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H Deng, Y Dai, H Lu, S-S Li, L Gao, D-L Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between bone metabolic indicators and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in healthy middle-aged men. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The bone metabolic indicators of 232 healthy middle-age men with NAFLD (NAFLD group) and 308 healthy controls without fatty liver (Control group) were measured, including non-collagenous osteocalcin, the procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), beta-C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX)...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
W-M Hao, S-F Sun, H-P Tang
OBJECTIVE: Mucus production and hypersecretion are important pathophysiological features of asthma. Airway mucus secretion is more serious in obese asthma. Therefore, it is of great significance to elucidate the mechanism of asthma airway mucus high secretion in improving the control of asthma and the prognosis of obese asthmatic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Obese asthmatic mice model was established to test the airway resistance and mucin secretion by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
L-Y Hu, J-B Cui, X-M Xu, Z-H Huang, H-T Jiao
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic lung injury (TLI) can cause inflammation and oxidative stress, or even leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and death. Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-antioxidant response element (ARE) signal pathway participates in disease occurrence and progression via regulating inflammatory and oxidative stress response, but with its expression and functional roles in TLI largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, TLI group by crushing method, and Nrf2 activation group which received Nrf2 specific agonist sulforaphane 30 min before TLI treatment...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Linlin Wang, Fang Zhang, Jian-Ying Cui, Liang Chen, Yue-Ting Chen, Bo-Wen Liu
Carcinoma‑associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the major components of mesenchymal cells in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. They are involved in epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) and chemotherapy resistance by directly contacting with cancer cells or secretory cytokines. In the present study, we examined the role of CAFs in the induction of EMT in ovarian cancer. Primary ovarian cancer cells, CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) were isolated from fresh cancer tissue and cultured for immunohistochemistry studies...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
Adeline Jacquet, Cécile Cottet-Rousselle, Josiane Arnaud, Kevin Julien Saint Amand, Raoua Ben Messaoud, Marine Lénon, Christine Demeilliers, Jean-Marc Moulis
The impact of chronic cadmium exposure and slow accumulation on the occurrence and development of diabetes is controversial for human populations. Islets of Langerhans play a prominent role in the etiology of the disease, including by their ability to secrete insulin. Conversion of glucose increase into insulin secretion involves mitochondria. A rat model of pancreatic β-cells was exposed to largely sub-lethal levels of cadmium cations applied for the longest possible time. Cadmium entered cells at concentrations far below those inducing cell death and accumulated by factors reaching several hundred folds the basal level...
March 22, 2018: Toxics
Xiaozhao Wang, Zun Chen, Beibei Zhou, Xiyue Duan, Wen-Jian Weng, Kui Cheng, Huiming Wang, Jun Lin
Extracellular matrix (ECM) provides a dynamic and complex environment to determine the fate of stem cells. In this work, in vitro cultured cell sheets were treated with paraformaldehyde or ethanol and eventually become ECM. Such ECM was then immobilized on titanium substrates via polydopamine chemistry. Their effects on bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) behaviors were investigated. It was found that paraformaldehyde treated ECM coatings (PT-ECM) showed well-maintained microstructure, whereas that of ethanol treated (ET-ECM) were completely changed...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhilan Ye, Tao Zhang, Wenshan He, Honglin Jin, Cuiwei Liu, Zhe Yang, Jinghua Ren
Despite promising in-vitro evidence for effective glioblastoma treatment, most drugs are hindered from entering the central nervous system due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, successful modification of drug delivery and novel therapeutic strategies are needed to overcome this obstacle. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), cell-derived membrane-encapsulated structures with diameters ranging from 50-1000 nm, have been explored as drug delivery system to deliver their cargo to the brain tissue...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kyria Jayanne Clímaco Cruz, Ana Raquel Soares de Oliveira, Jennifer Beatriz Silva Morais, Juliana Soares Severo, Priscyla Maria Vieira Mendes, Stéfany Rodrigues de Sousa Melo, Gustavo Santos de Sousa, Dilina do Nascimento Marreiro
Studies have shown the participation of minerals in mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Zinc, in particular, seems to play an important role in the secretion and action of this hormone. Therefore, the aim of this review is to understand the role of zinc in increasing insulin sensitivity. We conducted a search of articles published in the PubMed and ScienceDirect database selected from March 2016 to February 2018, using the keywords "zinc," "insulin," "insulin resistance," "insulin sensitivity," and "supplementation...
March 21, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Victoria Martínez-Sernández, María J Perteguer, Ana Hernández-González, Mercedes Mezo, Marta González-Warleta, Ricardo A Orbegozo-Medina, Fernanda Romarís, Esperanza Paniagua, Teresa Gárate, Florencio M Ubeira
Infections caused by Fasciola hepatica are of great importance in the veterinary field, as they cause important economic losses to livestock producers. Serodiagnostic methods, typically ELISA (with either native or recombinant antigens), are often used for early diagnosis. The use of native antigens, as in the MM3-SERO ELISA (commercialized as BIO K 211, BIO-X Diagnostics), continues to be beneficial in terms of sensitivity and specificity; however, there is interest in developing ELISA tests based on recombinant antigens to avoid the need to culture parasites...
March 21, 2018: Parasitology Research
Wen Lin, Guoxing Xu
Increasing evidence has demonstrated that excessive blue-light (BL) with high photochemical energy and phototoxicity could induce apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. RPE apoptosis leads to retina damage and further aggravate age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Because of their neuroprotective, plasticity, and immunomodulatory ability, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are recognized for retinal neuroprotection. RPE cells possess ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) receptor complexes and can respond to CNTF; hence, we investigated the effects of BMSCs over-expressing CNTF on BL-injured RPE cells...
March 21, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Mirko Gerle, Tuula Peñate Medina, Aydin Gülses, Hanwen Chu, Hendrik Naujokat, Jörg Wiltfang, Yahya Açil
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially HPV-16 and HPV-18, has been increasingly associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The treatment of HPV-positive squamous cell carcinoma has a better response to both radiotherapy and chemotherapy and presents a better prognosis for the patient. Defining the underlying mechanism of the difference might help in developing future treatment options and could be an important factor in personal therapy planning. Endogenously secreted acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) levels in the cellular stress caused by irradiation and cisplatin were investigated...
March 21, 2018: Medical Oncology
Antonio Merolli, Stephanie Fung, N Sanjeeva Murthy, E Thomas Pashuck, Yong Mao, Xiaohuan Wu, Joseph A M Steele, Daniel Martin, Prabhas V Moghe, Timothy Bromage, Joachim Kohn
Osteoclasts are large multinucleated giant cells that actively resorb bone during the physiological bone turnover (BTO), which is the continuous cycle of bone resorption (by osteoclasts) followed by new bone formation (by osteoblasts). Osteoclasts secrete chemotactic signals to recruit cells for regeneration of vasculature and bone. We hypothesize that a biomaterial that attracts osteoclasts and re-establishes BTO will induce a better healing response than currently used bone graft materials. While the majority of bone regeneration efforts have focused on maximizing bone deposition, the novelty in this approach is the focus on stimulating osteoclastic resorption as the starter for BTO and its concurrent new vascularized bone formation...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Zhen-Guo Ma, Jia Dai, Yu-Pei Yuan, Zhou-Yan Bian, Si-Chi Xu, Ya-Ge Jin, Xin Zhang, Qi-Zhu Tang
Previous studies have suggested the involvement of CD4 + T lymphocytes in cardiac remodelling. T-bet can direct Th1 lineage commitment. This study aimed to investigate the functional significance of T-bet in cardiac remodelling induced by pressure overload using T-bet global knockout rats. Increased T-bet levels were observed in rodent and human hypertrophied hearts. T-bet deficiency resulted in a less severe hypertrophic phenotype in rats. CD4 + T-lymphocyte reconstitution in T-bet-/- rats resulted in aggravated cardiac remodelling...
March 21, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
Sethulakshmi Sreevalsam Anil, Badr Ratnakaran, Nisha Suresh
Hyponatremia has been reported with the use of psychotropic drugs. Olanzapine does not find much mention as a cause of hyponatremia in literature; however, it has been found to be the second most frequently reported atypical antipsychotic to cause it. We report a case of hyponatremia due to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion which occurred at a rapid onset following the administration of low-dose olanzapine during inpatient treatment of a patient with bipolar disorder. We would like to highlight our case for the need to be vigil about such fatal side complications apart from metabolic side effects of atypical antipsychotics...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Xiyuan Zhang, Guanying Bianca Xu, Dan Zhou, Yuan-Xiang Pan
Background: Liver is the crucial organ as a hub for metabolic reactions. p16(INK4a) is a well-established cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that plays important role in the molecular pathways of senescence, which lead to irreversible cell cycle arrest with secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and mitochondrial dysfunction. This study tested the hypothesis that cellular senescence regulated by p16(INK4a) is associated with high-fat diet in adult male rats. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were fed a high-fat (HF) diet or a control (C) diet for 9 weeks after weaning...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Xiaoyun Wang, Weijiang Zhang, Xiwen Sun, Yan Lin, Wei Chen
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common malignant gynecological disease. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) serve an important role in the development and progression of EC through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The aim of the present study was to examine the association between CAFs and EMT, and the possible mechanisms of action. Firstly, the CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) were isolated and cultured, then an immunofluorescence assay was performed to analyze the purity and level of activation of CAFs and NFs, and then the conditional medium (CM) of CAFs and NFs was prepared...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Yingbo Liang, Shichun Cui, Xiaoli Tang, Yi Zhang, Dewen Qiu, Hongmei Zeng, Lihua Guo, Jingjing Yuan, Xiufen Yang
PevD1 is a fungal protein secreted by Verticillium dahliae . Our previous researches showed that this protein could induce hypersensitive responses-like necrosis and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in cotton and tobacco. To understand immune activation mechanisms whereby PevD1 elicits defense response, the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay was performed to explore interacting protein of PevD1 in Arabidopsis thaliana , and a partner AtNRP (At5g42050) was identified. Here, AtNRP homolog in Nicotiana benthamiana was identified and designated as Nbnrp1...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hang Yang, Yanfang Zhong, Juncheng Wang, Qinghong Zhang, Xiulan Li, Sumei Ling, Shihua Wang, Rongzhi Wang
Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), a signal proinflammatory cytokine secreted by immune cell, and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of many diseases. It has been regarded as an important marker for determination of disease-specific immune responses. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a feasible and accurate method to detect IFN-γ in clinic real blood samples. Until now, the immunoassay based on singe chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody for human IFN-γ is still not reported. In the present study, an scFv antibody named scFv-A8 with high specificity was obtained by phage display and biopanning, with the affinity 2...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rosa Maria Paragliola, Roberto Salvatori
Surgery is considered the treatment of choice in acromegaly, but patients with persistent disease after surgery or in whom surgery cannot be considered require medical therapy. Somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs) octreotide (OCT), lanreotide, and the more recently approved pasireotide, characterized by a broader receptor ligand binding profile, are considered the mainstay in the medical management of acromegaly. However, in the attempt to offer a more efficacious and better tolerated medical approach, recent research has been aimed to override some limitations related to the use of currently approved drugs and novel SRLs therapies, with potential attractive features, have been proposed...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Utkarsh Ojha
Obesity is a major global health issue. High-protein diets have been shown to be associated with weight loss and satiety. The precise mechanism by which protein-rich diets promote weight loss remains unclear. Evidence suggests amino acids, formed as a consequence of protein digestion, are sensed by specific receptors on L-cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. These L-cells respond by secreting gut hormones that subsequently induce satiety. In recent years, the calcium-sensing receptor has been identified in several cells of the GI tract, including L-cells, and suggested to sense specific amino acids...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
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