Read by QxMD icon Read

Type 6 secretion

Tongzhi Wu, Cong Xie, Hang Wu, Karen L Jones, Michael Horowitz, Christopher K Rayner
In rodents, metformin slows intestinal glucose absorption, potentially increasing exposure of the distal gut to glucose to enhance postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. We evaluated the effects of metformin on serum 3-O-methylglucose (3-OMG, a marker of glucose absorption) and plasma total GLP-1 concentrations during a standardised intraduodenal infusion of glucose and 3-OMG in patients with type 2 diabetes. 12 patients, treated with metformin 850 mg bd or placebo each for 7 days in a double-blind, randomised, crossover design (14 days 'washout' between treatments), were evaluated on days 5 or 8 of each treatment (6 each)...
October 20, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
J N Wang, L X Wang, W Lian, B Xing, Y Yao, M Feng, R Z Wang
Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and treatment of pituitary adenomas of childhood and adolescence. Methods: Thisarticle was a retrospective study of 140 pituitary adenomas of childhood and adolescence that was admitted into Peking Union Medical College Hospital from December 1987 to December 2014, whose clinical manifestations, hormone secretions, images, pathological types, surgical complications and follow-ups were studied. Results: A total of 58 (41.4%) males and 82 females (58.6%) were included, whose mean age was 12...
October 11, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Matthew Gordon Varga, Maria Blanca Piazuelo, Judith Romero-Gallo, Alberto G Delgado, Giovanni Suarez, Morgan E Whitaker, Uma S Krishna, Rachna V Patel, Eric P Skaar, Keith T Wilson, Holly M Scott Algood, Richard M Peek
Helicobacter pylori induces chronic gastritis in humans and infection can persist for decades. One H. pylori strain-specific constituent that augments disease risk is the cag pathogenicity island. The cag island encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS) that translocates DNA into host cells. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is an innate immune receptor that detects hypo-methylated CpG DNA motifs. In this study, we sought to define the role of the H. pylori cag T4SS on TLR9-mediated responses in vivo H. pylori strain PMSS1 or its cagE(-) mutant, which fails to assemble a T4SS, were used to infect wild-type or Tlr9(-/-) C57BL/6 mice...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
G S M Paula, L L Souza, N O S Bressane, R Maravalhas, M Wilieman, T Bento-Bernardes, K R Silva, L S Mendonca, K J Oliveira, C C Pazos-Moura
Neuromedin B (NB) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) are bombesin-like peptides, found in the gastrointestinal tube and pancreas, among other tissues. Consistent data proposed that GRP stimulates insulin secretion, acting directly in pancreatic cells or in the release of gastrointestinal hormones that are incretins. However, the role of NB remains unclear. We examined the glucose homeostasis in mice with deletion of NB receptor (NBR-KO). Female NBR-KO exhibited similar fasting basal glucose with lower insulinemia (48...
October 18, 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Kaname Uno, Katsunori Iijima, Yasuhiko Abe, Tomoyuki Koike, Yasushi Takahashi, Nobuyuki Ara, Tooru Shimosegawa
PURPOSE: Endoscopic diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC) that emerges after eradication of Helicobacter pylori may be affected by unique morphological changes. Using comprehensive endoscopic imaging, which can reveal biological alterations in gastric mucosa after eradication, previous studies demonstrated that Congo red chromoendoscopy (CRE) might clearly show an acid non-secretory area (ANA) with malignant potential, while autofluorescence imaging (AFI) without drug injection or dyeing may achieve early detection or prediction of GC...
September 2016: Journal of Gastric Cancer
Jamal Mohammadi Ayenehdeh, Bahareh Niknam, Seyed Mahmoud Hashemi, Hossein Rahavi, Nima Rezaei, Masoud Soleimani, Nader Tajik
BACKGROUND: Islet transplantation could be an ideal alternative treatment to insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes Mellitus (T1DM). This clinical and experimental field requires a model that covers problems such as requiring a large number of functional and viable islets, the optimal transplantation site, and the prevention of islet dispersion. Hence, the methods of choice for isolation of functional islets and transplantation are crucial. METHODS: The present study has introduced an experimental model that overcomes some critical issues in islet transplantation, including in situ pancreas perfusion by digestive enzymes through common bile duct...
October 18, 2016: Iranian Biomedical Journal
Yang Yang, Ben-Quan Wu, Yan-Hong Wang, Yun-Feng Shi, Jin-Mei Luo, Jun-Hui Ba, Hui Liu, Tian-Tuo Zhang
Macrophages play an important role in inflammatory responses; however, miRNA-mediated repolarization of macrophages is essential for fulfilling this function. To clarify a series of changes at the RNA level in alveolar macrophages under normal and inflammatory conditions, bronchial alveolar lavage liquid (BALF) was collected from healthy volunteers or patients with pneumonia. This approach, which differs from that used in previously, provides more accurate information about the states of macrophages in different lung microenvironments...
October 18, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Du Toit Loots, Conrad C Swanepoel, Mae Newton-Foot, Nicolaas C Gey van Pittius
The ESX-1 gene cluster, encoding the Type-VII secretion (T7S) system and its virulence associated proteins, ESAT-6 and CFP-10, is thought to be responsible for the transport of extracellular proteins across the hydrophobic and highly impermeable, cell envelope of Mycobacterium, and is involved in virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. Using a GCxGC-TOFMS metabolomics approach, a M. smegmatis ESX-1 knock-out strain (ΔESX-1ms) was compared to that of the M. smegmatis wild-type parent strain, and the metabolite markers due to the presence or absence of the ESX-1 gene cluster were identified...
October 12, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Federico Sista, Valentina Abruzzese, Marco Clementi, Sergio Carandina, Gianfranco Amicucci
BACKGROUND: The correlation between resected gastric volume (RGV) and neuro-humoral changes (ghrelin and GLP-1) after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and their effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been evaluated. MATERIALS: Ninety-eight patients were divided in two groups: RGV <1200 mL (group A: 53 pts) and RGV >1200 mL (group B: 45 pts). Insulin secretion (insulin area under the curve (AUC)), insulinogenic index (IGI) and insulin-resistance (homeostasis model assessment, HOMAIR) were assessed before and after surgery (at the 3rd day and 6, 12 and 24 months after LSG) using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Tian-Nyu Wang, Min Zhao
Laccases are green oxidases with a number of potential industrial applications. In this study, recombinant Bacillus subtilis CotA laccase was secreted by Escherichia coli via both the α-hemolysin secretion system and the YebF secretion system after microaerobic induction. Meanwhile, we discovered a much simpler approach for extracellular production of recombinant CotA laccase from E. coli, involving alternation of induction conditions to release recombinant CotA following intracellular expression. By optimizing the induction parameters, the extracellular yield of recombinant CotA laccase was improved from 157...
October 13, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Changhwan Ahn, Dongoh Lee, Jae-Hwan Lee, Hyun Yang, Beum-Soo An, Eui-Bae Jeung
It has been proposed that cellular Ca2+ signals activate hormone secretion. In pancreatic β cells, which produce insulin, Ca2+ signals have been known to contribute to insulin secretion. Prior to this study, we confirmed that insulin-secreting β cells express CaBP-9k, and assumed that CaBP-9k play a role in β cell insulin synthesis or secretion. Using CaBP-9k knock out (KO) mice, we demonstrated that ablation of CaBP-9k causes reducing insulin secretion and increasing serum glucose. To compare the role of CaBP-9k with pathophysiological conditions, we exposed wild-type and CaBP-9k KO mice to hypoxic conditions for 10 days...
2016: PloS One
Satyavrata Samavedi, Patricia Diaz-Rodriguez, Joshua Dean Erndt-Marino, Mariah Hahn
The goal of the present study was to develop a fully 3D co-culture system that would allow for systematic investigation of the interplay between activated macrophages and chondrocytes in osteoarthritic disease progression. Toward this end, our 3D co-culture system was first validated against existing in vitro osteoarthritis models, which have generally cultured healthy normal chondrocytes (NCs) ─ in 2D or 3D ─ with 2D classically activated macrophages (AMs). In the current work, NCs and AMs were both encapsulated within poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels to better mimic the native 3D environments of both cell types within the osteoarthritic joint...
October 13, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Sanna Koskiniemi, Johan Elf
Bacteria use type 6 secretion systems in antagonistic behavior to compete for resources with other bacteria. In a recent issue of Cell, Vettiger and Basler (2016) show that bacteria can also use these systems to arm neighboring cells and force them to pass on a signal in the bacterial population.
October 10, 2016: Developmental Cell
Zhiguo Yuan, Shuyun Liu, Chunxiang Hao, Weimin Guo, Shuang Gao, Mingjie Wang, Mingxue Chen, Zhen Sun, Yichi Xu, Yu Wang, Jiang Peng, Mei Yuan, Quan-Yi Guo
Tissue-engineered meniscus regeneration is a very promising treatment strategy for meniscus lesions. However, generating the scaffold presents a huge challenge for meniscus engineering as this has to meet particular biomechanical and biocompatibility requirements. In this study, we utilized acellular meniscus extracellular matrix (AMECM) and demineralized cancellous bone (DCB) to construct three different types of three-dimensional porous meniscus scaffold: AMECM, DCB, and AMECM/DCB, respectively. We tested the scaffolds' physicochemical characteristics and observed their interactions with meniscus fibrochondrocytes to evaluate their cytocompatibility...
September 28, 2016: Biomaterials
Yi-Jen Liao, Tzong-Shyuan Lee, Yuh-Ching Twu, Shih-Ming Hsu, Ching-Ping Yang, Chung-Kwe Wang, Yu-Chih Liang, Yi-Ming Arthur Chen
BACKGROUND: Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is abundantly expressed in the normal liver but is down-regulated in liver cancer tissues. GNMT knockout (Gnmt-/-) mice can spontaneously develop chronic hepatitis, fatty liver, and liver cancer. We previously demonstrated that hepatic GNMT is decreased in high-fat-diet-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus, but its contribution to metabolic syndrome is unclear. Here we show that GNMT modulates key aspects of metabolic syndrome in mice. METHODS: Eleven-week-old Gnmt-/- and wild-type (WT) mice with a C57BL/6 genetic background were used in this study...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Tim Heise, Eric Zijlstra, Leszek Nosek, Tord Rikte, Hanne Haahr
AIMS: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is increasingly used in patients with diabetes. Faster-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) is insulin aspart (IAsp) in a new formulation with a faster time-action profile. We evaluated the pharmacological characteristics of faster aspart versus IAsp> during CSII. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, crossover trial, 48 men and women aged 18-64 years with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) received faster aspart and IAsp as a 0...
October 6, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
E L Wu, H X Cui
The prevention and treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic nephropathy (DN), which are disorders with high incidence rates, is of primary importance. In this study, we analyzed the effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in combination with interleukin (IL)-15 on the inflammatory immune response and expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in mononuclear cells of T2DM and DN uremia (DNU) patients. The human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 was treated with peripheral blood serum isolated from 30 healthy controls and T2DM and DNU patients each, cultured in the presence or absence of 1,25-(OH)2D3, and subsequently treated with LPS and IL-15...
August 29, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Xiaolu Xiong, Jun Jiao, Anthony E Gregory, Pengcheng Wang, Yujing Bi, Xiaoyi Wang, Yongqiang Jiang, Bohai Wen, Daniel A Portnoy, James E Samuel, Chen Chen
Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes acute and chronic Q fever. Due to the severe adverse effect of whole cell vaccination, identification of immunodominant antigens of C. burnetii has become a major focus of Q fever vaccine development. We hypothesized that secreted C. burnetii Type IV secretion system (T4SS) effectors may represent a major class of CD8(+) T cell antigens due to their cytosolic localization. Twenty-nine peptides were identified that elicited robust CD8(+) T cell IFN-γ recall responses from mice infected with C...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Blake J Cochran, Liming Hou, Anil Paul Chirackal Manavalan, Benjamin M Moore, Fatiha Tabet, Afroza Sultana, Luisa Cuesta Torres, Shudi Tang, Sudichhya Shrestha, Praween Senanayake, Mili Patel, William J Ryder, Andre Bongers, Marie Maraninchi, Valerie C Wasinger, Marit Westerterp, Alan R Tall, Philip J Barter, Kerry-Anne Rye
Elevated pancreatic β-cell cholesterol levels impair insulin secretion and reduce plasma insulin levels. This study establishes that low plasma insulin levels have a detrimental effect on two major insulin target tissues: adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Mice with increased β-cell cholesterol levels were generated by conditional deletion of the ATP binding cassette transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, in β-cells (β-DKO mice). Insulin secretion was impaired in these mice under basal and high glucose conditions and glucose disposal was shifted from skeletal muscle to adipose tissue...
October 4, 2016: Diabetes
Maria L Breser, Ruben D Motrich, Leonardo R Sanchez, Virginia E Rivero
BACKGROUND: Experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the prostate characterized by peripheral prostate-specific autoimmune responses associated with prostate inflammation. EAP is induced in rodents upon immunization with prostate antigens (PAg) plus adjuvants and shares important clinical and immunological features with the human disease chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). METHODS: EAP was induced in young NOD, C57BL/6, and BALB/c male mice by immunization with PAg plus complete Freund́s adjuvant...
October 4, 2016: Prostate
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"