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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135974/early-meteorological-records-from-latin-america-and-the-caribbean-during-the-18th-and-19th-centuries
#1
Fernando Domínguez-Castro, José Manuel Vaquero, María Cruz Gallego, Ana María Marín Farrona, Juan Carlos Antuña-Marrero, Erika Elizabeth Cevallos, Ricardo García Herrera, Cristina de la Guía, Raúl David Mejía, José Manuel Naranjo, María Del Rosario Prieto, Luis Enrique Ramos Guadalupe, Lizardo Seiner, Ricardo Machado Trigo, Marcos Villacís
This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122684/sequence-based-hla-a-b-c-dp-dq-and-dr-typing-of-339-adults-from-managua-nicaragua
#2
Daniela Weiskopf, Alba Grifoni, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Michael Angelo, Shay Leary, John Sidney, April Frazier, Steven J Mack, Elizabeth Phillips, Simon Mallal, Cristhiam Cerpas, Angel Balmaseda, Eva Harris, Alessandro Sette
DNA sequence-based typing at the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DPB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, and -DRB1 loci was performed on anonymized samples provided by 339 healthy adult blood bank donors in Managua, Nicaragua. The purpose of the study was to characterize allele frequencies in the local population to support studies of T cell immunity against pathogens, including Dengue virus. Deviations from Hardy Weinberg proportions were detected for all class II loci (HLA-DPB1, -DQA1, -DQB1 and -DRB1), and at the class I C locus, but not at the class I A and B loci...
November 7, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110845/an-international-epidemiological-analysis-of-young-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-adujov-clicap
#3
Luis Corrales-Rodríguez, Oscar Arrieta, Luis Mas, Renata Báez-Saldaña, Omar Castillo-Fernández, Normand Blais, Claudio Martín, Melissa Juárez, Priyanka Khanna, Allan Ramos-Esquivel, Ludwing Bacon, Leonardo Rojas, Beatriz Wills, George Oblitas, María Angelina Pérez, Mauricio Cuello, Andrés Felipe Cardona
BACKGROUND: A proportion of patients with NSCLC is diagnosed at 40 years or younger. These patients tend to be never-smokers, usually present with stage IV adenocarcinoma, and have somatic genomic alterations. Few studies have documented and analyzed epidemiological characteristics of this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an international epidemiological analysis of 389 young patients with NSCLC. Data was collected from centers participating in the Latin American Consortium for Lung Cancer Research (AduJov-CLICaP)...
November 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107508/waste-picker-livelihoods-and-inclusive-neoliberal-municipal-solid-waste-management-policies-the-case-of-the-la-chureca-garbage-dump-site-in-managua-nicaragua
#4
Chris Hartmann
The modernization (i.e. mechanization, formalization, and capital intensification) and enclosure of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems threaten waste picker livelihoods. From 2009 to 2013, a major development project, embodying traditional neoliberal policies with inclusive social policies, transformed the Managua, Nicaragua, municipal solid waste site from an open-air dump where as many as 2,000 informal waste pickers toiled to a sanitary landfill. To investigate waste pickers' social and economic condition, including labor characteristics, household income, and poverty incidence, after the project's completion, 146 semi-structured survey questionnaires were administered to four communities adjacent to the landfill and 45 semi-structured interviews were completed with key stakeholders...
October 26, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097492/antibody-dependent-enhancement-of-severe-dengue-disease-in-humans
#5
Leah C Katzelnick, Lionel Gresh, M Elizabeth Halloran, Juan Carlos Mercado, Guillermina Kuan, Aubree Gordon, Angel Balmaseda, Eva Harris
For dengue viruses (DENV1-4), a specific range of antibody titer has been shown to enhance viral replication in vitro and severe disease in animal models. Although suspected, such antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of severe disease has not been shown to occur in humans. Using multiple statistical approaches to study a long-term pediatric cohort in Nicaragua, we show that risk of severe dengue disease is highest within a narrow range of pre-existing anti-DENV antibody titers. By contrast, we observe protection from all symptomatic dengue disease at high antibody titers...
November 2, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081779/global-assessment-of-dengue-virus-specific-cd4-t-cell-responses-in-dengue-endemic-areas
#6
Alba Grifoni, Michael A Angelo, Benjamin Lopez, Patrick H O'Rourke, John Sidney, Cristhiam Cerpas, Angel Balmaseda, Cassia G T Silveira, Alvino Maestri, Priscilla R Costa, Anna P Durbin, Sean A Diehl, Elizabeth Phillips, Simon Mallal, Aruna D De Silva, Godwin Nchinda, Celine Nkenfou, Matthew H Collins, Aravinda M de Silva, Mei Qiu Lim, Paul A Macary, Filippo Tatullo, Tom Solomon, Vijaya Satchidanandam, Anita Desai, Vasanthapram Ravi, Josefina Coloma, Lance Turtle, Laura Rivino, Esper G Kallas, Bjoern Peters, Eva Harris, Alessandro Sette, Daniela Weiskopf
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a major public health problem worldwide. Assessment of adaptive immunity is important to understanding immunopathology and to define correlates of protection against dengue virus (DENV). To enable global assessment of CD4(+) T cell responses, we mapped HLA-DRB1-restricted DENV-specific CD4(+) T cell epitopes in individuals previously exposed to DENV in the general population of the dengue-endemic region of Managua, Nicaragua. METHODS: HLA class II epitopes in the population of Managua were identified by an in vitro IFNγ ELISPOT assay...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077748/coastal-livelihood-transitions-under-globalization-with-implications-for-trans-ecosystem-interactions
#7
Daniel B Kramer, Kara Stevens, Nicholas E Williams, Seeta A Sistla, Adam B Roddy, Gerald R Urquhart
Anthropogenic threats to natural systems can be exacerbated due to connectivity between marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems, complicating the already daunting task of governance across the land-sea interface. Globalization, including new access to markets, can change social-ecological, land-sea linkages via livelihood responses and adaptations by local people. As a first step in understanding these trans-ecosystem effects, we examined exit and entry decisions of artisanal fishers and smallholder farmers on the rapidly globalizing Caribbean coast of Nicaragua...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055580/assessment-of-ecosystem-health-disturbance-in-mangrove-lined-caribbean-coastal-systems-using-the-oyster-crassostrea-rhizophorae-as-sentinel-species
#8
J Aguirre-Rubí, A Luna-Acosta, M Ortiz-Zarragoitia, B Zaldibar, U Izagirre, M J Ahrens, L Villamil, I Marigómez
This investigation was aimed at contributing to develop a suitable multi-biomarker approach for pollution monitoring in mangrove-lined Caribbean coastal systems using as sentinel species, the mangrove cupped oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae. A pilot field study was carried out in 8 localities (3 in Nicaragua; 5 in Colombia), characterized by different environmental conditions and subjected to different levels and types of pollution. Samples were collected in the rainy and dry seasons of 2012-2013. The biological effects at different levels of biological complexity (Stress-on-Stress response, reproduction, condition index, tissue-level biomarkers and histopathology) were determined as indicators of health disturbance, integrated as IBR/n index, and compared with tissue burdens of contaminants in order to achieve an integrative biomonitoring approach...
October 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031287/leprosy-associated-with-atypical-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-nicaragua-and-honduras
#9
Lucrecia Acosta Soto, Nelson Caballero, Lesny Ruth Fuentes, Pedro Torres Muñoz, Jose Ramón Gómez Echevarría, Montserrat Pérez López, Fernando Jorge Bornay Llinares, John L Stanford, Cynthia A Stanford, Helen D Donoghue
In Central America, few cases of leprosy have been reported, but the disease may be unrecognized. Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and histology. Preliminary field work in Nicaragua and Honduras found patients, including many children, with skin lesions clinically suggestive of atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis or indeterminate leprosy. Histology could not distinguish these diseases although acid-fast organisms were visible in a few biopsies. Lesions healed after standard antimicrobial therapy for leprosy...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017625/molecular-data-reveal-high-diversity-of-uvulifer-trematoda-diplostomidae-in-middle-america-with-the-description-of-a-new-species
#10
A López-Jiménez, G Pérez-Ponce de León, M García-Varela
Members of the genus Uvulifer are distributed worldwide and infect aquatic snails and freshwater fishes as first and second intermediate hosts, respectively, and fish-eating birds (kingfishers) as definitive hosts. Metacercariae of Uvulifer spp. were collected from the fins and skin of 20 species of freshwater fishes in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, and the adults were recovered from the intestine of kingfishers in four localities of Mexico. The genetic divergence among 76 samples (64 metacercariae and 12 adults) was estimated by sequencing the 28S and 5...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986247/the-reintroduction-of-denv-2-in-2011-in-panama-and-subsequent-outbreak-characteristic
#11
Yamilka Díaz, Julio Cisneros, Hilda Guzmán, Paola Cordoba, Jean-Paul Carrera, Brechla Moreno, Rubing Chen, Juan Castillo Mewa, Lourdes García, Lizbeth Cerezo, Amelia Travassos da Rosa, Nathan D Gundacker, Blas Armién, Scott C Weaver, Nikos Vasilakis, Sandra López-Vergès, Robert Tesh
The circulation of the South-east Asian/American (AS/AM) dengue 2 virus (DENV-2) genotype in the Americas has been associated with a high rate of severe disease. From 1993, the year DENV was reintroduced in Panama, until 2011 there were 29 dengue-associated deaths, 17 of which occurred in 2011, the most severe outbreak with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 44% (17 deaths out of 38 severe dengue cases). During this outbreak DENV-2 was reintroduced into the country, whereas over the prior five years DENV-1 and -3 were predominant...
October 3, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986036/association-between-haemagglutination-inhibiting-antibodies-and-protection-against-clade-6b-viruses-in-2013-and-2015
#12
Sophia Ng, Saira Saborio, Guillermina Kuan, Lionel Gresh, Nery Sanchez, Sergio Ojeda, Eva Harris, Angel Balmaseda, Aubree Gordon
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of the pandemic A(H1N1) virus has been changing as population immunity continues to co-evolve with the virus. The impact of genetic changes in the virus on human's susceptibility is an outstanding important question in vaccine design. In a community-based study, we aim to (1) determine the genetic characteristics of 2009-2015 pandemic H1N1 viruses, (2) assess antibody response following natural infections and (3) assess the correlation of A/California/07/09 antibody titers to protection in the 2013 and 2015 epidemics...
October 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982545/pediatric-norovirus-gii-4-infections-in-nicaragua-1999-2015
#13
Filemón Bucardo, Yaoska Reyes, Sylvia Becker-Dreps, Natalie Bowman, Joann F Gruber, Jan Vinjé, Felix Espinoza, Margarita Paniagua, Angel Balmaseda, Lennart Svensson, Johan Nordgren
OBJECTIVES: Investigate clinical and epidemiological factors of pediatric GII.4 norovirus infections in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in Nicaragua between 1999 and 2015. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed laboratory and epidemiologic data from 1,790 children≤7years with AGE from 6 hospitals in Nicaragua (n=538), and 3 community clinics (n=919) and households (n=333) in León, between 1999 and 2015. Moreover, asymptomatic children from community clinics (n=162) and households (n=105) were enrolled...
October 2, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970482/cd14-cd16-monocytes-are-the-main-target-of-zika-virus-infection-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-a-paediatric-study-in-nicaragua
#14
Daniela Michlmayr, Paulina Andrade, Karla Gonzalez, Angel Balmaseda, Eva Harris
The recent Zika pandemic in the Americas is linked to congenital birth defects and Guillain-Barré syndrome. White blood cells (WBCs) play an important role in host immune responses early in arboviral infection. Infected WBCs can also function as 'Trojan horses' and carry viruses into immune-sheltered spaces, including the placenta, testes and brain. Therefore, defining which WBCs are permissive to Zika virus (ZIKV) is critical. Here, we analyse ZIKV infectivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro and from Nicaraguan Zika patients and show CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes are the main target of infection, with ZIKV replication detected in some dendritic cells...
October 2, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956676/provider-perspectives-on-intimate-partner-violence-in-bluefields-nicaragua
#15
Kathryn Laughon, Emma Mitchell, Julianne Price
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence represents a significant public health problem and a substantial human rights' issue for women and girls throughout the world. Design and Purpose: The purpose of this study was to answer these research questions: What are the current practices for addressing gender violence in the RACS? What do professionals consider to be the current strengths and gaps in policies related to gender violence in this region? By employing a qualitative descriptive approach (Sandelowski, 2000 ), researchers traveled from the US to Bluefields, Nicaragua, in 2012...
October 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930623/multipartner-fertility-in-nicaragua-complex-family-formation-in-a-low-income-setting
#16
Kammi K Schmeer, Jake Hays
CONTEXT: Multipartner fertility (having children with more than one partner) is an important topic in demographic research, but little is known about its incidence and correlates in low-income settings, where rates may be high because of poverty, union instability and early childbearing. METHODS: Data from the 2011-2012 Encuesta Nicaragüense de Demografía y Salud were used to calculate the prevalence of multipartner fertility among 8,320 mothers and 2,141 fathers with two or more children...
March 3, 2017: International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928210/analysis-of-individuals-from-a-dengue-endemic-region-helps-define-the-footprint-and-repertoire-of-antibodies-targeting-dengue-virus-3-type-specific-epitopes
#17
Daniela V Andrade, Leah C Katzelnick, Doug G Widman, Angel Balmaseda, Aravinda M de Silva, Ralph S Baric, Eva Harris
The four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1 to 4) cause dengue, a major public health problem worldwide. Individuals exposed to primary DENV infections develop serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies, including strongly neutralizing antibodies targeting quaternary epitopes. To date, no studies have measured the levels and kinetics of serum antibodies directed to such epitopes among populations in regions where dengue is endemic. Here, we use a recombinant DENV4 (rDENV4/3-M14) displaying a major DENV3 type-specific quaternary epitope recognized by human monoclonal antibody 5J7 to measure the proportion, magnitude, and kinetics of DENV3 type-specific neutralizing antibody responses targeting this epitope...
September 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926845/leptospirosis-renal-disease-emerging-culprit-of-chronic-kidney-disease-unknown-etiology
#18
Chih-Wei Yang
Leptospirosis is the most prevalent zoonosis affecting more than 1 million populations worldwide. Interestingly, leptospirosis endemic regions coincide with chronic kidney disease (CKD) hotspots largely due to flooding and agricultural overlaps. Acute leptospirosis induces multiple organ dysfunction including acute kidney injury and may predispose to CKD and end-stage renal disease, if not treated timely. Asymptomatic infection may carry the bacteria in the kidney and CKD progresses insidiously. Histologic finding of leptospirosis renal disease includes tubulointerstitial nephritis, interstitial fibrosis, and tubular atrophy...
September 20, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923090/mapping-occurrence-of-taenia-solium-taeniosis-cysticercosis-and-areas-at-risk-of-porcine-cysticercosis-in-central-america-and-the-caribbean-basin
#19
Uffe Christian Braae, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Fortune Sithole, Ziqi Wang, Arve Lee Willingham
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to map the occurrence of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis at national level within Central America and the Caribbean basin, and to map the distribution of porcine cysticercosis at first-level administrative subdivision level (department level) and the porcine population at risk. This zoonotic parasite is believed to be widely endemic across most of Latin America. However, there is little information readily available for Central America and the Caribbean basin...
September 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919118/global-regional-and-national-disability-adjusted-life-years-dalys-for-333-diseases-and-injuries-and-healthy-life-expectancy-hale-for-195-countries-and-territories-1990-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#20
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE)...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
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