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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927263/molecular-and-cellular-basis-of-neurodegeneration-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Sangyun Jeong
The most common form of senile dementia is Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) plaques and the intracellular formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the cerebral cortex. Tau abnormalities are commonly observed in many neurodegenerative diseases including AD, Parkinson's disease, and Pick's disease. Interestingly, tau-mediated formation of NFTs in AD brains shows better correlation with cognitive impairment than Abeta plaque accumulation; pathological tau alone is sufficient to elicit frontotemporal dementia, but it does not cause AD...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927129/deficiency-of-gap-junction-composed-of-connexin43-contributes-to-oxaliplatin-resistance-in-colon-cancer-cells
#2
Min Su, Qi Zhang
Although comprehensive strategies in the treatment of colorectal cancer have been developed for a number of years, the five-year survival rate of metastatic colon cancer remains less than 10%. Oxaliplatin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent for metastatic colon cancer, improves the response rate of patients and prolongs patients' progression-free survival. However, the generation of resistance limits the clinical application of oxaliplatin, and the mechanisms of this remain unclear. The present study mainly investigated the effect of the gap junction (GJ) composed of connexin43 (Cx43) on oxaliplatin cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927126/overexpression-and-proliferation-dependence-of-acyl-coa-thioesterase-11-and-13-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#3
Jen-Yu Hung, Shyh-Ren Chiang, Kuan-Ting Liu, Ming-Ju Tsai, Ming-Shyan Huang, Jiunn-Min Shieh, Meng-Chi Yen, Ya-Ling Hsu
The metabolites of fatty acyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and metabolic enzymes contribute to lipid biosynthesis, signal transduction, and gene transcription. Previous studies have indicated that elevated concentrations of specific free fatty acids in the plasma and overexpression of specific fatty acyl-CoA metabolic enzymes are observed in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. However, there are >30 enzymes in this metabolic network and have been fully investigated. In the present study, the expression levels of enzymes in the acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) and acyl-CoA thioesterase (ACOT) families were analyzed from six microarray expression datasets that were collected from Gene Expression Omnibus...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927061/5fu-resistance-caused-by-reduced-fluoro-deoxyuridine-monophosphate-and-its-reversal-using-deoxyuridine
#4
Ryutaro Mori, Manabu Futamura, Toshiyuki Tanahashi, Yoshihiro Tanaka, Nobuhisha Matsuhashi, Kazuya Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro Yoshida
The mechanism of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) resistance was investigated, focusing on the level of thymidylate synthase (TS) ternary complex formed with fluoro-deoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP). MKN45 and 5FU-resistant MKN45/F2R cells were treated with 5FU and fluoro-deoxyuridine (FdU) in combination with deoxyuridine (dU) and thymidine (dT). Subsequently, the levels of ternary complex were determined by western blotting and the cell viability was calculated using an MTT assay. MKN45/F2R cells exhibited 5FU resistance (56...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926935/identification-of-circulating-mirnas-differentially-regulated-by-opioid-treatment
#5
Kaoru Toyama, Naoki Kiyosawa, Kenji Watanabe, Hitoshi Ishizuka
Emerging evidence demonstrates functional contributions of microRNAs (miRNAs) to μ-opioid receptor (MOR) signaling, but the information so far has been mostly limited to their intracellular regulatory mechanisms. The present study aimed to investigate changes in plasma miRNA profiles elicited by opioid treatment in blood samples collected from clinical studies. Healthy male subjects were orally administered with hydromorphone or oxycodone and blood samples were collected at a specified time after the drug treatment...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926928/curcumin-inhibited-growth-of-human-melanoma-a375-cells-via-inciting-oxidative-stress
#6
Wang Liao, Wei Xiang, Fei-Fei Wang, Rui Wang, Yan Ding
Curcumin, a polyphenol compound, possesses potent pharmacological properties in preventing cancers, which make it as a potential anti-cancer mediator. However, it is still unknown that whether Curcumin induced melanoma A375 cell was associated with oxidative stress. Here, we firstly found a fascinating result that Curcumin could reduce the proliferation and induced apoptosis of human melanoma A375 cells. Meanwhile, IC50 of Curcumin on A375 cells is 80μM at 48h. In addition, Curcumin caused oxidative stress through inducing further ROS burst, decreasing GSH, and wrecking mitochondria membrane potential (MMP), which were reversed by ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC)...
September 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926871/multiple-organic-cation-transporters-contribute-to-the-renal-transport-of-sulpiride
#7
Liping Li, Yayun Weng, Wei Wang, Mengru Bai, Hongmei Lei, Hui Zhou, Huidi Jiang
Sulpiride, a selective dopamine D2 receptor blocker, is widely used for treatment of schizophrenia, depression, and gastric/duodenal ulcers. Because of the great majority of sulpiride in positive charged at physiological pH7.4, and ~70% of dose recovered in urine in unchanged form after human intravenous administration of sulpiride, we believe transporters play an important role in renal excretion of sulpiride. The aim of the present study was to explore which transporters contribute to the renal disposition of sulpiride...
September 19, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926758/some-aspects-of-the-iodine-metabolism-of-the-giant-kelp-macrocystis-pyrifera-phaeophyceae
#8
Teresa M Tymon, Eric P Miller, Jennifer L Gonzales, Andrea Raab, Frithjof C Küpper, Carl J Carrano
Despite its paramount role in the functioning of coastal ecosystems, relatively little is known about halogen metabolism in giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). This is an important shortcoming given the potential implications for marine and atmospheric chemical processes in the wide distribution range of Macrocystis. The work presented here constitutes the first in depth investigation of the uptake, efflux, and of the physiological function of iodide in this important kelp species. Iodide uptake and efflux rates were measured in adult sporophytes of Macrocystis under normal and stressed (exogenous hydrogen peroxide and an elicitor-triggered oxidative burst) conditions...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926741/cellular-glutathione-levels-in-hl-60-cells-during-respiratory-burst-are-not-correlated-with-ultra-weak-photon-emission
#9
Rosilene Cristina Rossetto Burgos, Wei Zhang, Eduard P A van Wijk, Thomas Hankemeier, Rawi Ramautar, Jan van der Greef
Recently, ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) was developed as a novel tool for measuring oxidative metabolic processes, as its generation is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both an imbalance in ROS or the uncontrolled production of ROS can lead to oxidative stress, which is commonly associated with many diseases. In addition to playing several biological functions, the thiol amino acid glutathione has an important antioxidant function in the body's defense against ROS. Specifically, glutathione is an important endogenous antioxidant that helps maintain oxidant levels...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926677/ca-2-influxes-and-transmembrane-transport-are-essential-for-phytic-acid-degradation-in-mung-bean-sprouts
#10
Ting Zhou, Pei Wang, Runqiang Yang, Xinyue Wang, Zhenxin Gu
BACKGROUND: Phytic acid is considered as an antinutrient. Ca(2+) addition during germination has been proved to be an effective method for reducing phytic acid content in seeds. In this study, mung bean sprouts were treated with LaCl3 (La), verapamil (VP), ruthenium red (RR) and CaCl2 to explore the effect of Ca(2+) influxes on phytic acid degradation. RESULTS: 6 mM CaCl2 significantly improved extracellular and intracellular calcium precipitates and calcium content, elevated phytase and acid phosphatase activity and further enhanced phytic acid degradation...
September 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926641/impact-of-monotherapy-on-hiv-1-reservoir-immune-activation-and-co-infection-with-epstein-barr-virus
#11
Maria Raffaella Petrara, Anna Maria Cattelan, Lolita Sasset, Riccardo Freguja, Francesco Carmona, Silvia Sanavia, Marisa Zanchetta, Paola Del Bianco, Anita De Rossi
OBJECTIVES: Although monotherapy (mART) effectiveness in maintaining viral suppression and CD4 cell count has been extensively examined in HIV-1-infected patients, its impact on HIV-1 reservoir, immune activation, microbial translocation and co-infection with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is unclear. METHODS: This retrospective study involved 32 patients who switched to mART; patients were studied at baseline, 48 and 96 weeks after mART initiation. Thirty-two patients who continued combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) over the same period of time were included in the study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926633/effects-of-salinity-on-the-cellular-physiological-responses-of-natrinema-sp-j7-2
#12
Yunjun Mei, Huan Liu, Shunxi Zhang, Ming Yang, Chun Hu, Jian Zhang, Ping Shen, Xiangdong Chen
The halophilic archaea (haloarchaea) live in hyersaline environments such as salt lakes, salt ponds and marine salterns. To cope with the salt stress conditions, haloarchaea have developed two fundamentally different strategies: the "salt-in" strategy and the "compatible-solute" strategy. Although investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the tolerance to high salt concentrations has made outstanding achievements, experimental study from the aspect of transcription is rare. In the present study, we monitored cellular physiology of Natrinema sp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926625/defining-the-molecular-basis-of-interaction-between-r3-receptor-type-protein-tyrosine-phosphatases-and-ve-cadherin
#13
Olga Dorofejeva, Alastair J Barr
Receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) of the R3 subgroup play key roles in the immune, vascular and nervous systems. They are characterised by a large ectodomain comprising multiple FNIII-like repeats, a transmembrane domain, and a single intracellular phosphatase domain. The functional role of the extracellular region has not been clearly defined and potential roles in ligand interaction, dimerization, and regulation of cell-cell contacts have been reported. Here bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) in live cells was used to examine the molecular basis for the interaction of VE-PTP with VE-cadherin, two proteins involved in endothelial cell contact and maintenance of vascular integrity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926522/bos-is-associated-with-increased-cytotoxic-proinflammatory-cd8-t-nkt-like-and-nk-cells-in-the-small-airways
#14
Greg Hodge, Sandra Hodge, Aeneas Yeo, Phan Nguyen, Emily Hopkins, Chien-Li Holmes-Liew, Paul N Reynolds, Mark Holmes
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression therapy after lung transplantation fails to prevent bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in many patients, primarily a disease of the small airways. We have reported that BOS is associated with a lack of suppression of cytotoxic mediators, and proinflammatory cytokines, in peripheral blood T, NKT-like (particularly CD8+) and NK cells. We also showed a loss of glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) in proinflammatory lymphocytes after transplant. It is unknown whether these proinflammatory lymphocytes target the small and/or large airways in BOS...
October 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926236/biofilms-benefiting-plants-exposed-to-zno-and-cuo-nps-studied-with-a-root-mimetic-hollow-fiber-membrane
#15
Michelle Bonebrake, Kaitlyn C Anderson, Jonathan Valiente, Astrid Rosa Jacobson, Joan E McLean, Anne J Anderson, David W Britt
Plants exist with a consortium of microbes that influence plant health, including response to biotic and abiotic stress. While nanoparticle (NP) - plant interactions are increasingly studied, the effect of NPs on the plant microbiome is less researched. Here a root-mimetic hollow fiber membrane (HFM) is presented for generating biofilms of plant-associated microbes nurtured by artificial root exudates (AREs) to correlate exudate composition with biofilm formation and response to NPs. Two microbial isolates from field-grown wheat, a bacillus endophyte and a pseudomonad root surface colonizer, were examined on HFMs fed with AREs varying in N and C composition...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926104/glucose-stimulates-intestinal-epithelial-crypt-proliferation-by-modulating-cellular-energy-metabolism
#16
Weinan Zhou, Deepti Ramachandran, Abdelhak Mansouri, Megan J Dailey
The intestinal epithelium plays an essential role in nutrient absorption, hormone release and barrier function. Maintenance of the epithelium is driven by continuous cell renewal by stem cells located in the intestinal crypts. The amount and type of diet influence this process and result in changes in the size and cellular make-up of the tissue. The mechanism underlying the nutrient-driven changes in proliferation is not known, but may involve a shift in intracellular metabolism that allows for more nutrients to be used to manufacture new cells...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926103/fam20c-regulates-osteoblast-behaviors-and-intracellular-signaling-pathways-in-a-cell-autonomous-manner
#17
Chao Liu, Hua Zhang, Priyam Jani, Xiaofang Wang, Yongbo Lu, Nan Li, Jing Xiao, Chunlin Qin
Recent studies indicate that Family with sequence similarity 20 member C (FAM20C) catalyzes the phosphorylation of secreted proteins, and participates in a variety of biological processes, including cell proliferation, migration, mineralization and phosphate homeostasis. To explore the local influences of FAM20C on osteoblast, Fam20c-deficient osteoblasts were generated by treating the immortalized Fam20c(f/f) osteoblasts with CMV-Cre-IRES-EGFP lentivirus. Compared with the normal Fam20c(f/f) osteoblasts, the expression of Bone sialoprotein (Bsp), Osteocalcin (Ocn), Fibroblast growth factor 23 (Fgf23) and transcription factors that promote osteoblast maturation were up-regulated in the Fam20c-deficient osteoblasts...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925921/au-pt-nanoparticles-as-catalase-mimics-to-attenuate-tumor-hypoxia-and-enhance-immune-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity
#18
Juan Li, Hong Liang, Ying Wu, Xiang-Yu Ou, Jingying Li
Hypoxic tumor microenvironment (TME) is closely linked to tumor progression, heterogeneity and immune suppression. Therefore, the development of effective methods to overcome hypoxia and substantially enhance the immunotherapy efficacy remains a desirable goal. Herein, we engineered a biocompatible Au core/Pt shell nanoparticles (Au@Pt NPs) to reoxygenate the TME by reacting with endogenous H2O2. Treatment with Au@Pt NPs appeared to improve oxygen in intracellular environments and decrease hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α expression...
September 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925902/adipose-triglyceride-lipase-regulation-an-overview
#19
Ines Katrin Cerk, Lisa Wechselberger, Monika Oberer
Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the key-enzyme for the release of fatty acids (FAs) from triacylglycerol (TG) stores during intracellular lipolysis producing FAs used for energy production. There is growing evidence that the products and intermediates from lipolytic breakdown during the FA mobilization process also have fundamental regulatory functions affecting cell signaling, gene expression, metabolism, cell growth, cell death, and lipotoxicity. Regulation of ATGL is therefore vital for maintaining a defined balance between lipid storage and mobilization...
September 18, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925901/plant-cell-wall-proteomics-as-a-strategy-to-reveal-candidate-proteins-involved-in-extracellular-lipid-metabolism
#20
Adélaïde Jacq, Vincent Burlat, Elisabeth Jamet
Plant cell walls are composite structures surrounding cells and involved in both mechanical support and perception of their environment. They are mainly composed of polysaccharides (90-95% of their mass) and proteins (5-10%). The cell wall proteins (CWPs) contribute to the arrangements and modifications of polymer networks and to cell-to-cell communication. The structure and composition of cell walls are not uniform in the whole plants, but rather specialized in different cell types to fulfil different functions...
September 18, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
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