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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815941/t3ss-effector-exoy-reduces-inflammasome-related-responses-by-suppressing-bacterial-motility-and-delaying-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-caspase-1
#1
Jisu Jeon, Yong-Jae Kim, Heesung Shin, Un-Hwan Ha
Type III secreted effectors are essential for modulating host immune responses during the pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Little is known about the impact of one of the effectors, ExoY, on inflammasome activation, which results in IL-1β production and pyroptotic cell death. In this study, we found that transcriptional expression of Il-1β was induced to a lesser extent in response to an exoY harboring strain than to a deleted mutant. This suppressive effect of ExoY was verified by complementation assay as well as by direct translocation of exoY into host cells...
August 16, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807906/impact-of-type-iii-secretion-effectors-and-of-phenoxyacetamide-inhibitors-of-type-iii-secretion-on-abscess-formation-in-a-mouse-model-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#2
Bryan J Berube, Katherine Murphy, Matthew C Torhan, Nicholas O Bowlin, John D Williams, Terry L Bowlin, Donald T Moir, Alan R Hauser
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of intra-abdominal infections, wound infections, and community-acquired folliculitis, each of which may involve macro- or micro-abscess formation. The rising incidence of multi-drug resistance among P. aeruginosa isolates has increased both the economic burden and the morbidity and mortality associated with P. aeruginosa disease and necessitates a search for novel therapeutics. Previous work from our group detailed novel phenoxyacetamide inhibitors that block type III secretion and injection into host cells in vitro In this study, we used a murine abscess model of P...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800133/adaptive-evolution-of-rhizobial-symbiotic-compatibility-mediated-by-co-evolved-insertion-sequences
#3
Ran Zhao, Li Xue Liu, Yun Zeng Zhang, Jian Jiao, Wen Jing Cui, Biliang Zhang, Xiao Lin Wang, Meng Lin Li, Yi Chen, Zhu Qing Xiong, Wen Xin Chen, Chang Fu Tian
Mutualism between bacteria and eukaryotes has essential roles in the history of life, but the evolution of their compatibility is poorly understood. Here we show that different Sinorhizobium strains can form either nitrogen-fixing nodules or uninfected pseudonodules on certain cultivated soybeans, while being all effective microsymbionts of some wild soybeans. However, a few well-infected nodules can be found on a commercial soybean using inocula containing a mixed pool of Tn5 insertion mutants derived from an incompatible strain...
August 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799907/salmonella-spi-2-type-iii-secretion-system-effectors-molecular-mechanisms-and-physiological-consequences
#4
REVIEW
Elliott Jennings, Teresa L M Thurston, David W Holden
Serovars of Salmonella enterica cause both gastrointestinal and systemic diseases in a broad range of mammalian hosts, including humans. Salmonella virulence depends in part on its pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system (SPI-2 T3SS), which is required to translocate at least 28 effector proteins from vacuolar-resident bacteria into host cells. Comparative genomic analysis reveals that all serovars encode a subset of "core" effectors, suggesting that they are critical for virulence in different hosts...
August 9, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793882/rpon2-and-flia-regulated-flitx-is-indispensible-for-flagellar-motility-and-virulence-in-xanthomonas-oryzae-pv-oryzae
#5
Chao Yu, Huamin Chen, Fang Tian, Fenghuan Yang, Chenyang He
BACKGROUND: Bacterial blight of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most important crop diseases in the world. More insights into the mechanistic regulation of bacterial pathogenesis will help us identify novel molecular targets for developing effective disease control strategies. A large flagellar gene cluster is regulated under a three-tiered hierarchy by σ(54) factor RpoN2 and its activator FleQ, and σ(28) factor FliA. A hypothetical protein gene fliTX is located upstream of rpoN2, however, how it is regulated and how it is related to bacterial behaviors remain to be elucidated...
August 9, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790204/bacterial-chromatin-structural-proteins-regulate-the-bimodal-expression-of-the-locus-of-enterocyte-effacement-lee-pathogenicity-island-in-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#6
Hervé Leh, Ahmad Khodr, Marie-Christine Bouger, Bianca Sclavi, Sylvie Rimsky, Stéphanie Bury-Moné
In enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) encodes a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) essential for pathogenesis. This pathogenicity island comprises five major operons (LEE1 to LEE5), with the LEE5 operon encoding T3SS effectors involved in the intimate adherence of bacteria to enterocytes. The first operon, LEE1, encodes Ler (LEE-encoded regulator), an H-NS (nucleoid structuring protein) paralog that alleviates the LEE H-NS silencing. We observed that the LEE5 and LEE1 promoters present a bimodal expression pattern, depending on environmental stimuli...
August 8, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771474/a-flagellum-specific-chaperone-facilitates-assembly-of-the-core-type-iii-export-apparatus-of-the-bacterial-flagellum
#7
Florian D Fabiani, Thibaud T Renault, Britta Peters, Tobias Dietsche, Eric J C Gálvez, Alina Guse, Karen Freier, Emmanuelle Charpentier, Till Strowig, Mirita Franz-Wachtel, Boris Macek, Samuel Wagner, Michael Hensel, Marc Erhardt
Many bacteria move using a complex, self-assembling nanomachine, the bacterial flagellum. Biosynthesis of the flagellum depends on a flagellar-specific type III secretion system (T3SS), a protein export machine homologous to the export machinery of the virulence-associated injectisome. Six cytoplasmic (FliH/I/J/G/M/N) and seven integral-membrane proteins (FlhA/B FliF/O/P/Q/R) form the flagellar basal body and are involved in the transport of flagellar building blocks across the inner membrane in a proton motive force-dependent manner...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760850/regulation-of-the-locus-of-enterocyte-effacement-in-attaching-and-effacing-pathogens
#8
R Christopher D Furniss, Abigail Clements
Attaching and Effacing (AE) pathogens colonise the gut mucosa using a Type Three Secretion System (T3SS) and a suite of effector proteins. The Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) is the defining genetic feature of the AE pathogens, encoding the T3SS and the core effector proteins necessary for pathogenesis. Extensive research has revealed a complex regulatory network that senses and responds to a myriad of host and microbiota-derived signals in the infected gut to control transcription of the LEE. These signals include microbiota-liberated sugars and metabolites in the gut lumen, molecular oxygen at the gut epithelium and host hormones...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753655/bacterial-effector-nlel-promotes-enterohemorrhagic-e-coli-induced-attaching-and-effacing-lesions-by-ubiquitylating-and-inactivating-jnk
#9
Xiangpeng Sheng, Qing You, Hongnian Zhu, ZeNan Chang, Qingrun Li, Haifeng Wang, Chen Wang, Hongyan Wang, Lijian Hui, Chongtao Du, Xiaoduo Xie, Rong Zeng, Anning Lin, Dongfang Shi, Kangcheng Ruan, Jinghua Yan, George Fu Gao, Feng Shao, Ronggui Hu
As a major diarrheagenic human pathogen, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) produce attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions, characterized by the formation of actin pedestals, on mammalian cells. A bacterial T3SS effector NleL from EHEC O157:H7 was recently shown to be a HECT-like E3 ligase in vitro, but its biological functions and host targets remain elusive. Here, we report that NleL is required to effectively promote EHEC-induced A/E lesions and bacterial infection. Furthermore, human c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs) were identified as primary substrates of NleL...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750143/characterization-of-small-molecule-scaffolds-that-bind-to-the-shigella-type-iii-secretion-system-protein-ipad
#10
Supratim Dey, Asokan Anbanandam, Ben E Mumford, Roberto N De Guzman
Many pathogens such as Shigella and other bacteria assemble the type III secretion system (T3SS) nanoinjector to inject virulence proteins into their target cells to cause infectious diseases in humans. The rise of drug resistance among pathogens that rely on the T3SS for infectivity, plus the dearth of new antibiotics require alternative strategies in developing new antibiotics. The Shigella T3SS tip protein IpaD is an attractive target for developing anti-infectives because of its essential role in virulence and its exposure on the bacterial surface...
July 27, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713361/exposure-to-umbelliferone-reduces-ralstonia-solanacearum-biofilm-formation-transcription-of-type-iii-secretion-system-regulators-and-effectors-and-virulence-on-tobacco
#11
Liang Yang, Shili Li, Xiyun Qin, Gaofei Jiang, Juanni Chen, Bide Li, Xiaoyuan Yao, Peibo Liang, Yong Zhang, Wei Ding
Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most devastating phytopathogens and causes bacterial wilt, which leads to severe economic loss due to its worldwide distribution and broad host range. Certain plant-derived compounds (PDCs) can impair bacterial virulence by suppressing pathogenic factors of R. solanacearum. However, the inhibitory mechanisms of PDCs in bacterial virulence remain largely unknown. In this study, we screened a library of coumarins and derivatives, natural PDCs with fused benzene and α-pyrone rings, for their effects on expression of the type III secretion system (T3SS) of R...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691868/clpxp-dependent-rpos-degradation-enables-full-activation-of-type-iii-secretion-system-amylovoran-production-and-motility-in-erwinia-amylovora
#12
Jae Hoon Lee, Youfu Zhao
Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease of apples and pears, employs intracellular proteases, including Lon and ClpXP, for post-translational regulation of various cellular proteins. It has been shown that Lon plays a critical role in E. amylovora virulence by directly targeting type III secretion (T3SS) proteins and the Rcs phosphorelay system. In this study, we genetically examined the role of ClpXP and its potential interaction with Lon in E. amylovora. Mutation in clpXP diminished the expression of the T3SS, reduced exopolysaccharide amylovoran production and motility, and resulted in delayed disease progress...
July 10, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682158/recombination-of-virulence-genes-in-divergent-acidovorax-avenae-strains-that-infect-a-common-host
#13
Quan Zeng, Jie Wang, Frederic Bertels, Paul Giordano, Martin I Chilvers, Regan B Huntley, Joseph M Vargas, George W Sundin, Janette L Jacobs, Ching-Hong Yang
Bacterial etiolation and decline (BED), caused by Acidovorax avenae, is an emerging disease of creeping bentgrass on golf courses in the United States of America. We performed the first comprehensive analysis of A. avenae on a nationwide collection of turfgrass and maize pathogenic A. avenae. Surprisingly, our results reveal that the turfgrass pathogenic A. avenae in North America are not only highly divergent but also belong to two distinct phylogroups. Both phylogroups specifically infect turfgrass but are more closely related to maize pathogens, than to each other...
July 6, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677296/pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-dc3000-polymutants-deploying-coronatine-and-two-type-iii-effectors-produce-quantifiable-chlorotic-spots-from-individual-bacterial-colonies-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-leaves
#14
Suma Chakravarthy, Jay N Worley, Adriana Montes-Rodriguez, Alan Collmer
Primary virulence factors of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 include the phytotoxin coronatine (COR) and a repertoire of 29 effector proteins injected into plant cells by the type III secretion system (T3SS). DC3000 derivatives differentially producing COR, the T3SS machinery, and subsets of key effectors were constructed and assayed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Bacteria were inoculated by dipping of whole plants and assayed for population growth and production of chlorotic spots on leaves. The strains fell into three classes...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667631/effector-translocation-cya-reporter-assay
#15
Suma Chakravarthy, Bethany Huot, Brian H Kvitko
An accurate and complete roster of the Type III effector (T3E) proteins translocated by the P. syringae Type III secretion system (T3SS) into host cells is critical to understanding the pathogen's interactions with plants. The adenylate cyclase (Cya) reporter offers a highly sensitive and robust assay for monitoring the translocation of T3Es. T3Es are fused to the calmodulin-dependent adenylate-cyclase domain of CyaA. The T3E targets Cya for translocation through the T3SS into the host cell at which point it is activated by calmodulin and converts adenosine triphosphate into cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664152/type-iii-secretion-in-the-melioidosis-pathogen-burkholderia-pseudomallei
#16
REVIEW
Charles W Vander Broek, Joanne M Stevens
Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe disease of both humans and animals. Melioidosis is an emerging disease which is predicted to be vastly under-reported. Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs) are critical virulence factors in Gram negative pathogens of plants and animals. The genome of B. pseudomallei encodes three T3SSs. T3SS-1 and -2, of which little is known, are homologous to Hrp2 secretion systems of the plant pathogens Ralstonia and Xanthomonas...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654176/multiple-pseudomonas-species-secrete-exolysin-like-toxins-and-provoke-caspase-1-dependent-macrophage-death
#17
REVIEW
Pauline Basso, Pierre Wallet, Sylvie Elsen, Emmanuelle Soleilhac, Thomas Henry, Eric Faudry, Ina Attrée
Pathogenic bacteria secrete protein toxins that provoke apoptosis or necrosis of eukaryotic cells. Here, we developed a live-imaging method, based on incorporation of a DNA-intercalating dye into membrane-damaged host cells, to study the kinetics of primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) mortality induced by opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa expressing either Type III Secretion System (T3SS) toxins or the pore-forming toxin, Exolysin (ExlA). We found that ExlA promotes the activation of Caspase-1 and maturation of interleukin-1β...
June 27, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653671/a-dynamic-and-adaptive-network-of-cytosolic-interactions-governs-protein-export-by-the-t3ss-injectisome
#18
Andreas Diepold, Erdinc Sezgin, Miles Huseyin, Thomas Mortimer, Christian Eggeling, Judith P Armitage
Many bacteria use a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject effector proteins into host cells. Selection and export of the effectors is controlled by a set of soluble proteins at the cytosolic interface of the membrane spanning type III secretion 'injectisome'. Combining fluorescence microscopy, biochemical interaction studies and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we show that in live Yersinia enterocolitica bacteria these soluble proteins form complexes both at the injectisome and in the cytosol. Binding to the injectisome stabilizes these cytosolic complexes, whereas the free cytosolic complexes, which include the type III secretion ATPase, constitute a highly dynamic and adaptive network...
June 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652236/synthetic-cyclic-peptomers-as-type-iii-secretion-system-inhibitors
#19
Hanh Lam, Joshua Schwochert, Yongtong Lao, Tannia Lau, Cameron Lloyd, Justin Luu, Olivia Kooner, Jessica Morgan, Scott Lokey, Victoria Auerbuch
Antibiotic resistant bacteria are an emerging threat to global public health. New classes of antibiotics and tools for antimicrobial discovery are urgently needed. The type III secretion system (T3SS), which is required by dozens of Gram-negative bacteria for virulence but largely absent from non-pathogenic bacteria, is a promising virulence blocker target. The ability of mammalian cells to recognize the presence of a functional T3SS and trigger NFκB activation provides a rapid and sensitive method to identify chemical inhibitors of T3SS activity...
June 26, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651361/epigallocatechin-gallate-inhibits-the-type-iii-secretion-system-of-gram-negative-enteropathogenic-bacteria-under-model-condition
#20
Noboru Nakasone, Naomi Higa, Claudia Toma, Yasunori Ogura, Toshihiko Suzuki, Tetsu Yamashiro
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol in green tea, inhibits the type III secretion system (T3SS) of enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively), Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The inhibitory effect causes the inhibition of hemolysis, cell invasion, cell adhesion, and apoptosis, which are functions of the type III secretion device. In the case of EPEC, EspB accumulates in the cells. RT-PCR showed that the translation of EspB was not blocked...
June 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
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