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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936472/relaxant-effect-of-sodium-tanshinone-iia-sulphonate-on-mouse-tracheal-smooth-muscle
#1
Yi-Lin Zhang, Jia-Wen Xu, Xiong-Hao Wu, Peng-Xiao Chen, Fang Wei, Dong-Dong Gao, Xiao-Wen Chen, Yu-Li Luo, Yun-Xin Zhu, Jiehong Huang, Ya-Xia Tan, Lei Zhao, Wen-Liang Zhou
Sodium tanshinone IIA sulphonate, a water-soluble derivative of tanshinone IIA, has been proven to possess versatile biological properties, but its pharmacological effect on tracheal smooth muscle remains elusive. This paper presents a study on the relaxant effect and underlying mechanisms of sodium tanshinone IIA sulphonate on mouse tracheal smooth muscle. The relaxant effect of sodium tanshinone IIA sulphonate was evaluated in mouse tracheal rings using a mechanical recording system. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was measured in primary cultured tracheal smooth muscle cells using confocal imaging system...
December 9, 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936433/carbon-starvation-induces-lipid-degradation-via-autophagy-in-the-model-alga-micrasterias
#2
Viola Schwarz, Ancuela Andosch, Anja Geretschläger, Matthias Affenzeller, Ursula Lütz-Meindl
Autophagy is regarded as crucial intracellular process in plant development but also in intracellular stress response. It is known to be controlled by the energy level of the cell and consequently can be triggered by energy deprivation. In this study carbon starvation evoked in different ways was investigated in the freshwater algae model system Micrasterias denticulata (Streptophyta) which is closely related to higher plants. Cells exposed to the photosynthesis inhibiting herbicide DCMU, to the glycolysis inhibitor 2-Deoxy-d-glucose and to complete darkness over up to 9 weeks for preventing metabolism downstream of glucose supply, were investigated by means of Nile red staining and analyses in CLSM, and TEM after cryo-preparation...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936408/biased-mu-opioid-receptor-ligands-a-promising-new-generation-of-pain-therapeutics
#3
REVIEW
Edward R Siuda, Richard Carr, David H Rominger, Jonathan D Violin
Opioid chemistry and biology occupy a pivotal place in the history of pharmacology and medicine. Morphine offers unmatched efficacy in alleviating acute pain, but is also associated with a host of adverse side effects. The advent of biased agonism at G protein-coupled receptors has expanded our understanding of intracellular signaling and highlighted the concept that certain ligands are able to differentially modulate downstream pathways. The ability to target one pathway over another has allowed for the development of biased ligands with robust clinical efficacy and fewer adverse events...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936394/increased-intracellular-ca-2-decreases-cisplatin-resistance-by-regulating-inos-expression-in-human-ovarian-cancer-cells
#4
Yang Yu, Qi Xie, Weimin Liu, Yuting Guo, Na Xu, Lu Xu, Shibing Liu, Songyan Li, Ye Xu, Liankun Sun
Previous studies have reported that intracellular Ca(2+) signals and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are involved in cell apoptosis. However, the role of iNOS in cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that SKOV3/DDP ovarian cancer cells were more resistant to cisplatin than were SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. The expression of intracellular Ca(2+) and iNOS was more strongly induced by cisplatin in SKOV3 cells than in SKOV3/DDP cells. TAT-conjugated IP3R-derived peptide (TAT-IDP(S)) increased cisplatin-induced iNOS expression and apoptosis in SKOV3/DDP cells...
December 6, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936347/the-infectious-intracellular-lifestyle-of-salmonella-enterica-relies-on-the-adaptation-to-nutritional-conditions-within-the-salmonella-containing-vacuole
#5
Lautaro Diacovich, Lucía Lorenzi, Mauro Tomassetti, Stéphane Méresse, Hugo Gramajo
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes various host-specific diseases. During their life cycle, Salmonellae survive frequent exposures to a variety of environmental stresses, e.g. carbon-source starvation. The virulence of this pathogen relies on its ability to establish a replicative niche, named Salmonella-containing vacuole, inside host cells. However, the microenvironment of the SCV and the bacterial metabolic pathways required during infection are largely undefined...
December 9, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936335/rac2-p38-mapk-dependent-nadph-oxidase-activity-is-associated-with-the-resistance-of-quiescent-cells-to-ionizing-radiation
#6
Hailong Pei, Jian Zhang, Jing Nie, Nan Ding, Wentao Hu, Junrui Hua, Ryoichi Hirayama, Yoshiya Furusawa, Cuihua Liu, Bingyan Li, Tom K Hei, Guangming Zhou
Our recent study showed that quiescent G0 cells are more resistant to ionizing radiation than G1 cells; however, the underlying mechanism for this increased radioresistance is unknown. Based on the relatively lower DNA damage induced in G0 cells, we hypothesize that these cells are exposed to less oxidative stress during exposure. As a catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (RAC2) may be involved in the cellular response to ionizing radiation. Here, we show that RAC2 was expressed at low levels in G0 cells but increased substantially in G1 cells...
December 9, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936316/bioprospecting-of-turbinaria-macroalgae-as-a-potential-source-of-health-protective-compounds
#7
Milena Stranska-Zachariasova, Isma Kurniatanty, Helena Gbelcova, Monika Jiru, Josep Rubert, Tjokorda Gde Tirta Nindhia, Cosimo Walter D'Acunto, Sony Heru Sumarsono, Marselina Irasonia Tan, Jana Hajslova, Tomas Ruml
The present study aims to focus on the bioprospecting of marine macroalgae of Turbinaria species, plenteous biomass of the world ocean. Three types of solvents, i.e. water, methanol:water (80:20, v/v) and hexane:isopropanol (50:50, v/v), were used for extraction. Both the biological activity, as well as the pattern of present chemicals were characterized. For the cell proliferation assay, the human embryonic kidney 293 cells, cervix / breast / pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and osteosarcoma cells were used. For the antioxidant activity determination, both intracellular assay with human embryonic kidney and cervix adenocarcinoma cells, as well as the biochemical DPPH test, were employed...
December 9, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936114/long-circulating-curcumin-loaded-liposome-formulations-with-high-incorporation-efficiency-stability-and-anticancer-activity-towards-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-cell-lines-in-vitro
#8
Mohamed Mahmud, Adriana Piwoni, Nina Filiczak, Martyna Janicka, Jerzy Gubernator
The incorporation of hydrophobic drugs into liposomes improve their bioavailability and leads to increased stability and anticancer activity, along with decreased drug toxicity. Curcumin (Cur) is a natural polyphenol compound with a potent anticancer activity in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA). In the present study, different types of Cur-loaded liposomal formulations were prepared and characterized in terms of size, shape, zeta potential, optimal drug-to-lipid ratio and stability at 4°C, 37°C; and in human plasma in vitro...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936058/modeling-the-role-of-lanthionine-synthetase-c-like-2-lancl2-in-the-modulation-of-immune-responses-to-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#9
Andrew Leber, Josep Bassaganya-Riera, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez, Monica Viladomiu, Vida Abedi, Pinyi Lu, Raquel Hontecillas
Immune responses to Helicobacter pylori are orchestrated through complex balances of host-bacterial interactions, including inflammatory and regulatory immune responses across scales that can lead to the development of the gastric disease or the promotion of beneficial systemic effects. While inflammation in response to the bacterium has been reasonably characterized, the regulatory pathways that contribute to preventing inflammatory events during H. pylori infection are incompletely understood. To aid in this effort, we have generated a computational model incorporating recent developments in the understanding of H...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936050/gene-targeted-mice-with-the-human-troponin-t-r141w-mutation-develop-dilated-cardiomyopathy-with-calcium-desensitization
#10
Mohun Ramratnam, Guy Salama, Ravi K Sharma, David Wen Rui Wang, Stephen H Smith, Sanjay K Banerjee, Xueyin N Huang, Lindsey M Gifford, Michele L Pruce, Bethann E Gabris, Samir Saba, Sanjeev G Shroff, Ferhaan Ahmad
Most studies of the mechanisms leading to hereditary dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) have been performed in reconstituted in vitro systems. Genetically engineered murine models offer the opportunity to dissect these mechanisms in vivo. We generated a gene-targeted knock-in murine model of the autosomal dominant Arg141Trp (R141W) mutation in Tnnt2, which was first described in a human family with DCM. Mice heterozygous for the mutation (Tnnt2R141W/+) recapitulated the human phenotype, developing left ventricular dilation and reduced contractility...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936004/effects-of-drought-stress-on-fusarium-crown-rot-development-in-barley
#11
Xinlun Liu, Chunji Liu
Fusarium crown rot (FCR), caused by various Fusarium species, is a chronic disease of cereals in many semi-arid regions worldwide. To clarify what effects drought-stress may have on FCR development, visual assessment, histological analysis and quantitative PCR were used to analyse the infection process of F. pseudograminearum in barley. This study observed for the first time that the severity of FCR symptom reflects the quantity of pathogens in infected tissues of barley under both drought-stressed and well-watered conditions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935957/intracellular-zn-ii-intoxication-leads-to-dysregulation-of-the-perr-regulon-resulting-in-heme-toxicity-in-bacillus-subtilis
#12
Pete Chandrangsu, John D Helmann
Transition metal ions (Zn(II), Cu(II)/(I), Fe(III)/(II), Mn(II)) are essential for life and participate in a wide range of biological functions. Cellular Zn(II) levels must be high enough to ensure that it can perform its essential roles. Yet, since Zn(II) binds to ligands with high avidity, excess Zn(II) can lead to protein mismetallation. The major targets of mismetallation, and the underlying causes of Zn(II) intoxication, are not well understood. Here, we use a forward genetic selection to identify targets of Zn(II) toxicity...
December 9, 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935765/gb3-binding-lectins-as-potential-carriers-for-transcellular-drug-delivery
#13
Stefan K Müller, Isabel Wilhelm, Thomas Schubert, Katharina Zittlau, Anne Imberty, Josef Madl, Thorsten Eierhoff, Roland Thuenauer, Winfried Römer
OBJECTIVES: Epithelial cell layers as well as endothelia forming the blood-brain barrier can drastically reduce the efficiency of drug targeting. Our goal was to investigate lectins recognizing the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) for their potential as carriers for transcytotic drug delivery. METHODS: We utilized an in vitro model based on Madin-Darby canine kidney cells transfected with Gb3 synthase to characterize transcytosis of the Gb3-binding lectins LecA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the B-subunit of Shiga toxin (StxB)...
December 9, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935314/a-versatile-method-to-determine-the-cellular-bioavailability-of-small-molecule-inhibitors
#14
Kevin B Teuscher, Min Zhang, Haitao Ji
The determination of the cellular bioavailability of small-molecule inhibitors is a critical step for interpreting cell-based data and guiding inhibitor optimization. Herein, a HPLC-MS based protocol was developed to determine inhibitor cellular bioavailability. This generalizable protocol allows determination of the accurate intracellular concentrations and characterization of various properties of inhibitors including the extra- and intracellular stability, the dose- and time-dependence of the intracellular concentrations, the cell permeability, and the nonspecific binding with the cell culture plates, the extracellular matrices, and the cell membrane...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935206/developmental-transcriptional-regulation-by-sumoylation-an-evolving-field
#15
REVIEW
Juan Monribot-Villanueva, Mario Zurita, Martha Vázquez
SUMOylation is a reversible post-translational protein modification that affects the intracellular localization, stability, activity and interactions of its protein targets. The SUMOylation pathway influences several nuclear and cytoplasmic processes. The expression of many genes, in particular those involved in development is finely tuned in space and time by several groups of proteins. There is growing evidence that transcriptional regulation mechanisms involve direct SUMOylation of transcriptional-related proteins such as initiation and elongation factors, and subunits of chromatin modifier and remodeling complexes originally described as members of the trithorax and Polycomb groups in Drosophila...
December 9, 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935078/ischemic-myopathy-revealing-systemic-calciphylaxis
#16
Jessie Aouizerate, Laurence Valleyrie-Allanore, Nicolas Limal, S Samar Ayache, Romain K Gherardi, Vincent Audard, François Jérôme Authier
INTRODUCTION: Patients with renal failure who are being treated with dialysis frequently develop neuromuscular manifestations. Renal failure-associated calciphylaxis, also termed calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA), is a life-threatening condition usually observed in patients with end-stage renal disease on chronic dialysis or following renal transplantation. METHODS: We describe a hemodialyzed patient who presented with rapidly progressive unexplained systemic vasculopathy, muscle atrophy, and proximal weakness, that unexpectedly proved to be caused by calciphylaxis...
December 9, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935050/the-anthocyanins-oenin-and-callistephin-protect-rpe-cells-against-oxidative-stress
#17
Sally M Yacout, Elizabeth R Gaillard
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a highly metabolic layer of post-mitotic cells lining the Bruch's membrane in the retina. While these cells contain endogenous photosensitizers that mediate blue light induced damage, it has also been shown that blue light exposure damages mitochondrial DNA in RPE cells resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and unregulated generation of reactive oxygen species. As RPE cells are post-mitotic, it is imperative to decrease oxidative stress to these cells and preserve function...
December 9, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934974/electron-spin-resonance-and-fluorescence-imaging-assisted-electrochemical-approach-for-accurate-and-comprehensive-monitoring-of-cellular-hydrogen-peroxide-dynamics
#18
Qi Xin, Qian Liu, Hameed Shah, Jian Ru Gong
Dynamic alteration in the levels of cellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is closely related to a variety of human diseases, as well as signal transduction pathways that regulate cell survival and death. Although qualitative or quantitative methods are available for measuring either intra- or extra-cellular H2O2 levels, accurate and comprehensive in situ detection of the real-time H2O2 dynamics of living cells remains a significant challenge. To solve this problem, a novel multi-dimensional in situ cell assay platform combining electrochemistry, electron spin resonance (ESR) and optical imaging is designed...
December 9, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934922/extreme-activity-of-drug-nanocrystals-coated-with-a-layer-of-non-covalent-polymers-from-self-assembled-boric-acid
#19
Honglei Zhan, Jun F Liang
Non-covalent polymers have remarkable advantages over synthetic polymers for wide biomedical applications. In this study, non-covalent polymers from self-assembled boric acid were used as the capping reagent to replace synthetic polymers in drug crystallization. Under acidic pH, boric acid self-assembled on the surface of drug nanocrystals to form polymers with network-like structures held together by hydrogen bonds. Coating driven by boric acid self-assembly had negligible effects on drug crystallinity and structure but resulted in drug nanocrystals with excellent dispersion properties that aided in the formation of a more stable suspension...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934889/accurate-quantitative-sensing-of-intracellular-ph-based-on-self-ratiometric-upconversion-luminescent-nanoprobe
#20
Cuixia Li, Jing Zuo, Li Zhang, Yulei Chang, Youlin Zhang, Langping Tu, Xiaomin Liu, Bin Xue, Qiqing Li, Huiying Zhao, Hong Zhang, Xianggui Kong
Accurate quantitation of intracellular pH (pHi) is of great importance in revealing the cellular activities and early warning of diseases. A series of fluorescence-based nano-bioprobes composed of different nanoparticles or/and dye pairs have already been developed for pHi sensing. Till now, biological auto-fluorescence background upon UV-Vis excitation and severe photo-bleaching of dyes are the two main factors impeding the accurate quantitative detection of pHi. Herein, we have developed a self-ratiometric luminescence nanoprobe based on förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) for probing pHi, in which pH-sensitive fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) were served as energy acceptor and donor, respectively...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
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