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Tumor microenvironment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212293/targeting-angiogenesis-in-biliary-tract-cancers-an-open-option
#1
REVIEW
Valeria Simone, Oronzo Brunetti, Luigi Lupo, Mario Testini, Eugenio Maiorano, Michele Simone, Vito Longo, Christian Rolfo, Marc Peeters, Aldo Scarpa, Amalia Azzariti, Antonio Russo, Domenico Ribatti, Nicola Silvestris
Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are characterized by a bad prognosis and the armamentarium of drugs for their treatment is very poor. Although the inflammatory status of biliary tract represents the first step in the cancerogenesis, the microenvironment also plays a key role in the pathogenesis of BTCs, promoting tumor angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Several molecules, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF), are involved in the angiogenesis process and their expression on tumor samples has been explored as prognostic marker in both cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211615/targeting-of-crosstalk-between-tumor-and-tumor-microenvironment-by-%C3%AE-d-mannuronic-acid-m2000-in-murine-breast-cancer-model
#2
Fatemeh Hosseini, Hadi Hassannia, Ahmad Mahdian-Shakib, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Seyedehsan Enderami, Mohammadjavad Fattahi, Ali Anissian, Abbas Mirshafiey, Parviz Kokhaei
Metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. Inflammatory processes following crosstalk between tumor cells and tumor microenvironment play an important role in progression and metastasis of cancer. Hence, targeting of these interactions may represent a novel promising strategy for breast cancer therapy. So, we investigated the effects of β-D mannuronic acid (BDM), a new antiinflammatory agent, on 4T1 breast cancer cell line both in vitro and in vivo. Proliferation assays revealed low-cytotoxic effect of BDM on 4T1 cells...
February 17, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211481/effects-of-strength-training-on-osteogenic-differentiation-and-bone-strength-in-aging-female-wistar-rats
#3
Monique Patricio Singulani, Camila Tami Stringhetta-Garcia, Leandro Figueiredo Santos, Samuel Rodrigues Lourenço Morais, Mário Jefferson Quirino Louzada, Sandra Helena Penha Oliveira, Antonio Hernandes Chaves Neto, Rita Cássia Menegati Dornelles
The effects of strength training (ST) on the mechanical bone strength and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) from adult, aged and exercised aged rats were determined. The exercised aged animals displayed higher values of areal bone mineral density, compression test, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and biological mineralization, while oil red O staining for adipocytes was lower. ST increased gene expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (Osx) as well as bone matrix protein expression, and reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ)...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210910/astrocyte-induced-reelin-expression-drives-proliferation-of-her2-breast-cancer-metastases
#4
Rahul Jandial, Cecilia Choy, Danielle M Levy, Mike Y Chen, Khairul I Ansari
Breast cancer metastasis to the brain develops after a clinical latency of years to even decades, suggesting that colonization of the brain is the most challenging step of the metastatic cascade. However, the underlying mechanisms used by breast cancer cells to successfully colonize the brain's microenvironment remain elusive. Reelin is an archetypal extracellular glycoprotein that regulates migration, proliferation, and lamination of neurons. It is epigenetically silenced in various cancers, and its expression in multiple myelomas is linked to poor patient survival...
February 17, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210624/rna-sequencing-analysis-reveals-interactions-between-breast-cancer-or-melanoma-cells-and-the-tissue-microenvironment-during-brain-metastasis
#5
Ryo Sato, Teppei Nakano, Mari Hosonaga, Oltea Sampetrean, Ritsuko Harigai, Takashi Sasaki, Ikuko Koya, Hideyuki Okano, Jun Kudoh, Hideyuki Saya, Yoshimi Arima
Metastasis is the main cause of treatment failure and death in cancer patients. Metastasis of tumor cells to the brain occurs frequently in individuals with breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, or melanoma. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the causes and in the treatment of primary tumors, the biological and molecular mechanisms underlying the metastasis of cancer cells to the brain have remained unclear. Metastasizing cancer cells interact with their microenvironment in the brain to establish metastases...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210259/resolution-of-cancer-promoting-inflammation-a-new-approach-for-anticancer-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Qi Zhang, Bo Zhu, Yongsheng Li
Inflammation is a protective response that eliminates harmful stimuli and restores tissue homeostasis, whereas the failure to resolve inflammation leads to the development of malignancies. Immune cells in the tumor inflammatory microenvironment endow cancer cells with their specific hallmarks, including mutations, metabolic reprograming, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Targeting the inflammatory microenvironment with anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., aspirin) or by enhancing antitumor immunity (e.g., chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy) has been extensively investigated and has achieved promising results in many cancers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210081/role-of-lap-cd4-t-cells-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-of-colorectal-cancer
#7
Wu Zhong, Zhi-Yuan Jiang, Lei Zhang, Jia-Hao Huang, Shi-Jun Wang, Cun Liao, Bin Cai, Li-Sheng Chen, Sen Zhang, Yun Guo, Yun-Fei Cao, Feng Gao
AIM: To investigate the abundance and potential functions of LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells in colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: Proportions of LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells were examined in peripheral blood and tumor/paratumor tissues of CRC patients and healthy controls using flow cytometry. Expression of phenotypic markers such as forkhead box (Fox)p3, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4, chemokine CC receptor (CCR)4 and CCR5 was measured using flow cytometry. LAP(-)CD4(+) and LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells were isolated using a magnetic cell-sorting system and cell purity was analyzed by flow cytometry...
January 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209916/diabetic-concentrations-of-metformin-inhibit-platelet-mediated-ovarian-cancer-cell-progression
#8
Rafaela Erices, Sofía Cubillos, Raúl Aravena, Felice Santoro, Monica Marquez, Renan Orellana, Carolina Ramírez, Pamela González, Patricia Fuenzalida, María Loreto Bravo, Bárbara Oliva, Sumie Kato, Carolina Ibañez, Jorge Brañes, Erasmo Bravo, Catalina Alonso, Karen García, Clemente Arab, Vicente A Torres, Alejandro S Godoy, Jaime Pereira, Galdo Bustos, Julio Cesar Cardenas, Mauricio A Cuello, Gareth I Owen
Clinical studies have suggested a survival benefit in ovarian cancer patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking metformin, however the mechanism by which diabetic concentrations of metformin could deliver this effect is still poorly understood. Platelets not only represent an important reservoir of growth factors and angiogenic regulators, they are also known to participate in the tumor microenvironment implicated in tumor growth and dissemination. Herein, we investigated if diabetic concentrations of metformin could impinge upon the previously reported observation that platelet induces an increase in the tube forming capacity of endothelial cells (angiogenesis) and upon ovarian cancer cell aggressiveness...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209610/the-tumor-microenvironment-at-a-turning-point-knowledge-gained-over-the-last-decade-and-challenges-and-opportunities-ahead-a-white-paper-from-the-nci-tme-network
#9
Yves A DeClerck, Kenneth J Pienta, Elisa C Woodhouse, Dinah S Singer, Suresh Mohla
Over the past 10 years, the Tumor Microenvironment Network (TMEN), supported by the NCI (Bethesda, MD), has promoted collaborative research with the explicit goal of fostering multi-institutional and transdisciplinary groups that are capable of addressing complex issues involving the tumor microenvironment. The main goal of the TMEN was to generate novel information about the dynamic complexity of tumor-host interactions in different organ systems with emphasis on using human tissues and supplemented by experimental models...
February 16, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209609/pancreatic-cancer-progress-and-challenges-in-a-rapidly-moving-field
#10
Eric A Collisson, Kenneth P Olive
"Pancreatic Cancer: Advances in Science and Clinical Care," a Special Conference of the American Association for Cancer Research, was held in Orlando, FL, on May 12 to 15, bringing together more than 450 basic, translational, clinical, and epidemiologic pancreatic cancer researchers as well as pancreatic cancer patients, survivors, and advocates. Pancreatic cancer remains one of the great challenges in medicine, but the accelerating pace of research and early hints of clinical successes to come were palpable throughout the meeting...
February 16, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209528/decellularized-human-colorectal-cancer-matrices-polarize-macrophages-towards-an-anti-inflammatory-phenotype-promoting-cancer-cell-invasion-via-ccl18
#11
M L Pinto, E Rios, A C Silva, S C Neves, H R Caires, A T Pinto, C Durães, F A Carvalho, A P Cardoso, N C Santos, C C Barrias, D S Nascimento, P Pinto-do-Ó, M A Barbosa, F Carneiro, M J Oliveira
Macrophages are frequently identified in solid tumors, playing important roles in cancer progression. Their remarkable plasticity makes them very sensitive to environmental factors, including the extracellular matrix (ECM). In the present work, we investigated the impact of human colorectal tumor matrices on macrophage polarization and on macrophage-mediated cancer cell invasion. Accordingly, we developed an innovative 3D-organotypic model, based on the decellularization of normal and tumor tissues derived from colorectal cancer patients' surgical resections...
February 5, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209511/heparanase-1-induced-shedding-of-heparan-sulfate-from-syndecan-1-in-hepatocarcinoma-cell-facilitates-lymphatic-endothelial-cell-proliferation-via-vegf-c-erk-pathway
#12
Shengjin Yu, Huiming Lv, He Zhang, Yu Jiang, Yu Hong, Rongjun Xia, Qifang Zhang, Weiwei Ju, Lili Jiang, Geng Ou, Jinhui Zhang, Shujing Wang, Jianing Zhang
Heparanase-1/syndecan-1 axis plays critical roles in tumorigenesis and development. The main mechanism includes heparanase-1 (HPA-1) degrades the heparan sulfate chain of syndecan-1 (SDC-1), and the following shedding of heparan sulfate from tumor cell releases and activates SDC-1 sequestered growth factors. However, the significance of Heparanase-1/syndecan-1 axis and its effects on the microenvironment of lymphatic metastasis in hepatocellular carcinogenesis (HCC) procession have not been reported. Herein, we found that HPA-1 could degrade the heparan sulfate on hepatocarcinoma cell surface...
February 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209174/mouse-genomic-screen-reveals-novel-host-regulator-of-metastasis
#13
Toni Celià-Terrassa, Yibin Kang
Tumor cells have to overcome challenges in the host tissue microenvironment to metastasize successfully to distant organs. In a recent Nature study, a genome-wide functional screen demonstrated that deficiency of the sphingosine-1-phoshate (S1P) transporter gene Spns2 in endothelium increased immune-mediated cell killing by T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, thereby suppressing metastatic colonization.
February 16, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209166/intra-tumor-heterogeneity-from-a-cancer-stem-cell-perspective
#14
REVIEW
Pramudita R Prasetyanti, Jan Paul Medema
Tumor heterogeneity represents an ongoing challenge in the field of cancer therapy. Heterogeneity is evident between cancers from different patients (inter-tumor heterogeneity) and within a single tumor (intra-tumor heterogeneity). The latter includes phenotypic diversity such as cell surface markers, (epi)genetic abnormality, growth rate, apoptosis and other hallmarks of cancer that eventually drive disease progression and treatment failure. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been put forward to be one of the determining factors that contribute to intra-tumor heterogeneity...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208731/in-vivo-imaging-of-local-gene-expression-induced-by-magnetic-hyperthermia
#15
Olivier Sandre, Coralie Genevois, Eneko Garaio, Laurent Adumeau, Stéphane Mornet, Franck Couillaud
The present work aims to demonstrate that colloidal dispersions of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with dextran macromolecules placed in an alternating magnetic field can not only produce heat, but also that these particles could be used in vivo for local and noninvasive deposition of a thermal dose sufficient to trigger thermo-induced gene expression. Iron oxide nanoparticles were first characterized in vitro on a bio-inspired setup, and then they were assayed in vivo using a transgenic mouse strain expressing the luciferase reporter gene under transcriptional control of a thermosensitive promoter...
February 8, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207184/an-im-penetrable-shield-how-the-tumor-microenvironment-protects-cancer-stem-cells
#16
Theresa Relation, Massimo Dominici, Edwin M Horwitz
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are defined by their unlimited self-renewal ability and their capacity to initiate and maintain malignancy, traits that are not found in most cells that comprise the tumor. Although current cancer treatments successfully reduce tumor burden, the tumor will likely recur unless CSCs are effectively eradicated. This challenge is made greater by the protective impact of the tumor microenvironment (TME), consisting of infiltrating immune cells, endothelial cells, extracellular matrix, and signaling molecules...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206814/biomarkers-in-tumor-microenvironment-upregulation-of-fibroblast-activation-protein-%C3%AE-correlates-with-gastric-cancer-progression-and-poor-prognosis
#17
Mengmou Hu, Chengjia Qian, Ziwei Hu, Bojian Fei, Haibo Zhou
Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Recent evidence points to importance of cross talk between cancer cells and the surrounding stroma on gastric cancer progression. Tumor microenvironment biomarkers thus represent a new opportunity for diagnostics innovation. Reactive stromal fibroblasts selectively express the fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP-α), a homodimeric integral membrane gelatinase that belongs to the serine protease family. We report here that FAP-α expression is significantly elevated in gastric cancer samples by more than fivefold (p < 0...
January 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203307/epigenetic-strategies-to-reverse-drug-resistance-in-heterogeneous-multiple-myeloma
#18
REVIEW
Mark E Issa, Farnaz Sedigheh Takhsha, Chandra Sekhar Chirumamilla, Claudina Perez-Novo, Wim Vanden Berghe, Muriel Cuendet
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy, which remains incurable because most patients eventually relapse or become refractory to current treatments. Due to heterogeneity within the cancer cell microenvironment, cancer cell populations employ a dynamic survival strategy to chemotherapeutic treatments, which frequently results in a rapid acquisition of therapy resistance. Besides resistance-conferring genetic alterations within a tumor cell population selected during drug treatment, recent findings also reveal non-mutational mechanisms of drug resistance, involving a small population of "cancer stem cells" (CSCs) which are intrinsically more refractory to the effects of a variety of anticancer drugs...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202775/winter-is-coming-tumor-cells-go-into-hibernation
#19
Amanda W Lund
In response to hypoxia in the primary tumor microenvironment, tumor cells induce a state of dormancy enabling their persistence at metastatic sites and resistance to therapy.
February 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202677/cancer-associated-fibroblasts-modulate-growth-factor-signaling-and-extracellular-matrix-remodeling-to-regulate-tumor-metastasis
#20
REVIEW
Begum Erdogan, Donna J Webb
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are major components of the surrounding stroma of carcinomas that emerge in the tumor microenvironment as a result of signals derived from the cancer cells. Biochemical cross-talk between cancer cells and CAFs as well as mechanical remodeling of the stromal extracellular matrix (ECM) by CAFs are important contributors to tumor cell migration and invasion, which are critical for cancer progression from a primary tumor to metastatic disease. In this review, we discuss key paracrine signaling pathways between CAFs and cancer cells that promote cancer cell migration and invasion...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
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