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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096329/tissue-dual-rna-seq-allows-fast-discovery-of-infection-specific-functions-and-riboregulators-shaping-host-pathogen-transcriptomes
#1
Aaron M Nuss, Michael Beckstette, Maria Pimenova, Carina Schmühl, Wiebke Opitz, Fabio Pisano, Ann Kathrin Heroven, Petra Dersch
Pathogenic bacteria need to rapidly adjust their virulence and fitness program to prevent eradication by the host. So far, underlying adaptation processes that drive pathogenesis have mostly been studied in vitro, neglecting the true complexity of host-induced stimuli acting on the invading pathogen. In this study, we developed an unbiased experimental approach that allows simultaneous monitoring of genome-wide infection-linked transcriptional alterations of the host and colonizing extracellular pathogens. Using this tool for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-infected lymphatic tissues, we revealed numerous alterations of host transcripts associated with inflammatory and acute-phase responses, coagulative activities, and transition metal ion sequestration, highlighting that the immune response is dominated by infiltrating neutrophils and elicits a mixed TH17/TH1 response...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091933/flagellar-regulation-and-virulence-in-the-entomopathogenic-bacteria-xenorhabdus-nematophila-and-photorhabdus-luminescens
#2
Alain Givaudan, Anne Lanois
There is a complex interplay between the regulation of flagellar motility and the expression of virulence factors in many bacterial pathogens. Here, we review the literature on the direct and indirect roles of flagellar motility in mediating the tripartite interaction between entomopathogenic bacteria (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus), their nematode hosts, and their insect targets. First, we describe the swimming and swarming motility of insect pathogenic bacteria and its impact on insect colonization. Then, we describe the coupling between the expression of flagellar and virulence genes and the dynamic of expression of the flagellar regulon during invertebrate infection...
December 28, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091587/bacillus-volatiles-adversely-affect-the-physiology-and-ultra-structure-of-ralstonia-solanacearum-and-induce-systemic-resistance-in-tobacco-against-bacterial-wilt
#3
Hafiz Abdul Samad Tahir, Qin Gu, Huijun Wu, Yuedi Niu, Rong Huo, Xuewen Gao
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by various bacteria have significant potential to enhance plant growth and to control phytopathogens. Six of the most effective antagonistic Bacillus spp. were used in this study against Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsc) TBBS1, the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease in tobacco. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and Bacillus artrophaeus LSSC22 had the strongest inhibitory effect against Rsc. Thirteen VOCs produced by FZB42 and 10 by LSSC22 were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081443/the-bacterial-t6ss-effector-evpp-prevents-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-by-inhibiting-the-ca-2-dependent-mapk-jnk-pathway
#4
Hao Chen, Dahai Yang, Fajun Han, Jinchao Tan, Lingzhi Zhang, Jingfan Xiao, Yuanxing Zhang, Qin Liu
Inflammasome activation is an important innate immune defense mechanism against bacterial infection, and in return, bacteria express virulence determinants that counteract inflammasome activation. Many such effectors are secreted into host cells via specialized bacterial secretion systems. Here, the intracellular pathogenic bacterium Edwardsiella tarda was demonstrated to activate NLRC4 and NLRP3 inflammasomes via a type III secretion system (T3SS), and to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome via a type VI secretion system (T6SS), indicating the antagonistic roles of these systems in inflammasome signaling...
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073082/vibrio-parahaemolyticus-o4-k8-forms-a-potential-predominant-clone-in-southern-china-as-detected-by-whole-genome-sequence-analysis
#5
Baisheng Li, Xingfen Yang, Hailing Tan, Bixia Ke, Dongmei He, Changwen Ke, Yonghui Zhang
Vibrio parahaemolyticus has been the most common food-borne pathogen in southern China, especially the O3:K6 pandemic clone and its serovariants. Recently, the serotype O4:K8 became more and more prevalent in southern China, which was different from the O3:K6 pandemic clone. Thus, the aim of the present work was to elucidate the molecular characteristics of the O4:K8. Some O3:K6 pandemic clone and its serovariants isolated in the same period were selected for comparative analysis, which were still dominant clone locally...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070933/secretome-analysis-of-diarrhea-inducing-strains-of-escherichia-coli
#6
Raja Sekhar Nirujogi, Babylakshmi Muthusamy, Min-Sik Kim, Gajanan J Sathe, P T V Lakshmi, Olga N Kovbasnjuk, T S Keshava Prasad, Mary Wade, Rabih E Jabbour
Secreted proteins constitute a major part of virulence factors that are responsible for pathogenesis caused by gram negative bacteria. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli), EHEC O157:H7 is the major pathogen often causing outbreaks. However, studies have reported that the significant outbreaks caused by non O157:H7 E. coli strains, also known as "Big-Six" serogroup strains are increasing. There is no systematic study describing differential secreted proteins from these non-O157:H7 E. coli strains. In this study, we carried out mass spectrometry-based differential secretome analysis using tandem mass tags labeling strategy of non-O157:H7 E...
January 9, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069818/ssek1-and-ssek3-t3ss-effectors-inhibit-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling-and-necroptotic-cell-death-in-salmonella-infected-macrophages
#7
Regina A Günster, Sophie A Matthews, David W Holden, Teresa L M Thurston
Within host cells such as macrophages, Salmonella enterica translocates virulence (effector) proteins across its vacuolar membrane using the SPI-2 type III secretion system. Previously it has been shown that when expressed ectopically the effectors SseK1 and SseK3 inhibit TNFα-induced NF-κB activation. In this study we show that ectopically expressed SseK1, SseK2 and SseK3 suppressed TNFα-, but not TLR4-, or interleukin-induced NF-κB activation. Inhibition required a DXD motif, which in SseK1 and SseK3 is essential for protein Arginine-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-ylation...
January 9, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056815/comparative-genomics-of-host-adaptive-traits-in-xanthomonas-translucens-pv-graminis
#8
Lena Hersemann, Daniel Wibberg, Jochen Blom, Alexander Goesmann, Franco Widmer, Frank-Jörg Vorhölter, Roland Kölliker
BACKGROUND: Xanthomonas translucens pathovars differ in their individual host ranges among Poaceae. As the causal agent of bacterial wilt in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), X. translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in temperate grassland regions. The genomes of six Xtg strains from Switzerland, Norway, and New Zealand were sequenced in order to gain insight into conserved genomic traits from organisms covering a wide geographical range...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049143/the-ruler-protein-escp-of-the-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-type-iii-secretion-system-is-involved-in-calcium-sensing-and-secretion-hierarchy-regulation-by-interacting-with-the-gatekeeper-protein-sepl
#9
Lihi Shaulov, Jenia Gershberg, Wanyin Deng, B Brett Finlay, Neta Sal-Man
: The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a multiprotein complex that plays a central role in the virulence of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. To ensure that effector proteins are efficiently translocated into the host cell, bacteria must be able to sense their contact with the host cell. In this study, we found that EscP, which was previously shown to function as the ruler protein of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli T3SS, is also involved in the switch from the secretion of translocator proteins to the secretion of effector proteins...
January 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046078/immune-response-in-calves-vaccinated-with-type-three-secretion-system-antigens-and-shiga-toxin-2b-subunit-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7
#10
Luisina Martorelli, Sergio Garbaccio, Daniel A Vilte, Adriana A Albanese, María P Mejías, Marina S Palermo, Elsa C Mercado, Cristina E Ibarra, Angel A Cataldi
Ruminants are the primary reservoir of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 and the main source of infection for humans. The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenic properties of a candidate vaccine consisting on the recombinant proteins of E. coli O157:H7 IntiminC280, the carboxy-terminal fraction of Intimin γ, EspB and the fusion protein between the B subunit of Stx2 and Brucella Lumazine Synthase (BLS)(BLS-Stx2B), in Holstein Fresian calves.To accomplish this goal we vaccinated calves with two doses of different vaccine formulations: 2 antigens (IntiminC280, EspB), 3 antigens (IntiminC280, EspB, BLS-Stx2B), BLS-Stx2B alone and a control non-vaccinated group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039361/characterization-of-the-ruler-protein-interaction-interface-on-the-substrate-specificity-switch-protein-in-the-yersinia-type-iii-secretion-system
#11
Oanh Ho, Per Rogne, Tomas Edgren, Hans Wolf-Watz, Frédéric H Login, Magnus Wolf-Watz
Many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria use the type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. In Yersinia the switch to secretion of effector proteins is induced first after that intimate contact between the bacterium and its eukaryotic target cell has been established and the T3SS proteins YscP and YscU are playing a central role in this process. Here we identify the molecular details of the YscP binding site on YscU by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019708/revealing-the-inventory-of-type-iii-effectors-in-pantoea-agglomerans-gall-forming-pathovars-by-using-draft-genome-sequences-and-a-machine-learning-approach
#12
Gal Nissan, Michael Gershovits, Michael Morozov, Laura Chalupowicz, Guido Sessa, Shulamit Manulis-Sasson, Isaac Barash, Tal Pupko
Pantoea agglomerans, a widespread epiphytic bacterium, has evolved into a hrp-dependent and host-specific gall-forming pathogen by acquiring a pathogenicity plasmid containing a type III secretion system (T3SS) and its effectors (T3Es). P. agglomerans pv. betae (Pab) elicits galls on beet (Beta vulgaris) and gypsophila (Gypsophila paniculata), whereas P. agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) incites galls on gypsophila and hypersensitive response (HR) on beet. Draft genome sequences were generated and employed in combination with a machine learning approach and a translocation assay into beet roots to identify the pools of T3Es in the two pathovars...
December 26, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001093/gaba-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-uptake-via-the-gaba-permease-gabp-represses-virulence-gene-expression-in-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-dc3000
#13
S L McCraw, D H Park, R Jones, M A Bentley, A Rico, R G Ratcliffe, N J Kruger, A Collmer, G M Preston
The nonprotein amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most abundant amino acid in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaf apoplast and is synthesized by Arabidopsis thaliana in response to infection by the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (hereafter called DC3000). High levels of exogenous GABA have previously been shown to repress the expression of the type III secretion system (T3SS) in DC3000, resulting in reduced elicitation of the hypersensitive response (HR) in the nonhost plant tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)...
December 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999769/exse-is-a-negative-regulator-for-t3ss-gene-expression-in-vibrio-alginolyticus
#14
Jinxin Liu, Shao-Yeh Lu, Lisa H Orfe, Chun-Hua Ren, Chao-Qun Hu, Douglas R Call, Johannetsy J Avillan, Zhe Zhao
Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) contribute to microbial pathogenesis of Vibrio species, but the regulatory mechanisms are complex. We determined if the classic ExsACDE protein-protein regulatory model from Pseudomonas aeruginosa applies to Vibrio alginolyticus. Deletion mutants in V. alginolyticus demonstrated that, as expected, the T3SS is positively regulated by ExsA and ExsC and negatively regulated by ExsD and ExsE. Interestingly, deletion of exsE enhanced the ability of V. alginolyticus to induce host-cell death while cytotoxicity was inhibited by in trans complementation of this gene in a wild-type strain, a result that differs from a similar experiment with Vibrio parahaemolyticus ExsE...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997726/functional-relatedness-in-the-inv-mxi-spa-type-iii-secretion-system-family
#15
Jessica A Klein, Biren M Dave, Amogelang R Raphenya, Andrew G McArthur, Leigh A Knodler
Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs) are structurally conserved nanomachines that span the inner and outer bacterial membranes, and via a protruding needle complex contact host cell membranes and deliver type III effector proteins. T3SS are phylogenetically divided into several families based on structural basal body components. Here we have studied the evolutionary and functional conservation of four T3SS proteins from the Inv/Mxi-Spa family: a cytosolic chaperone, two hydrophobic translocators that form a plasma membrane-integral pore, and the hydrophilic "tip complex" translocator that connects the T3SS needle to the translocon pore...
December 20, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995096/the-amino-terminal-part-of-the-needle-tip-translocator-lcrv-of-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-is-required-for-early-targeting-of-yoph-and-in-vivo-virulence
#16
Sofie Ekestubbe, Jeanette E Bröms, Tomas Edgren, Maria Fällman, Matthew S Francis, Åke Forsberg
Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are dedicated to targeting anti-host effector proteins into the cytosol of the host cell to promote bacterial infection. Delivery of the effectors requires three specific translocator proteins, of which the hydrophilic translocator, LcrV, is located at the tip of the T3SS needle and is believed to facilitate insertion of the two hydrophobic translocators into the host cell membrane. Here we used Yersinia as a model to study the role of LcrV in T3SS mediated intracellular effector targeting...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993130/computational-approach-to-predict-species-specific-type-iii-secretion-system-t3ss-effectors-using-single-and-multiple-genomes
#17
Christopher K Hobbs, Vanessa L Porter, Maxwell L S Stow, Bupe A Siame, Herbert H Tsang, Ka Yin Leung
BACKGROUND: Many gram-negative bacteria use type III secretion systems (T3SSs) to translocate effector proteins into host cells. T3SS effectors can give some bacteria a competitive edge over others within the same environment and can help bacteria to invade the host cells and allow them to multiply rapidly within the host. Therefore, developing efficient methods to identify effectors scattered in bacterial genomes can lead to a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions and ultimately to important medical and biotechnological applications...
December 19, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992422/role-of-t3ss-1-sipd-protein-in-protecting-mice-against-non-typhoidal-salmonella-typhimurium
#18
Bakhos Jneid, Karine Moreau, Marc Plaisance, Audrey Rouaix, Julie Dano, Stéphanie Simon
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica species are enteric pathogens that cause severe diseases ranging from self-limiting gastroenteritis to enteric fever and sepsis in humans. These infectious diseases are still the major cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries, especially in children younger than 5 years and immunocompromised adults. Vaccines targeting typhoidal diseases are already marketed, but none protect against non-typhoidal Salmonella. The existence of multiple non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes as well as emerging antibiotic resistance highlight the need for development of a broad-spectrum protective vaccine...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986730/the-sinorhizobium-ensifer-fredii-hh103-nodulation-outer-protein-nopi-is-a-determinant-for-efficient-nodulation-of-soybean-and-cowpea
#19
Irene Jiménez-Guerrero, Francisco Pérez-Montaño, Carlos Medina, Francisco Javier Ollero, Francisco Javier López-Baena
: The type 3 secretion system (T3SS) is a specialized secretion apparatus commonly used by many plant and animal pathogenic bacteria to deliver proteins, termed effectors, to the interior of the host cells. These effectors suppress host defenses and interfere with signal transduction pathways to promote infection. Some rhizobial strains possess a functional T3SS, which is involved in the suppression of host defense responses, host-range determination and symbiotic efficiency. The analysis of the genome of the broad host-range rhizobial strain Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 identified eight genes that code for putative T3SS effectors...
December 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925401/dickeya-dadantii-pectic-enzymes-necessary-for-virulence-are-also-responsible-for-activation-of-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-innate-immune-system
#20
Dominique Expert, Oriane Patrit, Vladimir E Shevchik, Claude Perino, Virginie Boucher, Creze Christophe, Estelle Wenes, Mathilde Fagard
Soft-rot diseases of plants attributed to Dickeya dadantii result from lysis of plant cell wall due to pectic enzymes released by the bacterial cell by a type II secretion system (T2SS). A. thaliana can express several lines of defence against this bacterium. We employed bacterial mutants with defective envelope structures or secreted proteins to examine early plant defence reactions. We focused on the production of AtrbohD-dependent ROS, callose deposition and cell death as indicators of these reactions. We observed a significant reduction in ROS and callose formation with a bacterial mutant where genes encoding five pectate lyases (Pels) were disrupted...
December 7, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
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