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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193868/xanthomonas-axonopodis-pv-punicae-employs-xopleffector-to-suppresspomegranate-immunity
#1
Madhvi Soni, Kalyan K Mondal
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae (Xap) causing bacterial blight is an important pathogen that incurs significant losses to the exportability of pomegranate. Xap employs Xop TTSS-effector via type three secretion system to suppress pomegranate immunity. Here, we investigate the role of XopL during blight pathogenesis. We found that XopL is essential for its in planta growth and full virulence. Leaves inoculated with Xap ΔxopL produced restricted water-soaked lesions compared to that inoculated with Xap wild...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104568/detection-of-mutations-affecting-heterogeneously-expressed-phenotypes-by-colony-immunoblot-and-dedicated-semi-automated-image-analysis-pipeline
#2
Erik Bakkeren, Tamas Dolowschiak, Médéric R J Diard
To understand how bacteria evolve and adapt to their environment, it can be relevant to monitor phenotypic changes that occur in a population. Single cell level analyses and sorting of mutant cells according to a particular phenotypic readout can constitute efficient strategies. However, when the phenotype of interest is expressed heterogeneously in ancestral isogenic populations of cells, single cell level sorting approaches are not optimal. Phenotypic heterogeneity can for instance make no-expression mutant cells indistinguishable from a subpopulation of wild-type cells transiently not expressing the phenotype...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092538/effects-of-exposure-to-sonar-playback-sounds-3-5-4-1%C3%A2-khz-on-harbor-porpoise-phocoena-phocoena-hearing
#3
Ronald A Kastelein, Lean Helder-Hoek, Shirley Van de Voorde
Safety criteria for naval sonar sounds are needed to protect harbor porpoise hearing. Two porpoises were exposed to sequences of AN/SQS-53C sonar playback sounds (3.5-4.1 kHz, without significant harmonics), at a mean received sound pressure level of 142 dB re 1 μPa, with a duty cycle of 96% (almost continuous). Behavioral hearing thresholds at 4 and 5.7 kHz were determined before and after exposure to the fatiguing sound, in order to quantify temporary threshold shifts (TTSs) and hearing recovery...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049240/the-thorax-trauma-severity-score-and-the-trauma-and-injury-severity-score-do-they-predict-in-hospital-mortality-in-patients-with-severe-thoracic-trauma-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#4
Seong Ho Moon, Jong Woo Kim, Joung Hun Byun, Sung Hwan Kim, Jun Young Choi, In Seok Jang, Chung Eun Lee, Jun Ho Yang, Dong Hun Kang, Ki Nyun Kim, Hyun Oh Park
Several scoring systems are commonly used to evaluate severity in patients with traumatic injuries. However, there is no generally accepted standard scoring system to assess the severity of thoracic trauma, specifically in patients who have sustained severe injuries. The present study aimed to evaluate the validity of the trauma and injury severity score (TRISS) and the thorax trauma severity score (TTSS) as predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with severe thoracic trauma.We conducted a retrospective, consecutive review of the medical records of patients with severe thoracic trauma who were managed at our institution between January 2005 and December 2015...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049011/-omics-of-food-borne-gastroenteritis-global-proteomic-and-mutagenic-analysis-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-enteritidis
#5
Aryashree Arunima, Soujanya D Yelamanchi, Chandrashekhar Padhi, Sangeeta Jaiswal, Daniel Ryan, Bhawna Gupta, Gajanan Sathe, Jayshree Advani, Harsha Gowda, T S Keshava Prasad, Mrutyunjay Suar
Salmonella Enteritidis causes food-borne gastroenteritis by the two type three secretion systems (TTSS). TTSS-1 mediates invasion through intestinal lining, and TTSS-2 facilitates phagocytic survival. The pathogens' ability to infect effectively under TTSS-1-deficient background in host's phagocytes is poorly understood. Therefore, pathobiological understanding of TTSS-1-defective nontyphoidal Salmonellosis is highly important. We performed a comparative global proteomic analysis of the isogenic TTSS-1 mutant of Salmonella Enteritidis (M1511) and its wild-type isolate P125109...
October 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923877/interplay-among-resistance-profiles-high-risk-clones-and-virulence-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-model
#6
Irina Sánchez-Diener, Laura Zamorano, Carla López-Causapé, Gabriel Cabot, Xavier Mulet, Carmen Peña, Rosa Del Campo, Rafael Cantón, Antonio Doménech-Sánchez, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Susana C Arcos, Alfonso Navas, Antonio Oliver
The increasing prevalence of nosocomial infections produced by multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently linked to widespread international strains designated as high-risk clones. In this work we attempted to decipher the interplay between resistance profiles, high-risk clones and virulence, testing a large (n=140) collection of well characterized P. aeruginosa isolates from different sources (bloodstream infections, nosocomial outbreaks, cystic fibrosis and environment) in a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model...
September 18, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884670/basic-processes-in-salmonella-host-interactions-within-host-evolution-and-the-transmission-of-the-virulent-genotype
#7
Médéric Diard, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt
Transmission and virulence are central aspects of pathogen evolution. However, in many cases their interconnection has proven difficult to assess by experimentation. Here we discuss recent advances from a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea. Mouse models mimic the enhanced susceptibility of antibiotic-treated individuals to nontyphoidal salmonellosis. In streptomycin-pretreated mice, Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar Typhimurium efficiently colonizes the gut lumen and elicits pronounced enteropathy. In the host's gut, S...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874849/inhibitory-effect-of-obovatol-from-magnolia-obovata-on-the-salmonella-type-iii-secretion-system
#8
Won-Sik Choi, Tae Hun Lee, Se Jin Son, Tae Gyu Kim, Byoung-Mog Kwon, Hyeong-U Son, Sung Uk Kim, Sang-Han Lee
In many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Yersinia and Chlamydia spp., which cause diseases in humans, the type III secretion system (TTSS) is an important virulence factor that translocates effector proteins into the cytosol of host cells. Thus, the TTSS is a good target for antibacterial agents. Here we used a hemolysis assay to search for TTSS inhibitors and found that a compound from Magnolia obovata called obovatol blocks the TTSS of Salmonella. Obovatol showed potent inhibitory activity (IC50=19...
November 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701230/plasmid-composition-in-aeromonas-salmonicida-subsp-salmonicida-01-b526-unravels-unsuspected-type-three-secretion-system-loss-patterns
#9
Katherine H Tanaka, Antony T Vincent, Jean-Guillaume Emond-Rheault, Marcin Adamczuk, Michel Frenette, Steve J Charette
BACKGROUND: Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a ubiquitous psychrophilic waterborne bacterium and a fish pathogen. The numerous mobile elements, especially insertion sequences (IS), in its genome promote rearrangements that impact its phenotype. One of the main virulence factors of this bacterium, its type three secretion system (TTSS), is affected by these rearrangements. In Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida most of the TTSS genes are encoded in a single locus on a large plasmid called pAsa5, and may be lost when the bacterium is cultivated at a higher temperature (25 °C), producing non-virulent mutants...
July 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671993/epithelial-cells-detect-functional-type-iii-secretion-system-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-through-a-novel-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#10
Yael Litvak, Shir Sharon, Meirav Hyams, Li Zhang, Simi Kobi, Naama Katsowich, Shira Dishon, Gabriel Nussbaum, Na Dong, Feng Shao, Ilan Rosenshine
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), a common cause of infant diarrhea, is associated with high risk of mortality in developing countries. The primary niche of infecting EPEC is the apical surface of intestinal epithelial cells. EPEC employs a type three secretion system (TTSS) to inject the host cells with dozens of effector proteins, which facilitate attachment to these cells and successful colonization. Here we show that EPEC elicit strong NF-κB activation in infected host cells. Furthermore, the data indicate that active, pore-forming TTSS per se is necessary and sufficient for this NF-κB activation, regardless of any specific effector or protein translocation...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469996/signaling-mediated-by-toll-like-receptor-5-sensing-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-flagellin-influences-il-1%C3%AE-and-il-18-production-by-primary-fibroblasts-derived-from-the-human-cornea
#11
Maria Del Mar Cendra, Myron Christodoulides, Parwez Hossain
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the principal cause of bacterial keratitis worldwide and overstimulation of the innate immune system by this organism is believed to contribute significantly to sight loss. In the current study, we have used primary human corneal fibroblast (hCF) cells as an ex vivo model of corneal infection to examine the role of P. aeruginosa flagellum and type three secretion system (TTSS) in inducing inflammasome-associated molecules that trigger IL-1β and IL-18 production during the early stages of the infection...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241883/the-number-of-displaced-rib-fractures-is-more-predictive-for-complications-in-chest-trauma-patients
#12
Chih-Ying Chien, Yu-Hsien Chen, Shih-Tsung Han, Gerald N Blaney, Ting-Shuo Huang, Kuan-Fu Chen
BACKGROUND: Traumatic rib fractures can cause chest complications that need further treatment and hospitalization. We hypothesized that an increase in the number of displaced rib fractures will be accompanied by an increase in chest complications. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the trauma registry between January 2013 and May 2015 in a teaching hospital in northeastern Taiwan. Patients admitted with chest trauma and rib fractures without concomitant severe brain, splenic, pelvic or liver injuries were included...
February 28, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138098/genetic-and-mechanistic-analyses-of-the-periplasmic-domain-of-the-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-qsec-histidine-sensor-kinase
#13
Christopher T Parker, Regan Russell, Jacqueline W Njoroge, Angel G Jimenez, Ron Taussig, Vanessa Sperandio
The histidine sensor kinase (HK) QseC senses autoinducer 3 (AI-3) and the adrenergic hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine. Upon sensing these signals, QseC acts through three response regulators (RRs) to regulate the expression of virulence genes in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). The QseB, QseF, and KdpE RRs that are phosphorylated by QseC constitute a tripartite signaling cascade having different and overlapping targets, including flagella and motility, the type three secretion system encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), and Shiga toxin...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103259/characterization-and-genetic-variation-of-vibrio-cholerae-isolated-from-clinical-and-environmental-sources-in-thailand
#14
Achiraya Siriphap, Pimlapas Leekitcharoenphon, Rolf S Kaas, Chonchanok Theethakaew, Frank M Aarestrup, Orasa Sutheinkul, Rene S Hendriksen
Cholera is still an important public health problem in several countries, including Thailand. In this study, a collection of clinical and environmental V. cholerae serogroup O1, O139, and non-O1/non-O139 strains originating from Thailand (1983 to 2013) was characterized to determine phenotypic and genotypic traits and to investigate the genetic relatedness. Using a combination of conventional methods and whole genome sequencing (WGS), 78 V. cholerae strains were identified. WGS was used to determine the serogroup, biotype, virulence, mobile genetic elements, and antimicrobial resistance genes using online bioinformatics tools...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028452/burkholderia-pseudomallei-type-iii-secreted-protein-bipc-role-in-actin-modulation-and-translocation-activities-required-for-the-bacterial-intracellular-lifecycle
#15
Wen Tyng Kang, Kumutha Malar Vellasamy, Lakshminarayanan Rajamani, Roger W Beuerman, Jamuna Vadivelu
Melioidosis, an infection caused by the facultative intracellular pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei, has been classified as an emerging disease with the number of patients steadily increasing at an alarming rate. B. pseudomalleipossess various virulence determinants that allow them to invade the host and evade the host immune response, such as the type III secretion systems (TTSS). The products of this specialized secretion system are particularly important for the B. pseudomallei infection. Lacking in one or more components of the TTSS demonstrated different degrees of defects in the intracellular lifecycle of B...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994213/host-cell-nuclear-localization-of-shigella-flexneri-effector-ospf-is-facilitated-by-sumoylation
#16
Kyungmin Jo, Eun Jin Kim, Hyun Jin Yu, Cheol-Heui Yun, Dong Wook Kim
When Shigella infect host cells, various effecter molecules are delivered into the cytoplasm of the host cell through the type III secretion system (TTSS) to facilitate their invasion process and control the host immune responses. Among these effectors, the S. flexneri effector OspF dephosphorylates mitogen-activated protein kinases and translocates itself to the nucleus, thus preventing histone H3 modification to regulate expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Despite the critical role of OspF, the mechanism by which it localizes in the nucleus has remained to be elucidated...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974737/genomic-insights-and-its-comparative-analysis-with-yersinia-enterocolitica-reveals-the-potential-virulence-determinants-and-further-pathogenicity-for-foodborne-outbreaks
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Gopalsamy Gnanasekaran, Eun Jung Na, Han Young Chung, Suyeon Kim, You-Tae Kim, Woori Kwak, Heebal Kim, Sangryeol Ryu, Sang Ho Choi, Ju-Hoon Lee
Yersinia enterocolitica is a well-known foodborne pathogen causing gastrointestinal infections worldwide. The strain Y. enterocolitica FORC_002 was isolated from the gill of flatfish (plaice) and its genome was sequenced. The genomic DNA consists of 4,837,317 bp with a GC content of 47.1%, and is predicted to contain 4,221 open reading frames, 81 tRNA genes, and 26 rRNA genes. Interestingly, genomic analysis revealed pathogenesis and host immune evasion-associated genes encoding guanylate cyclase (Yst), invasin (Ail and Inv), outer membrane protein (Yops), autotransporter adhesin A (YadA), RTX-like toxins, and a type III secretion system...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704705/the-iron-sulfur-cluster-sensor-iscr-is-a-negative-regulator-of-spi1-type-iii-secretion-system-in-salmonella-enterica
#18
Alexandra Vergnes, Julie P M Viala, Rabah Ouadah-Tsabet, Bérengère Pocachard, Laurent Loiseau, Stéphane Méresse, Frédéric Barras, Laurent Aussel
Iron-sulfur (Fe-S)-containing proteins contribute to various biological processes, including redox reactions or regulation of gene expression. Living organisms have evolved by developing distinct biosynthetic pathways to assemble these clusters, including iron sulfur cluster (ISC) and sulfur mobilization (SUF). Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an intracellular pathogen responsible for a wide range of infections, from gastroenteritis to severe systemic diseases. Salmonella possesses all known prokaryotic systems to assemble Fe-S clusters, including ISC and SUF...
April 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668874/global-analysis-of-type-three-secretion-system-and-quorum-sensing-inhibition-of-pseudomonas-savastanoi-by-polyphenols-extracts-from-vegetable-residues
#19
Carola Biancalani, Matteo Cerboneschi, Francesco Tadini-Buoninsegni, Margherita Campo, Arianna Scardigli, Annalisa Romani, Stefania Tegli
Protection of plants against bacterial diseases still mainly relies on the use of chemical pesticides, which in Europe correspond essentially to copper-based compounds. However, recently plant diseases control is oriented towards a rational use of molecules and extracts, generally with natural origin, with lower intrinsic toxicity and a reduced negative environmental impact. In this work, polyphenolic extracts from vegetable no food/feed residues of typical Mediterranean crops, as Olea europaea, Cynara scolymus, and Vitis vinifera were obtained and their inhibitory activity on the Type Three Secretion System (TTSS) and the Quorum Sensing (QS) of the Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi pv...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637152/indole-3-acetic-acid-in-plant-pathogen-interactions-a-key-molecule-for-in-planta-bacterial-virulence-and-fitness
#20
Matteo Cerboneschi, Francesca Decorosi, Carola Biancalani, Maria Vittoria Ortenzi, Sofia Macconi, Luciana Giovannetti, Carlo Viti, Beatrice Campanella, Massimo Onor, Emilia Bramanti, Stefania Tegli
The plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi, the causal agent of olive and oleander knot disease, uses the so-called "indole-3-acetamide pathway" to convert tryptophan to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) via a two-step pathway catalyzed by enzymes encoded by the genes in the iaaM/iaaH operon. Moreover, pathovar nerii of P. savastanoi is able to conjugate IAA to lysine to generate the less biologically active compound IAA-Lys via the enzyme IAA-lysine synthase encoded by the iaaL gene. Interestingly, iaaL is now known to be widespread in many Pseudomonas syringae pathovars, even in the absence of the iaaM and iaaH genes for IAA biosynthesis...
November 2016: Research in Microbiology
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