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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343277/pancreatic-alpha-cell-selective-deletion-of-tcf7l2-impairs-glucagon-secretion-and-counter-regulatory-responses-to-hypoglycaemia-in-mice
#1
Gabriela da Silva Xavier, Angeles Mondragon, Vishnou Mourougavelou, Céline Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Jessica Denom, Pedro Luis Herrera, Christophe Magnan, Guy A Rutter
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is a high mobility group (HMG) box-containing transcription factor and downstream effector of the Wnt signalling pathway. SNPs in the TCF7L2 gene have previously been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies. In animal studies, loss of Tcf7l2 function is associated with defective islet beta cell function and survival. Here, we explore the role of TCF7L2 in the control of the counter-regulatory response to hypoglycaemia by generating mice with selective deletion of the Tcf7l2 gene in pancreatic alpha cells...
March 25, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339909/il-17-and-cd40-ligand-synergistically-stimulate-the-chronicity-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#2
Huey-Liang Kuo, Chiu-Ching Huang, Tze-Yi Lin, Ching-Yuang Lin
Background.: Early stages of diabetic nephropathy (DN) are characterized by an influx of inflammatory cells. Interactions between infiltrating T cells and podocytes may play an important role in the ongoing inflammatory response and remodelling. The aim of this study was to explore the role of IL-17 and CD40 ligand (CD40L) in DN. Methods.: The study design involved a case series. Kidney biopsy samples of 69 patients with type 2 diabetes were assessed for the presence of CD4 +  IL-17 +  T cells...
March 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335329/nanoparticle-based-delivery-of-anaplasma-marginale-membrane-proteins-virb9-1-and-virb10-produced-in-the-pichia-pastoris-expression-system
#3
Bing Zhang, Antonio S Cavallaro, Karishma T Mody, Jun Zhang, James R Deringer, Wendy C Brown, Timothy J Mahony, Chengzhong Yu, Neena Mitter
Bovine anaplasmosis or cattle-tick fever is a tick-borne haemolytic disease caused by the rickettsial haemoparasite Anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. While difficult to express, the proteins VirB9-1 and VirB10 are immunogenic components of the outer membrane type IV secretion system that have been identified as candidate antigens for vaccines targeting of A. marginale. Soluble VirB9-1 and VirB10 were successfully expressed using Pichia pastoris. When formulated with the self-adjuvanting silica vesicles, SV-100 (diameter: 50 nm, and pore entrance size: 6 nm), 200 µg of VirB9-1 and VirB10 were adsorbed per milligram of nanoparticle...
November 5, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333108/the-biology-of-pichia-membranifaciens-killer-toxins
#4
REVIEW
Ignacio Belda, Javier Ruiz, Alejandro Alonso, Domingo Marquina, Antonio Santos
The killer phenomenon is defined as the ability of some yeast to secrete toxins that are lethal to other sensitive yeasts and filamentous fungi. Since the discovery of strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of secreting killer toxins, much information has been gained regarding killer toxins and this fact has substantially contributed knowledge on fundamental aspects of cell biology and yeast genetics. The killer phenomenon has been studied in Pichia membranifaciens for several years, during which two toxins have been described...
March 23, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330867/influenza-vaccines-differentially-regulate-the-interferon-response-in-human-dendritic-cell-subsets
#5
Shruti Athale, Romain Banchereau, LuAnn Thompson-Snipes, Yuanyuan Wang, Karolina Palucka, Virginia Pascual, Jacques Banchereau
Human dendritic cells (DCs) play a fundamental role in the initiation of long-term adaptive immunity during vaccination against influenza. Understanding the early response of human DCs to vaccine exposure is thus essential to determine the nature and magnitude of maturation signals that have been shown to strongly correlate with vaccine effectiveness. In 2009, the H1N1 influenza epidemics fostered the commercialization of the nonadjuvanted monovalent H1N1 California vaccine (MIV-09) to complement the existing nonadjuvanted trivalent Fluzone 2009-2010 vaccine (TIV-09)...
March 22, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330689/evaluation-of-methohexital-as-an-alternative-to-propofol-in-a-high-volume-outpatient-pediatric-sedation-service
#6
Nicholas E Jones, Michael S Kelleman, Harold K Simon, Jana A Stockwell, Courtney McCracken, Michael D Mallory, Pradip P Kamat
BACKGROUND: Propofol is a preferred agent for many pediatric sedation providers because of its rapid onset and short duration of action. It allows for quick turn around times and enhanced throughput. Occasionally, intravenous (IV) methohexital (MHX), an ultra-short acting barbiturate is utilized instead of propofol. OBJECTIVE: Describe the experience with MHX in a primarily propofol driven outpatient sedation program and to see if it serves as an acceptable alternative when propofol is not the preferred pharmacologic option...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327356/type-2-inositol-trisphosphate-receptor-gene-expression-in-hepatocytes-is-regulated-by-cyclic-amp
#7
Emma Kruglov, M Ananthanarayanan, Pedro Sousa, Jittima Weerachayaphorn, Mateus T Guerra, Michael H Nathanson
The type 2 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R2) is the principal intracellular Ca(2+) release channel in hepatocytes, and so is important for bile secretion and other functions. IP3R2 activity is regulated in part by post-translational modifications but little is known about transcriptional regulation of its expression. We found that both IP3R2 mRNA and protein levels in liver were increased during fasting. Treatment of hepatocytes with forskolin or 8-CPT-cAMP also increased IP3R2, and this was reduced by actinomycin D...
March 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326930/effects-of-jwh015-in-cytokine-secretion-in-primary-human-keratinocytes-and-fibroblasts-and-its-suitability-for-topical-transdermal-delivery
#8
Alicia Bort, Perla A Alvarado-Vazquez, Carolina Moracho-Vilrriales, Kristopher G Virga, Giuseppe Gumina, Alfonso Romero-Sandoval, Scott Asbill
Background JWH015 is a cannabinoid (CB) receptor type 2 agonist that produces immunomodulatory effects. Since skin cells play a key role in inflammatory conditions and tissue repair, we investigated the ability of JWH015 to promote an anti-inflammatory and pro-wound healing phenotype in human primary skin cells. Methods Human primary keratinocytes and fibroblasts were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The mRNA expression of cannabinoid receptors was determined using RT-PCR. The effects of JWH015 (0.05, 0...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323952/randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-mufa-or-fiber-rich-diet-on-hepatic-fat-in-pre-diabetes
#9
Isabel Errazuriz, Simmi Dube, Michael Slama, Roberto Visentin, Sunita Nayar, Helen O'Connor, Claudio Cobelli, Swapan Kumar Das, Ananda Basu, Walter Karl Kremers, John Port, Rita Basu
Context: Increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes worldwide has been attributed, at least in part, to a modern lifestyle, in particular, to an unhealthy diet. Objective: To evaluate whether 12 weeks of high MUFA or fiber-rich weight maintenance diet lowers hepatic fat and improves glucose tolerance in people with prediabetes. Design: Subjects underwent a [6, 6-2H2] labeled 75 g oral glucose tolerance test to estimate hepatic insulin sensitivity (Siliver) along with measurement of liver fat fraction (LFF) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after intervention...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323879/mir-181b-regulates-vascular-stiffness-age-dependently-in-part-by-regulating-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#10
Daijiro Hori, Brittany Dunkerly-Eyring, Yohei Nomura, Debjit Biswas, Jochen Steppan, Jorge Henao-Mejia, Hideo Adachi, Lakshmi Santhanam, Dan E Berkowitz, Charles Steenbergen, Richard A Flavell, Samarjit Das
BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening play major roles in cardiovascular diseases. The critical role for the miR-181 family in vascular inflammation has been documented. Here we tested whether the miR-181 family can influence the pathogenesis of hypertension and vascular stiffening. METHODS AND RESULTS: qPCR data showed a significant decrease in miR-181b expression in the aorta of the older mice. Eight miR-181a1/b1-/- mice and wild types (C57BL6J:WT) were followed weekly for pulse wave velocity (PWV) and blood pressure measurements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321425/adult-cells-combined-with-platelet-rich-plasma-for-tendon-healing-cell-source-options
#11
Eva Rubio-Azpeitia, Pello Sánchez, Diego Delgado, Isabel Andia
BACKGROUND: The combination of cells with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may fulfill tendon deficits and help overcome the limited ability of tendons to heal. PURPOSE: To examine the suitability of 3 human cell types in combination with PRP and the potential impact of the tenocyte-conditioned media (CM) to enhance tendon healing. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Tenocytes, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and skin fibroblasts were cultured in 3-dimensional PRP hydrogels supplemented or not with CM, and cell proliferation and migration were examined...
February 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319420/modelling-long-term-evolution-of-chitotriosidase-in-non-neuronopathic-gaucher-disease
#12
Cristina Drugan, Tudor C Drugan, Paula Grigorescu-Sido, Ioana Naşcu
Chitotriosidase, an enzyme secreted by activated macrophages, is widely used as a biomarker for therapeutic monitoring and patient follow-up in Gaucher disease (GD), a lysosomal disorder caused by an inherited deficiency of glucocerebrosidase. We analyzed the long-term evolution of chitotriosidase aiming to establish an accurate model that describes the influence of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and the impact of several covariates. A total of 55 patients with non-neuronopathic (type 1) GD were followed for almost 17 years (during a maximum of 7...
March 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317340/production-of-pancreatic-progenitor-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-using-a-three-dimensional-suspension-bioreactor-system
#13
Yuichiro Mihara, Katsuhisa Matsuura, Yoshihiro Sakamoto, Teruo Okano, Norihiro Kokudo, Tatsuya Shimizu
Islet replacement is a promising strategy for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes and patients who have undergone total pancreatectomy. Recent progress in cellular reprogramming technology may allow the transplantation of a patient's own pancreatic cells. Although many studies have reported the differentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells from mouse and human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), obtaining sufficient cell numbers for clinical applications remains problematic. Here, we describe the mass production of human pancreatic progenitor cells from human induced (i)PSCs using a three-dimensional suspension bioreactor system...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316163/-effects-of-silencing-smad-ubiquitination-regulatory-factor-2-on-the-function-of-human-hypertrophic-scar-derived-fibroblasts
#14
Z Zhang, F Kuang, C L Liu, B Chen, W B Tang, X J Li
Objective: To explore the effects of silencing Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2) on the secretion of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β(1)), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen type Ⅰ by human hypertrophic scar-derived fibroblasts. Methods: The human normal skin-derived fibroblasts and hypertrophic scar-derived fibroblasts were cultured with explant culture technique from the normal skin and hypertrophic scar tissue, which was obtained from 9 patients with hypertrophic scars after burn...
March 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315336/streptozotocin-produces-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-decreases-bdnf-concentrations-to-induce-apoptosis-of-rin5f-cells-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-wistar-rats
#15
Siresha Bathina, Nanduri Srinivas, Undurti N Das
BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative disorders, such as deficits in learning, memory and cognition and Alzheimer's disease are associated with diabetes mellitus. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophic factor and is known to possess anti-obesity, anti-diabetic actions and is believed to have a role in memory and Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether STZ can reduce BDNF production by rat insulinoma (RIN5F) cells in vitro and decrease BDNF levels in the pancreas, liver and brain in vivo...
March 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314735/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-its-relationship-with-cardiovascular-disease-and-other-extrahepatic-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Leon A Adams, Quentin M Anstee, Herbert Tilg, Giovanni Targher
Key physiological functions of the liver, including glucose and lipid metabolism, become disturbed in the setting of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and may be associated with a systemic inflammatory 'milieu' initiated in part by liver-secreted cytokines and molecules. Consequently, the pathophysiological effects of NAFLD extend beyond the liver with a large body of clinical evidence demonstrating NAFLD to be independently associated with both prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
March 17, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314377/the-effects-of-scaffold-remnants-in-decellularized-tissue-engineered-cardiovascular-constructs-on-the-recruitment-of-blood-cells
#17
Bart Sanders, Anita Driessen-Mol, Carlijn Bouten, Frank Baaijens
Decellularized tissue engineered heart valves (DTEHVs) showed remarkable results in translational animal models, leading to recellularization within hours after implantation. This is crucial to enable tissue remodeling. To investigate if the presence of scaffold remnants prior to implantation is responsible for the fast recellularization of DTEHVs, an in vitro mesofluidic system was used. Human granulocyte and agranulocyte fractions were isolated, stained, brought back in suspension, and implemented in the system...
March 17, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302935/factor-x-deficiency-with-heterozygous-mutations-of-novel-p-g435s-and-known-p-g244r-in-a-patient-presenting-with-severe-umbilical-hemorrhage
#18
Yoko Matsuo, Tatsuki Mizuochi, Miho Mitsuo, Shinichiro Nakagawa, Shuichi Ozono, Koichiro Ueda, Yoko Sogabe, Ritsuko Seki, Kenji Soejima, Takashi Okamura, Yushiro Yamashita
A 10-day-old male patient was referred to our hospital with severe umbilical bleeding. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were prominently prolonged. Plasma coagulation factor X (FX) activity and antigen levels were 1% and 0.6%, respectively. A DNA sequence analysis of his leukocytes revealed a compound heterozygous state; known Gly244 to Arg (p.G244R) in exon 6 and a novel mutation of Gly 435 to Ser (p.G435S) in exon 8. A pedigree analysis showed that p.G244R originated from the paternal side, while p...
March 15, 2017: Kurume Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297570/human-lung-spheroids-as-in-vitro-niches-of-lung-progenitor-cells-with-distinctive-paracrine-and-plasticity-properties
#19
Isotta Chimenti, Francesca Pagano, Francesco Angelini, Camilla Siciliano, Giorgio Mangino, Vittorio Picchio, Elena De Falco, Mariangela Peruzzi, Roberto Carnevale, Mohsen Ibrahim, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Elisa Messina, Giacomo Frati
Basic and translational research on lung biology has discovered multiple progenitor cell types, specialized or facultative, responsible for turnover, renewal, and repair. Isolation of populations of resident lung progenitor cells (LPCs) has been described by multiple protocols, and some have been successfully applied to healthy human lung tissue. We aimed at understanding how different cell culture conditions may affect, in vitro, the phenotype of LPCs to create an ideal niche-like microenvironment. The influence of different substrates (i...
March 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292889/intact-colonic-kca1-1-channel-activity-in-kcnmb2-knockout-mice
#20
Casper K Larsen, Helle A Praetorius, Jens Leipziger, Mads V Sorensen
Mammalian potassium homeostasis results from tightly regulated renal and colonic excretion, which balances the unregulated dietary K(+) intake. Colonic K(+) secretion follows the pump-leak model, in which the large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (KCa1.1) is well established as the sole, but highly regulated apical K(+) conductance. The physiological importance of auxiliary β and γ subunits of the pore-forming α-subunit of the KCa1.1 channel is not yet fully established. This study investigates colonic K(+) secretion in a global knockout mouse of the KCa1...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
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