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Type 6 secretion

Erika Contreras-Nuñez, Gerardo Blancas-Flores, Miguel Cruz, Julio Cesar Almanza-Perez, Jaime H Gomez-Zamudio, Jose Luis Ventura-Gallegosc, Alejandro Zentella-Dehesa, Roberto-Lazzarini, Ruben Roman-Ramos, Francisco Javier Alarcon-Aguilar
Glycine modulates inflammatory processes mediated by macrophages and adipocytes through decreasing the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and leptin, while increasing adiponectin. These effects have been associated with the inactivation of NF-κB in response to TNF-α, across an increase of its inhibitor IκB-α in adipocytes. However, glycine upstream mainly influences the IκB kinase (IKK) complex, a multi-protein kinase complex considered a critical point in regulation of the NF-κB pathway; whether that is responsible for the TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of IkB has not been explored...
March 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Shalem Modi, Nagendra Yaluri, Tarja Kokkola
Obesity is characterized by excess fat accumulation in white adipose tissue, which triggers chronic low-grade inflammation through secretion of pro-inflammatory factors by the enlarged adipocytes and infiltrated macrophages. This affects glucose and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, inducing type 2 diabetes. NAD+ -dependent deacetylase SIRT1 is known to inhibit adipogenesis through the regulation of the key adipogenic transcription factors, PPARγ and C/EBPα. SIRT1 activators such as resveratrol inhibit adipogenesis and exert anti-inflammatory responses in the adipose tissue...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Haipeng Yin, Qiang Guo, Xin Li, Tiantian Tang, Cuiling Li, Hengxiao Wang, Yuanxin Sun, Qi Feng, Chunhong Ma, Chengjiang Gao, Fan Yi, Jun Peng
Turmeric is traditionally used as a spice and coloring in foods. Curcumin is the primary active ingredient in the turmeric, and compelling evidence has shown that it has the ability to inhibit inflammation. However, the mechanism mediating its anti-inflammatory effects are not fully understood. We report that curcumin inhibited caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion through suppressing LPS priming and the inflammasome activation pathway in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. The inhibitory effect of curcumin on inflammasome activation was specific to the NLRP3, not to the NLRC4 or the AIM2 inflammasomes...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Ye Seul Yang, Min Hyuk Lim, Seong Ok Lee, Eun Roh, Chang Ho Ahn, Soo Heon Kwak, Young Min Cho, Sungwan Kim, Andrea Mari, Kyong Soo Park, Hye Seung Jung
AIMS: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are anti-hypertensive drugs with renal protective effect. Additionally, they have been associated with the delayed onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk populations, and some ARB were reported to increase insulin secretion and sensitivity in patients with prediabetes. Therefore, we studied the effects of ARB on insulin secretion in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one patients were enrolled in this open-labeled, active comparator-controlled and crossover study...
March 15, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Zia Uddin, Yeong Hun Song, Mahboob Ullah, Zuopeng Li, Jeong Yoon Kim, Ki Hun Park
Diabetes mellitus is one of a major worldwide concerns, regulated by either defects in secretion or action of insulin, or both. Insulin signaling down-regulation has been related with over activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) enzyme, which has been a promising target for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Herein, activity guided separation of methanol extract (95%) of Dodonaea viscosa aerial parts afforded nine ( 1 - 9 ) polyphenolic compounds, all of them were identified through spectroscopic data including 2D NMR and HREIMS...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Brendan M Everett, Marc Y Donath, Aruna D Pradhan, Tom Thuren, Prem Pais, Jose C Nicolau, Robert J Glynn, Peter Libby, Paul M Ridker
BACKGROUND: Subclinical inflammation mediated in part by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) participates in peripheral insulin resistance and impaired pancreatic insulin secretion. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that canakinumab, an IL-1β inhibitor, reduces incident diabetes. METHODS: The Canakinumab Antiinflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study (CANTOS) randomized 10,061 patients with prior MI and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) ≥2 mg/L to placebo or canakinumab at doses of 50mg, 150mg, or 300mg subcutaneously once every three months...
March 3, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Bin Zhao, Jun-Jie Xia, Lu-Min Wang, Chang Gao, Jia-Li Li, Jia-Yin Liu, Qi-Jun Cheng, Chen Dai, Qi-Lin Ma, Zhong-Quan Qi, Ben-Hua Zhao
The role of arsenic trioxide (As2 O3 ) in inhibiting immune rejection and prolonging islet allograft survival has been identified in islet allotransplantation. This study aims to explore the role of As2 O3 in islet xenotransplantation and the action mechanism. The streptozotocin (STZ) was used in C57BL/6 mice to induce the type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) for xenotransplantation models establishment. Donor islets were isolated by digesting. The flow cytometry (FCM) was used to analyze lymphocyte types. The blood sugar level was detected by using intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT)...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Roberta Lotti, En Shu, Tiziana Petrachi, Alessandra Marconi, Elisabetta Palazzo, Marika Quadri, Ann Lin, Lorraine A O'Reilly, Carlo Pincelli
Pemphigus is a blistering disease characterized by pemphigus autoantibodies (PVIgG) directed mostly against desmogleins (Dsgs), resulting in the loss of keratinocyte adhesion (acantholysis). Yet, the mechanisms underlying blister formation remain to be clarified. We have shown previously that anti-Fas ligand (FasL) antibody (Ab) prevents PVIgG-induced caspase-8 activation and Dsg cleavage in human keratinocytes, and that sera from pemphigus patients contain abnormally increased levels of FasL. Here, we demonstrate that recombinant FasL induces the activation of caspases prior to Dsg degradation, and anti-FasL Ab prevents acantholysis in cultured keratinocytes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Claudia C Paredes-Amaya, Gilberto Valdés-García, Víctor R Juárez-González, Enrique Rudiño-Piñera, Víctor H Bustamante
HilD is an AraC-like transcriptional regulator that plays a central role in Salmonella virulence. HilD controls the expression of the genes within the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) and of several genes located outside SPI-1, which are mainly required for Salmonella invasion of host cells. The expression, amount and activity of HilD are tightly controlled by the activities of several factors. The HilE protein represses the expression of the SPI-1 genes through its interaction with HilD; however, the mechanism by which HilE affects HilD is unknown...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Seav-Ly Tran, Claire Jenkins, Valérie Livrelli, Stephanie Schüller
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are characterized by the release of potent Shiga toxins (Stx), which are associated with severe intestinal and renal disease. Although all STEC strains produce Stx, only a few serotypes cause infection in humans. To determine which virulence traits in vitro are linked to human disease in vivo, 13 Stx2a-producing STEC strains of seropathotype (SPT) A or B (associated with severe human intestinal disease and outbreaks) and 6 strains of SPT D or E (rarely or not linked to human disease) were evaluated in a microaerobic human colonic epithelial infection model...
March 13, 2018: Microbiology
Laurentiu M Pop, Andrea Mari, Tong-Jin Zhao, Lori Mitchell, Shawn Burgess, Xilong Li, Beverley Adams-Huet, Ildiko Lingvay
AIM: To investigate the physiological mechanisms leading to rapid improvement in diabetes after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB). In particular, the roles of concurrent peri-operative dietary restrictions, which may also alter glucose metabolism, have not been completely elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To assess the differential contributions of diet and surgery to the mechanisms leading to the rapid improvement in diabetes after RYGB we enrolled ten patients with type 2 diabetes scheduled to undergo RYGB...
March 13, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Zlatka Georgieva Dobreva, Boncho Grigorov Grigorov, Spaska Angelova Stanilova
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-18 (IL-18) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) are proinflammatory cytokines that increased the development of Th1 immune response, but have a different type of regulation of the gene expression. Whereas TNF-α has an inducible expression, IL-18 is translated as an inactive protein and required proteolytic cleavage by Casp-1 in inflammasome complexes. AIM: To investigate the effect of the histone deacetylases inhibitor Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA) on the gene expression and secretion of both cytokines, IL-18 and TNF-α, according to their contribution to the cancer development and anticancer immunity...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Liang Lu, Zhiqin Wan, Ting Luo, Zhengwei Fu, Yuanxiang Jin
Microplastic (MP) has become a concerning global environmental problem. It is toxic to aquatic organisms and can spread through the food chain to ultimately pose a threat to humans. In the environment, MP can interact with microbes and act as a microbial habitat. However, effects of polystyrene MP on the gut microbiota in mammals remain unclear. Here, male mice were exposed to two different sizes of polystyrene MP for 5 weeks to explore its effect. We observed that oral exposure to 1000 μg/L of 0.5 and 50 μm polystyrene MP decreased the body, liver and lipid weights in mice...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Atsuko Kayaba, Ari Itoh-Nakadai, Kunimichi Niibe, Matsuyuki Shirota, Ryo Funayama, Akiko Sugahara-Tobinai, Yi Li Wong, Masanori Inui, Keiko Nakayama, Toshiyuki Takai
Plasma cells (PCs) acquiring with long lives in bone marrow (BM) play a pivotal role in the humoral arm of immunological memory. The PCs reside in a special BM niche and produce antibodies against past-encountered pathogens or vaccine components for a long time. In BM, cysteine-X-cysteine (CXC) chemokine receptor type 4-expressing PCs and myeloid cells such as dendritic cells are attracted to and held by CXC chemokine ligand 12-secreting stromal cells, where survival of the PCs is supported by soluble factors such as IL-6 and a proliferation-inducing ligand or APRIL produced by neighboring myeloid cells...
February 24, 2018: International Immunology
Soo-Jin Ann, Ka-Kyung Kim, Eun Jeong Cheon, Hye-Min Noh, Inhwa Hwang, Je-Wook Yu, Sungha Park, Seok-Min Kang, Ichiro Manabe, Yury I Miller, Sangwoo Kim, Sang-Hak Lee
Increased consumption of Western-type diets and environmental insults lead to wide-spread increases in the plasma levels of saturated fatty acids and lipoprotein oxidation. The aim of this study is to examine whether palmitate and minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (mmLDL) exert an additive effect on macrophage activation. We found that CXCL2 and TNF-α secretion as well as ERK and p38 phosphorylation were additively increased by co-treatment of J774 macrophages with palmitate and mmLDL in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
2018: PloS One
Alice Miriam Kitay, Marie-Therese Schneebacher, Anne Schmitt, Katharina Heschl, Sascha Kopic, Tariq I Alfadda, Abrar Alsaihati, Alexander Link, John P Geibel
The H+ ,K+ -ATPase was identified as the primary proton secretory pathway in the gastric parietal cell and is the pharmacological target of agents suppressing acid secretion. Recently, we identified a second acid secretory protein expressed in the parietal cell; the vacuolar H+ -ATPase (V-type ATPase). The aim of the present study was to further characterize the H+ -ATPase activation by modulations in extracellular calcium via the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR). Isolated gastric glands were loaded with the pH indicator dye BCECF [2', 7'-bis-(2- carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein, acetoxymethyl ester to measure intracellular pH...
March 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Xiao-Hong Pu, Qing Ye, Jun Yang, Hong-Yan Wu, Xi-Wei Ding, Jiong Shi, Liang Mao, Xiang-Shan Fan, Jun Chen, Yu-Dong Qiu, Qin Huang
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a subtype of primary liver cancer rarely curable by surgery that is increasing rapidly in incidence. Chromosomal translocations and amplifications of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) locus are present in several kinds of tumors including ICC, but their incidence has not been assessed in Chinese patients. Using break-apart probes and by determining the ratios of FGFR2/chromosome enumeration probe (CEP) 10 double-color probes, we evaluated 122 ICCs for the presence of FGFR2 translocations and amplifications, respectively, by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
March 4, 2018: Human Pathology
Nallely Lopez-Lopez, Ana Gabriela Ramos Martinez, Mariana Haydee Garcia-Hernandez, Rogelio Hernandez-Pando, Julio Enrique Castañeda-Delgado, Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino, Céline Cougoule, Olivier Neyrolles, Bruno Rivas-Santiago, Monica Alejandra Valtierra-Alvarado, Marisela Rubio-Caceres, Jose Antonio Enciso-Moreno, Carmen Judith Serrano
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a risk factor for the development of tuberculosis (TB), although the associated mechanisms are not known. OBJECTIVES: To study the association between T2D and the basal phenotype of macrophages, and their immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. METHODS: We evaluated the influence of T2D on the response of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) to Mtb in patients with T2D (n = 10) compared to healthy subjects (n = 9), before and after infection with Mtb clinical isolates bearing different degrees of virulence...
February 19, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Qian Zhang, Hongyue Yu, Xinhua Xiao, Ling Hu, Fengjiao Xin, Xiaobing Yu
Background & Aims: Accumulating research has addressed the linkage between the changes to gut microbiota structure and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Inulin is one type of soluble dietary fiber that can alleviate T2D. As a prebiotic, inulin cannot be digested by humans, but rather is digested by probiotics. However, whether inulin treatment can benefit the entire gut bacteria community remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the differences in gut microbiota composition among diabetic, inulin-treated diabetic, normal control, and inulin-treated normal control rats...
2018: PeerJ
Yonghong Chen, Shujuan Zheng, Luis Tecedor, Beverly L Davidson
Sulfamidase (SGSH) deficiency causes mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA), a lysosomal storage disease (LSD) that affects the CNS. In earlier work in LSD mice and dog models, we exploited the utility of adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) to transduce brain ventricular lining cells (ependyma) for secretion of lysosomal hydrolases into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with subsequent distribution of enzyme throughout the brain resulting in improved cognition and extending lifespan. A critical feature of this approach is efficient secretion of the expressed enzyme from transduced cells, for delivery by CSF to nontransduced cells...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
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