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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895515/escherichia-coli-type-iii-secretion-system-2-regulator-etra-promotes-virulence-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#1
Shaohui Wang, Xuan Xu, Xin Liu, Dong Wang, Hua Liang, Xiaojun Wu, Mingxing Tian, Chan Ding, Guijun Wang, Shengqing Yu
The Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2) is found in most E. coli strains, including pathogenic and commensal strains. Although many ETT2 gene clusters carry multiple genetic mutations or deletions, ETT2 is known to be involved in bacterial virulence. In enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), ETT2 affects adhesion through the regulator EtrA, which regulates transcription and secretion of the type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). To date, no studies have been conducted on the role of EtrA in the virulence of avian pathogenic E...
September 12, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893354/similar-virulence-properties-of-infection-and-colonization-associated-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#2
Aditi, Malini Shariff, Sunil K Chhabra, Mujeeb-Ur Rahman
PURPOSE: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the agents that are commonly implicated in nosocomial infections. However, it is also present as a commensal in various body sites of healthy persons, making the diagnosis of infection by culture difficult. A number of virulence factors expressed by the organism have been implicated in its pathogenicity. We undertook this study to identify the host and organism factors associated with infection. METHODOLOGY: Pathogenic, colonizing and environmental isolates were tested for apr, lasB, the T3SS effector exoenzymes (exoS, exoT, exoU and exoY) and toxA genes, biofilm production and antimicrobial susceptibility...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889297/contribution-of-cyclic-di-gmp-in-the-control-of-type-iii-and-type-vi-secretion-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#3
Ronan R McCarthy, Martina Valentini, Alain Filloux
Bacteria produce toxins to enhance their competitiveness in the colonization of an environment as well as during an infection. The delivery of toxins into target cells is mediated by several types of secretion systems, among them our focus is Type III and Type VI Secretion Systems (T3SS and T6SS, respectively). A thorough methodology is provided detailing how to identify if cyclic di-GMP signaling plays a role in the P. aeruginosa toxin delivery mediated by T3SS or T6SS. This includes in vitro preparation of the samples for Western blot analysis aiming at detecting possible c-di-GMP-dependent T3SS/T6SS switch, as well as in vivo analysis using the model organism Galleria mellonella to demonstrate the ecological and pathogenic consequence of the switch between these two secretion systems...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887382/identification-of-a-novel-salmonella-type-iii-effector-by-quantitative-secretome-profiling
#4
Sen Cheng, Lu Wang, Qian Liu, Linlu Qi, Kaiwen Yu, Zhen Wang, Mei Wu, Yanhua Liu, Jiaqi Fu, Mo Hu, Min Li, Daoguo Zhou, Xiaoyun Liu
Salmonellaenterica serovar Typhimurium is arguably one of the most studied bacterial pathogens and successful infection requires the delivery of its virulence factors (effectors) directly into host cells via the type III secretion systems (T3SSs). Central to Salmonella pathogenesis, these effector proteins have been subjected to extensive studies over the years. Nevertheless, whether additional effectors exist remains unclear. Here we report the identification of a novel Salmonella T3SS effector STM1239 (which we renamed SopF) via quantitative secretome profiling...
September 8, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870291/genomic-characterization-of-an-extensively-drug-resistance-salmonella-enterica-serotype-indiana-strain-harboring-blandm-1-gene-isolated-from-a-chicken-carcass-in-china
#5
Wei Wang, Zixin Peng, Zulqarnain Baloch, Yujie Hu, Jin Xu, Wenhui Zhang, Séamus Fanning, Fengqin Li
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to genetically characterize the antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of Salmonella enterica serotype Indiana C629 isolated from a chicken carcass in China in 2014. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility against a panel of 23 antimicrobial agents was carried out on Salmonella enterica serotype Indiana C629 and assessed according to CLSI standards. Whole-genome sequencing of this isolate was conducted to obtain the complete genome of S...
November 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869687/ancestral-acquisitions-gene-flow-and-multiple-evolutionary-trajectories-of-the-type-three-secretion-system-and-effectors-in-xanthomonas-plant-pathogens
#6
Déborah Merda, Martial Briand, Eran Bosis, Céline Rousseau, Perrine Portier, Matthieu Barret, Marie-Agnès Jacques, Marion Fischer-Le Saux
Deciphering the evolutionary history and transmission patterns of virulence determinants is necessary to understand the emergence of novel pathogens. The main virulence determinant of most pathogenic proteobacteria is the type three secretion system (T3SS). The Xanthomonas genus includes bacteria responsible for numerous epidemics in agroecosystems worldwide and represents a major threat to plant health. The main virulence factor of Xanthomonas is the Hrp2 family T3SS, however this system is not conserved in all strains and it has not been previously determined whether the distribution of T3SS in this bacterial genus has resulted from losses or independent acquisitions...
September 4, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864820/a-prophage-tail-like-protein-is-deployed-by-burkholderia-bacteria-to-feed-on-fungi
#7
Durga Madhab Swain, Sunil Kumar Yadav, Isha Tyagi, Rahul Kumar, Rajeev Kumar, Srayan Ghosh, Joyati Das, Gopaljee Jha
Some bacteria can feed on fungi, a phenomenon known as mycophagy. Here we show that a prophage tail-like protein (Bg_9562) is essential for mycophagy in Burkholderia gladioli strain NGJ1. The purified protein causes hyphal disintegration and inhibits growth of several fungal species. Disruption of the Bg_9562 gene abolishes mycophagy. Bg_9562 is a potential effector secreted by a type III secretion system (T3SS) and is translocated into fungal mycelia during confrontation. Heterologous expression of Bg_9562 in another bacterial species, Ralstonia solanacearum, confers mycophagous ability in a T3SS-dependent manner...
September 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860194/the-bacterial-arginine-glycosyltransferase-effector-nleb-preferentially-modifies-fas-associated-death-domain-protein-fadd
#8
Nichollas E Scott, Cristina Giogha, Georgina L Pollock, Catherine L Kennedy, Andrew I Webb, Nicholas A Williamson, Jaclyn S Pearson, Elizabeth L Hartland
The inhibition of host innate immunity pathways is essential for the persistence of attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens such as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Citrobacter rodentium during mammalian infections. To subvert these pathways and suppress the antimicrobial response, A/E pathogens use type III secretion systems (T3SS) to introduce effectors targeting key signaling pathways in host cells. One such effector is the arginine glycosyltransferase NleB1 (NleBCR in C. rodentium) that modifies conserved arginine residues in death domain-containing host proteins with N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), thereby blocking extrinsic apoptosis signaling...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854682/effect-of-rnase-e-deficiency-on-translocon-protein-synthesis-in-an-rnase-e-inducible-strain-of-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-o157-h7
#9
Patricia B Lodato, Thujitha Thuraisamy, Jamie Richards, Joel G Belasco
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a food-borne pathogen that assembles a type III secretion system (T3SS) on its surface. The last portion of the T3SS, called the 'translocon', is composed of a filament and a pore complex that is inserted into the membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. The genes encoding the translocon (espADB) are part of the LEE4 operon. Their expression is regulated by a complex post-transcriptional mechanism that involves the processing of LEE4 mRNA by the essential endoribonuclease RNase E...
July 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842484/single-domain-antibodies-pinpoint-potential-targets-within-shigella-invasion-plasmid-antigen-d-of-the-needle-tip-complex-for-inhibition-of-type-iii-secretion
#10
Michael L Barta, Jonathan P Shearer, Olivia Arizmendi, Jacqueline M Tremblay, Nurjahan Mehzabeen, Qi Zheng, Kevin P Battaile, Scott Lovell, Saul Tzipori, William D Picking, Charles B Shoemaker, Wendy L Picking
Numerous Gram-negative pathogens infect eukaryotes and use the type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into host cells. One important T3SS feature is an extracellular needle with an associated tip complex responsible for assembly of a pore-forming translocon in the host cell membrane. Shigella spp. cause shigellosis, also called bacillary dysentery, and invade colonic epithelial cells via the T3SS. The tip complex of Shigella flexneri contains invasion plasmid antigen D (IpaD), which initially regulates secretion and provides a physical platform for the translocon pore...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815941/t3ss-effector-exoy-reduces-inflammasome-related-responses-by-suppressing-bacterial-motility-and-delaying-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-caspase-1
#11
Jisu Jeon, Yong-Jae Kim, Heesung Shin, Un-Hwan Ha
Type III secreted effectors are essential for modulating host immune responses during the pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Little is known about the impact of one of the effectors, ExoY, on inflammasome activation, which results in IL-1β production and pyroptotic cell death. In this study, we found that transcriptional expression of Il-1β was induced to a lesser extent in response to an exoY harboring strain than to a deleted mutant. This suppressive effect of ExoY was verified by complementation assay as well as by direct translocation of exoY into host cells...
August 16, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807906/impact-of-type-iii-secretion-effectors-and-of-phenoxyacetamide-inhibitors-of-type-iii-secretion-on-abscess-formation-in-a-mouse-model-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#12
Bryan J Berube, Katherine Murphy, Matthew C Torhan, Nicholas O Bowlin, John D Williams, Terry L Bowlin, Donald T Moir, Alan R Hauser
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of intra-abdominal infections, wound infections, and community-acquired folliculitis, each of which may involve macro- or micro-abscess formation. The rising incidence of multi-drug resistance among P. aeruginosa isolates has increased both the economic burden and the morbidity and mortality associated with P. aeruginosa disease and necessitates a search for novel therapeutics. Previous work from our group detailed novel phenoxyacetamide inhibitors that block type III secretion and injection into host cells in vitro In this study, we used a murine abscess model of P...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800133/adaptive-evolution-of-rhizobial-symbiotic-compatibility-mediated-by-co-evolved-insertion-sequences
#13
Ran Zhao, Li Xue Liu, Yun Zeng Zhang, Jian Jiao, Wen Jing Cui, Biliang Zhang, Xiao Lin Wang, Meng Lin Li, Yi Chen, Zhu Qing Xiong, Wen Xin Chen, Chang Fu Tian
Mutualism between bacteria and eukaryotes has essential roles in the history of life, but the evolution of their compatibility is poorly understood. Here we show that different Sinorhizobium strains can form either nitrogen-fixing nodules or uninfected pseudonodules on certain cultivated soybeans, while being all effective microsymbionts of some wild soybeans. However, a few well-infected nodules can be found on a commercial soybean using inocula containing a mixed pool of Tn5 insertion mutants derived from an incompatible strain...
August 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799907/salmonella-spi-2-type-iii-secretion-system-effectors-molecular-mechanisms-and-physiological-consequences
#14
REVIEW
Elliott Jennings, Teresa L M Thurston, David W Holden
Serovars of Salmonella enterica cause both gastrointestinal and systemic diseases in a broad range of mammalian hosts, including humans. Salmonella virulence depends in part on its pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system (SPI-2 T3SS), which is required to translocate at least 28 effector proteins from vacuolar-resident bacteria into host cells. Comparative genomic analysis reveals that all serovars encode a subset of "core" effectors, suggesting that they are critical for virulence in different hosts...
August 9, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793882/rpon2-and-flia-regulated-flitx-is-indispensible-for-flagellar-motility-and-virulence-in-xanthomonas-oryzae-pv-oryzae
#15
Chao Yu, Huamin Chen, Fang Tian, Fenghuan Yang, Chenyang He
BACKGROUND: Bacterial blight of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most important crop diseases in the world. More insights into the mechanistic regulation of bacterial pathogenesis will help us identify novel molecular targets for developing effective disease control strategies. A large flagellar gene cluster is regulated under a three-tiered hierarchy by σ(54) factor RpoN2 and its activator FleQ, and σ(28) factor FliA. A hypothetical protein gene fliTX is located upstream of rpoN2, however, how it is regulated and how it is related to bacterial behaviors remain to be elucidated...
August 9, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790204/bacterial-chromatin-structural-proteins-regulate-the-bimodal-expression-of-the-locus-of-enterocyte-effacement-lee-pathogenicity-island-in-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#16
Hervé Leh, Ahmad Khodr, Marie-Christine Bouger, Bianca Sclavi, Sylvie Rimsky, Stéphanie Bury-Moné
In enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) encodes a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) essential for pathogenesis. This pathogenicity island comprises five major operons (LEE1 to LEE5), with the LEE5 operon encoding T3SS effectors involved in the intimate adherence of bacteria to enterocytes. The first operon, LEE1, encodes Ler (LEE-encoded regulator), an H-NS (nucleoid structuring protein) paralog that alleviates the LEE H-NS silencing. We observed that the LEE5 and LEE1 promoters present a bimodal expression pattern, depending on environmental stimuli...
August 8, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771474/a-flagellum-specific-chaperone-facilitates-assembly-of-the-core-type-iii-export-apparatus-of-the-bacterial-flagellum
#17
Florian D Fabiani, Thibaud T Renault, Britta Peters, Tobias Dietsche, Eric J C Gálvez, Alina Guse, Karen Freier, Emmanuelle Charpentier, Till Strowig, Mirita Franz-Wachtel, Boris Macek, Samuel Wagner, Michael Hensel, Marc Erhardt
Many bacteria move using a complex, self-assembling nanomachine, the bacterial flagellum. Biosynthesis of the flagellum depends on a flagellar-specific type III secretion system (T3SS), a protein export machine homologous to the export machinery of the virulence-associated injectisome. Six cytoplasmic (FliH/I/J/G/M/N) and seven integral-membrane proteins (FlhA/B FliF/O/P/Q/R) form the flagellar basal body and are involved in the transport of flagellar building blocks across the inner membrane in a proton motive force-dependent manner...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760850/regulation-of-the-locus-of-enterocyte-effacement-in-attaching-and-effacing-pathogens
#18
R Christopher D Furniss, Abigail Clements
Attaching and Effacing (AE) pathogens colonise the gut mucosa using a Type Three Secretion System (T3SS) and a suite of effector proteins. The Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) is the defining genetic feature of the AE pathogens, encoding the T3SS and the core effector proteins necessary for pathogenesis. Extensive research has revealed a complex regulatory network that senses and responds to a myriad of host and microbiota-derived signals in the infected gut to control transcription of the LEE. These signals include microbiota-liberated sugars and metabolites in the gut lumen, molecular oxygen at the gut epithelium and host hormones...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753655/bacterial-effector-nlel-promotes-enterohemorrhagic-e-coli-induced-attaching-and-effacing-lesions-by-ubiquitylating-and-inactivating-jnk
#19
Xiangpeng Sheng, Qing You, Hongnian Zhu, ZeNan Chang, Qingrun Li, Haifeng Wang, Chen Wang, Hongyan Wang, Lijian Hui, Chongtao Du, Xiaoduo Xie, Rong Zeng, Anning Lin, Dongfang Shi, Kangcheng Ruan, Jinghua Yan, George Fu Gao, Feng Shao, Ronggui Hu
As a major diarrheagenic human pathogen, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) produce attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions, characterized by the formation of actin pedestals, on mammalian cells. A bacterial T3SS effector NleL from EHEC O157:H7 was recently shown to be a HECT-like E3 ligase in vitro, but its biological functions and host targets remain elusive. Here, we report that NleL is required to effectively promote EHEC-induced A/E lesions and bacterial infection. Furthermore, human c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs) were identified as primary substrates of NleL...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750143/characterization-of-small-molecule-scaffolds-that-bind-to-the-shigella-type%C3%A2-iii-secretion-system-protein-ipad
#20
Supratim Dey, Asokan Anbanandam, Ben E Mumford, Roberto N De Guzman
Many pathogens such as Shigella and other bacteria assemble the type III secretion system (T3SS) nanoinjector to inject virulence proteins into their target cells to cause infectious diseases in humans. The rise of drug resistance among pathogens that rely on the T3SS for infectivity, plus the dearth of new antibiotics require alternative strategies in developing new antibiotics. The Shigella T3SS tip protein IpaD is an attractive target for developing anti-infectives because of its essential role in virulence and its exposure on the bacterial surface...
July 27, 2017: ChemMedChem
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