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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213905/a-ten-gene-containing-genomic-island-determines-flagellin-glycosylation-implication-for-its-regulatory-role-in-motility-and-virulence-of-xanthomonas-oryzae-pv-oryzae
#1
Chao Yu, Huamin Chen, Fang Tian, Fenghuan Yang, Xiaochen Yuan, Ching-Hong Yang, Chenyang He
Flagellin glycosylation plays crucial roles in flagellar assembly, motility and virulence in several pathogenic bacteria. However, little is known about the genetic determinants and biological functions of flagellin glycosylation in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal pathogen of bacterial blight of rice. Here, the structure, regulation and functions of a ten-gene cluster gigX (glycosylation island genes of Xoo), which was embedded in a flagellar regulon were characterized. gigX1 through gigX10, encoded putative enzymes or proteins involved in glycan biosynthesis and transfer, including a nucleotide sugar transaminase, an acyl-carrier protein (ACP), a 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase, a 3-oxoacyl-ACP reductase, a dehydrogenase, an acetyltransferase, a ring hydroxylating dioxygenase, a hypothetical protein, a methyltransferanse, and a glycosyltransferase, respectively...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209897/host-cell-attachment-elicits-posttranscriptional-regulation-in-infecting-enteropathogenic-bacteria
#2
Naama Katsowich, Netanel Elbaz, Ritesh Ranjan Pal, Erez Mills, Simi Kobi, Tamar Kahan, Ilan Rosenshine
The mechanisms by which pathogens sense the host and respond by remodeling gene expression are poorly understood. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the cause of severe intestinal infection, employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject effector proteins into intestinal epithelial cells. These effectors subvert host cell processes to promote bacterial colonization. We show that the T3SS also functions to sense the host cell and to trigger in response posttranscriptional remodeling of gene expression in the bacteria...
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198457/identification-of-a-novel-type-iii-secretion-associated-outer-membrane-bound-protein-from-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris
#3
Lei Li, Rui-Fang Li, Zhen-Hua Ming, Guang-Tao Lu, Ji-Liang Tang
Many bacterial pathogens employ the type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic cells to overcome host defenses. To date, most of our knowledge about the T3SS molecular architecture comes from the studies on animal pathogens. In plant pathogens, nine Hrc proteins are believed to be structural components of the T3SS, of which HrcC and HrcJ form the outer and inner rings of the T3SS, respectively. Here, we demonstrated that a novel outer membrane-bound protein (HpaM) of Xanthomonas campestris pv...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197129/the-ecological-role-of-type-three-secretion-systems-in-the-interaction-of-bacteria-with-fungi-in-soil-and-related-habitats-is-diverse-and-context-dependent
#4
REVIEW
Rashid Nazir, Sylvie Mazurier, Pu Yang, Philippe Lemanceau, Jan Dirk van Elsas
Bacteria and fungi constitute important organisms in many ecosystems, in particular terrestrial ones. Both organismal groups contribute significantly to biogeochemical cycling processes. Ecological theory postulates that bacteria capable of receiving benefits from host fungi are likely to evolve efficient association strategies. The purpose of this review is to examine the mechanisms that underpin the bacterial interactions with fungi in soil and other systems, with special focus on the type III secretion system (T3SS)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193547/salmonella-proteomics-under-oxidative-stress-reveals-coordinated-regulation-of-antioxidant-defense-with-iron-metabolism-and-bacterial-virulence
#5
Jiaqi Fu, Linlu Qi, Mo Hu, Yanhua Liu, Kaiwen Yu, Qian Liu, Xiaoyun Liu
Salmonella Typhimurium is a bacterial pathogen that can cause widespread gastroenteritis. Salmonella encounters reactive oxygen species both under free-living conditions and within their mammalian host during infection. To study its response to oxidative stress, we performed the first large-scale proteomic profiling of Salmonella upon exposure to H2O2. Among 1600 detected proteins, 83 proteins showed significantly altered abundance. Interestingly, only a subset of known antioxidants was induced, likely due to distinct regulatory mechanisms...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178427/pathogenesis-of-colitis-in-germ-free-mice-infected-with-ehec-o157-h7
#6
K A Eaton, C Fontaine, D I Friedman, N Conti, C J Alteri
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are strains of E. coli that express Shiga toxins (Stx) and cause hemorrhagic colitis. In some cases, disease can progress to hemolytic uremic syndrome, a potentially fatal form of kidney disease. Both enteric and renal disease are associated with the expression of stx genes, which are often carried on lysogenic phage. Toxin is expressed following induction and conversion of the phage to lytic growth. The authors previously used a germ-free mouse model to demonstrate that toxin gene expression is enhanced during growth in vivo and that renal disease is dependent on both prophage induction and expression of Stx2...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166267/bacterial-internalization-is-required-to-trigger-nik-dependent-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-response-to-the-bacterial-type-three-secretion-system
#7
Miles C Duncan, Natalia G Herrera, Kevin S Johnson, Joanne N Engel, Victoria Auerbuch
Infection of human cells with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis expressing a functional type III secretion system (T3SS) leads to activation of host NF-κB. We show that the Yersinia T3SS activates distinct NF-κB pathways dependent upon bacterial subcellular localization. We found that wildtype Yersinia able to remain extracellular triggered NF-κB activation independently of the non-canonical NF-κB kinase NIK in HEK293T cells. In contrast, Yersinia lacking the actin-targeting effectors YopEHO, which become internalized into host cells, induce a NIK-dependent response and nuclear entry of the non-canonical NF-κB subunit p52...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138023/distinct-roles-of-the-anti-apoptotic-effectors-nleb-and-nlef-from-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#8
Georgina L Pollock, Clare V L Oates, Cristina Giogha, Tania Wong Fok Lung, Sze Ying Ong, Jaclyn S Pearson, Elizabeth L Hartland
During infection, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) translocates effector proteins directly into the cytosol of infected enterocytes using a type III secretion system (T3SS). Once inside the host cell, these effector proteins subvert various immune signaling pathways including death receptor-induced apoptosis. One such effector protein is the Non-LEE encoded effector NleB1, which inhibits extrinsic apoptotic signaling via the FAS death receptor. NleB1 transfers a single GlcNAc residue to Arg117 in the death domain of FADD and inhibits FAS ligand (FasL) stimulated caspase-8 cleavage...
January 30, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119474/negative-autogenous-control-of-the-master-type-iii-secretion-system-regulator-hrpl-in-pseudomonas-syringae
#9
Christopher Waite, Jörg Schumacher, Milija Jovanovic, Mark Bennett, Martin Buck
: The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a principal virulence determinant of the model bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae T3SS effector proteins inhibit plant defense signaling pathways in susceptible hosts and elicit evolved immunity in resistant plants. The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor HrpL coordinates the expression of most T3SS genes. Transcription of hrpL is dependent on sigma-54 and the codependent enhancer binding proteins HrpR and HrpS for hrpL promoter activation...
January 24, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112271/secretepdb-a-comprehensive-web-based-resource-for-secreted-effector-proteins-of-the-bacterial-types-iii-iv-and-vi-secretion-systems
#10
Yi An, Jiawei Wang, Chen Li, Jerico Revote, Yang Zhang, Thomas Naderer, Morihiro Hayashida, Tatsuya Akutsu, Geoffrey I Webb, Trevor Lithgow, Jiangning Song
Bacteria translocate effector molecules to host cells through highly evolved secretion systems. By definition, the function of these effector proteins is to manipulate host cell biology and the sequence, structural and functional annotations of these effector proteins will provide a better understanding of how bacterial secretion systems promote bacterial survival and virulence. Here we developed a knowledgebase, termed SecretEPDB (Bacterial Secreted Effector Protein DataBase), for effector proteins of type III secretion system (T3SS), type IV secretion system (T4SS) and type VI secretion system (T6SS)...
January 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096329/tissue-dual-rna-seq-allows-fast-discovery-of-infection-specific-functions-and-riboregulators-shaping-host-pathogen-transcriptomes
#11
Aaron M Nuss, Michael Beckstette, Maria Pimenova, Carina Schmühl, Wiebke Opitz, Fabio Pisano, Ann Kathrin Heroven, Petra Dersch
Pathogenic bacteria need to rapidly adjust their virulence and fitness program to prevent eradication by the host. So far, underlying adaptation processes that drive pathogenesis have mostly been studied in vitro, neglecting the true complexity of host-induced stimuli acting on the invading pathogen. In this study, we developed an unbiased experimental approach that allows simultaneous monitoring of genome-wide infection-linked transcriptional alterations of the host and colonizing extracellular pathogens. Using this tool for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-infected lymphatic tissues, we revealed numerous alterations of host transcripts associated with inflammatory and acute-phase responses, coagulative activities, and transition metal ion sequestration, highlighting that the immune response is dominated by infiltrating neutrophils and elicits a mixed TH17/TH1 response...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091933/flagellar-regulation-and-virulence-in-the-entomopathogenic-bacteria-xenorhabdus-nematophila-and-photorhabdus-luminescens
#12
Alain Givaudan, Anne Lanois
There is a complex interplay between the regulation of flagellar motility and the expression of virulence factors in many bacterial pathogens. Here, we review the literature on the direct and indirect roles of flagellar motility in mediating the tripartite interaction between entomopathogenic bacteria (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus), their nematode hosts, and their insect targets. First, we describe the swimming and swarming motility of insect pathogenic bacteria and its impact on insect colonization. Then, we describe the coupling between the expression of flagellar and virulence genes and the dynamic of expression of the flagellar regulon during invertebrate infection...
December 28, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091587/bacillus-volatiles-adversely-affect-the-physiology-and-ultra-structure-of-ralstonia-solanacearum-and-induce-systemic-resistance-in-tobacco-against-bacterial-wilt
#13
Hafiz Abdul Samad Tahir, Qin Gu, Huijun Wu, Yuedi Niu, Rong Huo, Xuewen Gao
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by various bacteria have significant potential to enhance plant growth and to control phytopathogens. Six of the most effective antagonistic Bacillus spp. were used in this study against Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsc) TBBS1, the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease in tobacco. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and Bacillus artrophaeus LSSC22 had the strongest inhibitory effect against Rsc. Thirteen VOCs produced by FZB42 and 10 by LSSC22 were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081443/the-bacterial-t6ss-effector-evpp-prevents-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-by-inhibiting-the-ca-2-dependent-mapk-jnk-pathway
#14
Hao Chen, Dahai Yang, Fajun Han, Jinchao Tan, Lingzhi Zhang, Jingfan Xiao, Yuanxing Zhang, Qin Liu
Inflammasome activation is an important innate immune defense mechanism against bacterial infection, and in return, bacteria express virulence determinants that counteract inflammasome activation. Many such effectors are secreted into host cells via specialized bacterial secretion systems. Here, the intracellular pathogenic bacterium Edwardsiella tarda was demonstrated to activate NLRC4 and NLRP3 inflammasomes via a type III secretion system (T3SS), and to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome via a type VI secretion system (T6SS), indicating the antagonistic roles of these systems in inflammasome signaling...
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073082/vibrio-parahaemolyticus-o4-k8-forms-a-potential-predominant-clone-in-southern-china-as-detected-by-whole-genome-sequence-analysis
#15
Baisheng Li, Xingfen Yang, Hailing Tan, Bixia Ke, Dongmei He, Changwen Ke, Yonghui Zhang
Vibrio parahaemolyticus has been the most common food-borne pathogen in southern China, especially the O3:K6 pandemic clone and its serovariants. Recently, the serotype O4:K8 became more and more prevalent in southern China, which was different from the O3:K6 pandemic clone. Thus, the aim of the present work was to elucidate the molecular characteristics of the O4:K8. Some O3:K6 pandemic clone and its serovariants isolated in the same period were selected for comparative analysis, which were still dominant clone locally...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070933/secretome-analysis-of-diarrhea-inducing-strains-of-escherichia-coli
#16
Raja Sekhar Nirujogi, Babylakshmi Muthusamy, Min-Sik Kim, Gajanan J Sathe, P T V Lakshmi, Olga N Kovbasnjuk, T S Keshava Prasad, Mary Wade, Rabih E Jabbour
Secreted proteins constitute a major part of virulence factors that are responsible for pathogenesis caused by gram negative bacteria. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli), EHEC O157:H7 is the major pathogen often causing outbreaks. However, studies have reported that the significant outbreaks caused by non O157:H7 E. coli strains, also known as "Big-Six" serogroup strains are increasing. There is no systematic study describing differential secreted proteins from these non-O157:H7 E. coli strains. In this study, we carried out mass spectrometry-based differential secretome analysis using tandem mass tags labeling strategy of non-O157:H7 E...
January 9, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069818/ssek1-and-ssek3-t3ss-effectors-inhibit-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling-and-necroptotic-cell-death-in-salmonella-infected-macrophages
#17
Regina A Günster, Sophie A Matthews, David W Holden, Teresa L M Thurston
Within host cells such as macrophages, Salmonella enterica translocates virulence (effector) proteins across its vacuolar membrane using the SPI-2 type III secretion system. Previously it has been shown that when expressed ectopically the effectors SseK1 and SseK3 inhibit TNFα-induced NF-κB activation. In this study we show that ectopically expressed SseK1, SseK2 and SseK3 suppressed TNFα-, but not TLR4-, or interleukin-induced NF-κB activation. Inhibition required a DXD motif, which in SseK1 and SseK3 is essential for protein Arginine-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-ylation...
January 9, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056815/comparative-genomics-of-host-adaptive-traits-in-xanthomonas-translucens-pv-graminis
#18
Lena Hersemann, Daniel Wibberg, Jochen Blom, Alexander Goesmann, Franco Widmer, Frank-Jörg Vorhölter, Roland Kölliker
BACKGROUND: Xanthomonas translucens pathovars differ in their individual host ranges among Poaceae. As the causal agent of bacterial wilt in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), X. translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in temperate grassland regions. The genomes of six Xtg strains from Switzerland, Norway, and New Zealand were sequenced in order to gain insight into conserved genomic traits from organisms covering a wide geographical range...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049143/the-ruler-protein-escp-of-the-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-type-iii-secretion-system-is-involved-in-calcium-sensing-and-secretion-hierarchy-regulation-by-interacting-with-the-gatekeeper-protein-sepl
#19
Lihi Shaulov, Jenia Gershberg, Wanyin Deng, B Brett Finlay, Neta Sal-Man
: The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a multiprotein complex that plays a central role in the virulence of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. To ensure that effector proteins are efficiently translocated into the host cell, bacteria must be able to sense their contact with the host cell. In this study, we found that EscP, which was previously shown to function as the ruler protein of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli T3SS, is also involved in the switch from the secretion of translocator proteins to the secretion of effector proteins...
January 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046078/immune-response-in-calves-vaccinated-with-type-three-secretion-system-antigens-and-shiga-toxin-2b-subunit-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7
#20
Luisina Martorelli, Sergio Garbaccio, Daniel A Vilte, Adriana A Albanese, María P Mejías, Marina S Palermo, Elsa C Mercado, Cristina E Ibarra, Angel A Cataldi
Ruminants are the primary reservoir of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 and the main source of infection for humans. The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenic properties of a candidate vaccine consisting on the recombinant proteins of E. coli O157:H7 IntiminC280, the carboxy-terminal fraction of Intimin γ, EspB and the fusion protein between the B subunit of Stx2 and Brucella Lumazine Synthase (BLS)(BLS-Stx2B), in Holstein Fresian calves.To accomplish this goal we vaccinated calves with two doses of different vaccine formulations: 2 antigens (IntiminC280, EspB), 3 antigens (IntiminC280, EspB, BLS-Stx2B), BLS-Stx2B alone and a control non-vaccinated group...
2017: PloS One
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