorption during in vitro lipolysis of lipid-based formulations (LBFs). METHODS: Caco-2 was selected as the cell-based model system. Monolayer integrity was evaluated by measuring mannitol permeability after incubating Caco-2 cells in the presence of components available during lipolysis. Pure excipients and formulations representing the lipid formulation classification system (LFCS) were evaluated before and after digestion...
February 26, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Alexandra M Koenig, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Thomas Stoll, Sarah Wilker, Thomas Hennessy, Michelle M Hill, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa
Childhood maltreatment (CM) can increase the risk of adverse health consequences in adulthood. A deeper insight in underlying biological pathways would be of high clinical relevance for early detection and intervention. The untargeted investigation of all detectable metabolites and lipids in biological samples represents a promising new avenue to identify so far unknown biological pathways associated with CM. Using an untargeted approach, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed on peripheral blood serum samples collected three months postpartum from 105 women with varying degrees of CM exposure...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Weilan Li, Leonid N Ten, Seung-Yeol Lee, In-Kyu Kang, Hee-Young Jung
A Gram-negative, motile by gliding, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated S7-3-19T , was isolated from apple orchard soil in Gyeongsangnam-do Province, Republic of Korea, and characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that strain S7-3-19T belonged to the family Cytophagaceae and was most closely related to Spirosoma linguale DSM 74T (96.38 %), Spirosoma fluviale MSd3T (96.38 %), Spirosoma pulveris JSH5-14T (96.35 %) and Spirosoma radiotolerans DG5AT (96...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Haitao Shi, Jun Zhang, Shengli Li, Shoukun Ji, Zhijun Cao, Hongtao Zhang, Yajing Wang
BACKGROUND: Improving the efficiency of animal production is a relentless pursuit of ruminant producers. Energy utilization and partition can be affected by dietary composition and nutrient availability. Furthermore, the liver is the central metabolic intersection in cattle. However, the specific metabolic changes in the liver under conditions of limit-feeding remain unclear and require further study. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of a wide range of dietary forage:concentrate ratios (F:C) on energy utilization, and identify potential changes in molecular metabolism by analyzing hepatic transcriptional profiles...
February 17, 2018: BMC Genomics
Elke Schaeffeler, Florian Büttner, Anna Reustle, Verena Klumpp, Stefan Winter, Steffen Rausch, Pascale Fisel, Jörg Hennenlotter, Stephan Kruck, Arnulf Stenzl, Judith Wahrheit, Denise Sonntag, Marcus Scharpf, Falko Fend, Abbas Agaimy, Arndt Hartmann, Jens Bedke, Matthias Schwab
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) consists of prognostic distinct subtypes derived from different cells of origin (eg, clear cell RCC [ccRCC], papillary RCC [papRCC], and chromophobe RCC [chRCC]). ccRCC is characterized by lipid accumulation and metabolic alterations, whereas data on metabolic alterations in non-ccRCC are limited. OBJECTIVE: We assessed metabolic alterations and the lipid composition of RCC subtypes and ccRCC-derived metastases. Moreover, we elucidated the potential of metabolites/lipids for subtype classification and identification of therapeutic targets...
February 13, 2018: European Urology Focus
Louis Tong, Lim Shee Teng
Purpose/aims: Dry eye is a common multi-factorial disease characterized by tearfilm dysfunction. Diagnosis of dry eye requires documentation of tear status with non-invasive tear break up times (NIBUT), tear meniscal height (TMH), and tearfilm lipid layer. These parameters objectively assess tear stability and indirectly, the functional impact of meibomian gland dysfunction. While it is obvious that portable instrumentation gives broader access than fixed instrumentation, its value would be limited if it is unreliable and its precision and accuracy substantially worse than fixed instruments...
February 16, 2018: Current Eye Research
Alicia Delrivo, Carolina Aloisio, Marcela R Longhi, Gladys Granero
We propose an in vitro permeability assay by using a modified lipid membrane to predict the in vivo intestinal passive permeability of drugs. Two conditions were tested, one with a gradient pH (pH 5.5 donor/pH 7.4 receptor) and the other with an iso-pH 7.4. The predictability of the method was established by correlating the obtained apparent intestinal permeability coefficients (P app ) and the oral dose fraction absorbed in humans (f a ) of 16 drugs with different absorption properties. The P app values correlated well with the absorption rates under the two conditions, and the method showed high predictability and good reproducibility...
February 15, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Thibault Fiolet, Bernard Srour, Laury Sellem, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Benjamin Allès, Caroline Méjean, Mélanie Deschasaux, Philippine Fassier, Paule Latino-Martel, Marie Beslay, Serge Hercberg, Céline Lavalette, Carlos A Monteiro, Chantal Julia, Mathilde Touvier
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prospective associations between consumption of ultra-processed food and risk of cancer. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 104 980 participants aged at least 18 years (median age 42.8 years) from the French NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-17). Dietary intakes were collected using repeated 24 hour dietary records, designed to register participants' usual consumption for 3300 different food items...
February 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Kuan Ying Wang, Kuei Chang Hsu, Wen Chung Liu, Kuo Chang Yang, Lee Wei Chen
BACKGROUND: Xanthelasma palpebrarum is a common periorbital lesion that occurs in middle-aged woman. Dyslipidemia was strongly associated with the occurrence of xanthelasma. Different treatment methods for xanthelasma were applied with comparable results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review series performed at a single institute. The surgical pathology of 69 patients who received surgical excision from 1994 to 2012 was obtained. In addition, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code of xanthelasma (374...
February 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Abdulkareem J Yusuf, Olusegun Baiyewu, Adamu G Bakari, Sani B Garko, Mohammed E-B Jibril, Aishatu M Suleiman, Haruna M Muktar, Micheal A Amedu
BACKGROUND: The relationship between dementia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in older adults is well established in the literature. However, there have been few studies on this relationship in older adults living in low- and middle-income countries, and most demographic projections predict that older adult population will increase substantially in these regions by 2050. METHODS: In this study, older adults with T2DM attending a tertiary health facility were examined and compared with community-dwelling older adults without T2DM...
February 8, 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Man Zhu, Jiajia Lin, Junli Ye, Rui Wang, Chao Yang, Jinli Gong, Yun Liu, Chongling Deng, Ping Liu, Chuanwu Chen, Yunjiang Cheng, Xiuxin Deng, Yunliu Zeng
Elaioplasts of citrus peel are colorless plastids which accumulate significant amounts of terpenes. However, other functions of elaioplasts have not been fully characterized to date. Here, a LC-MS/MS shotgun technology was applied to identify the proteins from elaioplasts that were highly purified from young fruit peel of kumquat. A total of 655 putative plastid proteins were identified from elaioplasts according to sequence homology in silico and manual curation. Based on functional classification via Mapman, ~50% of the identified proteins fall into six categories, including protein metabolism, transport, and lipid metabolism...
2018: Horticulture Research
Ivano Di Meo, Valeria Tiranti
Brain iron accumulation is the hallmark of a group of seriously invalidating and progressive rare diseases collectively denominated Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA), characterized by movement disorder, painful dystonia, parkinsonism, mental disability and early death. Currently there is no established therapy available to slow down or reverse the progression of these conditions. Several genes have been identified as responsible for NBIA but only two encode for proteins playing a direct role in iron metabolism...
March 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
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