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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345666/members-of-gammaproteobacteria-as-indicator-species-of-healthy-banana-plants-on-fusarium-wilt-infested-fields-in-central-america
#1
Martina Köberl, Miguel Dita, Alfonso Martinuz, Charles Staver, Gabriele Berg
Culminating in the 1950's, bananas, the world's most extensive perennial monoculture, suffered one of the most devastating disease epidemics in history. In Latin America and the Caribbean, Fusarium wilt (FW) caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC), forced the abandonment of the Gros Michel-based export banana industry. Comparative microbiome analyses performed between healthy and diseased Gros Michel plants on FW-infested farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica revealed significant shifts in the gammaproteobacterial microbiome...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344900/temporal-patterns-and-geographic-heterogeneity-of-zika-virus-zikv-outbreaks-in-french-polynesia-and-central-america
#2
Ying-Hen Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission has been reported in 67 countries/territories in the Oceania region and the Americas since 2015, prompting the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare ZIKV as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2016, due to its strong association with medical complications such as microcephaly and Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). However, a substantial gap in knowledge still exists regarding differing temporal pattern and potential of transmission of ZIKV in different regions of the world...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335004/barriers-and-facilitators-for-institutional-delivery-among-poor-mesoamerican-women-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Bernardo Hernandez, Danny V Colombara, Marielle C Gagnier, Sima S Desai, Annie Haakenstad, Casey Johanns, Claire R McNellan, Jennifer Nelson, Erin B Palmisano, Diego Ríos-Zertuche, Alexandra Schaefer, Paola Zúñiga-Brenes, Emma Iriarte, Ali H Mokdad
Professional skilled care has shown to be one of the most promising strategies to reduce maternal mortality, and in-facility deliveries are a cost-effective way to ensure safe births. Countries in Mesoamerica have emphasized in-facility delivery care by professionally skilled attendants, but access to good-quality delivery care is still lacking for many women. We examined the characteristics of women who had a delivery in a health facility and determinants of the decision to bypass a closer facility and travel to a distant one...
March 15, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330443/influenza-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-infants-study-iris-of-hospitalized-and-non-ill-infants-aged-1-year-in-four-countries-study-design-and-methods
#4
Mark G Thompson, Danielle R Hunt, Ali K Arbaji, Artan Simaku, Veronica L Tallo, Holly M Biggs, Carolyn Kulb, Aubree Gordon, Ilham Abu Khader, Silvia Bino, Marilla G Lucero, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Pat Shifflett, Felix Sanchez, Basima I Marar, Ilirjana Bakalli, Eric A F Simões, Min Z Levine, Jennifer K Meece, Angel Balmaseda, Tareq M Al-Sanouri, Majlinda Dhimolea, Joanne N de Jesus, Natalie J Thornburg, Susan I Gerber, Lionel Gresh
BACKGROUND: This multi-country prospective study of infants aged <1 year aims to assess the frequency of influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections associated with hospitalizations, to describe clinical features and antibody response to infection, and to examine predictors of very severe disease requiring intensive care. METHODS/DESIGN: We are enrolling a hospital-based cohort and a sample of non-ill infants in four countries (Albania, Jordan, Nicaragua, and the Philippines) using a common protocol...
March 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295602/child-survival-revolutions-revisited-lessons-learned-from-bangladesh-nicaragua-rwanda-and-vietnam
#5
REVIEW
Lars Åke Persson, Anisur Rahman, Rodolfo Peña, Wilton Perez, Aimable Musafili, Dinh Phuong Hoa
Analysing child mortality may enhance our perspective on global achievements in child survival. We used data from surveillance sites in Bangladesh, Nicaragua and Vietnam and Demographic Health Surveys in Rwanda to explore the development of neonatal and under-five mortality. The mortality curves showed dramatic reductions over time, but child mortality in the four countries peaked during wars and catastrophes and was rapidly reduced by targeted interventions, multi-sectorial development efforts and community engagement CONCLUSION: Lessons learned from these countries may be useful when tackling future challenges, including persistent neonatal deaths, survival inequalities and the consequences of climate change and migration...
March 12, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293542/whole-genome-sequence-and-phylogenetic-analysis-show-helicobacter-pylori-strains-from-latin-america-have-followed-a-unique-evolution-pathway
#6
Zilia Y Muñoz-Ramírez, Alfonso Mendez-Tenorio, Ikuko Kato, Maria M Bravo, Cosmeri Rizzato, Kaisa Thorell, Roberto Torres, Francisco Aviles-Jimenez, Margarita Camorlinga, Federico Canzian, Javier Torres
Helicobacter pylori (HP) genetics may determine its clinical outcomes. Despite high prevalence of HP infection in Latin America (LA), there have been no phylogenetic studies in the region. We aimed to understand the structure of HP populations in LA mestizo individuals, where gastric cancer incidence remains high. The genome of 107 HP strains from Mexico, Nicaragua and Colombia were analyzed with 59 publicly available worldwide genomes. To study bacterial relationship on whole genome level we propose a virtual hybridization technique using thousands of high-entropy 13 bp DNA probes to generate fingerprints...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264259/out-of-amazonia-the-unexpected-trans-andean-distribution-of-i-cochranella-i-i-resplendens-i-lynch-and-duellman-1978-anura-centrolenidae
#7
Claudia Molina-Zuluaga, Estefany Cano, Adriana Restrepo, Marco Rada, Juan M Daza
The glassfrog genus Cochranella, with nine recognized species, is distributed in the lowlands and mid elevation of the Neotropical forests, from Nicaragua to Bolivia (Guayasamin et al. 2009; Twomey et al. 2014). Four species are trans-Andean-C. granulosa (Taylor 1949) occurs in the lowlands and mountains, at mid elevation, of Central America, C. litoralis (Ruiz-Carranza & Lynch 1996) and C. mache Guayasamin & Bonaccorso 2004 occur in the Pacific lowlands and the western cloud forests of Colombia and Ecuador, and C...
March 2, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260529/implementing-a-vector-surveillance-response-system-for-chagas-disease-control-a-4-year-field-trial-in-nicaragua
#8
Kota Yoshioka, Doribel Tercero, Byron Pérez, Jiro Nakamura, Lenin Pérez
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is one of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). International goals for its control involve elimination of vector-borne transmission. Central American countries face challenges in establishing sustainable vector control programmes, since the main vector, Triatoma dimidiata, cannot be eliminated. In 2012, the Ministry of Health in Nicaragua started a field test of a vector surveillance-response system to control domestic vector infestation. This paper reports the main findings from this pilot study...
March 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254582/a-cross-sectional-epidemiological-study-of-domestic-animals-related-to-human-leptospirosis-cases-in-nicaragua
#9
Byron J Flores, Tania Pérez-Sánchez, Héctor Fuertes, Jessica Sheleby-Elías, José Luis Múzquiz, William Jirón, Christianne Duttmann, Nabil Halaihel
Leptospirosis is one of the most extended zoonosis worldwide and humans become infected most commonly through contact with the urine of carrier animals, either directly or via contaminated water or soil. The aim in this study was to analyse the epidemiological behaviour of Leptospira spp., from domestic animals around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua, from 2007 through 2013. We report the results of a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a non-probability sampling of blood (n=3050) and urine (n=299) from Domestic Animals (DA) around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua...
February 28, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241898/environmental-factors-associated-with-childhood-norovirus-diarrhoea-in-le%C3%A3-n-nicaragua
#10
S Becker-Dreps, C C Cuthbertson, F Bucardo, J Vinje, M Paniagua, S Giebultowicz, F Espinoza, M Emch
Norovirus is detected in one in five diarrhoea episodes in children, yet little is known about environmental risk factors associated with this disease, especially in low-income settings. The objective of this study was to examine environmental risk factors, and spatial and seasonal patterns of norovirus diarrhoea episodes in children in León, Nicaragua. We followed a population-based cohort of children under age 5 years for norovirus diarrhoea over a 1-year period. At baseline, characteristics of each household were recorded...
February 28, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231283/rapid-evolution-of-distinct-helicobacter-pylori-subpopulations-in-the-americas
#11
Kaisa Thorell, Koji Yahara, Elvire Berthenet, Daniel J Lawson, Jane Mikhail, Ikuko Kato, Alfonso Mendez, Cosmeri Rizzato, María Mercedes Bravo, Rumiko Suzuki, Yoshio Yamaoka, Javier Torres, Samuel K Sheppard, Daniel Falush
For the last 500 years, the Americas have been a melting pot both for genetically diverse humans and for the pathogenic and commensal organisms associated with them. One such organism is the stomach-dwelling bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which is highly prevalent in Latin America where it is a major current public health challenge because of its strong association with gastric cancer. By analyzing the genome sequence of H. pylori isolated in North, Central and South America, we found evidence for admixture between H...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228688/two-new-species-and-a-new-combination-in-protium-burseraceae-from-costa-rica
#12
Daniel Santamaría-Aguilar, Laura P Lagomarsino
Two new species of Protium (Burseraceae) are described and illustrated: Protium aguilariisp. nov., from the Pacific slope of the Osa Peninsula, Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica; and Protium hammeliisp. nov., from wet forests on the Caribbean slopes of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. In addition, Protium brenesiicomb. nov., is proposed as a new combination based on Trichilia brenesii, a name that was based on a specimen collected with flowers in the mountains near San Ramón, Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. It is compared with Protium costaricense, a similar species with which it has been confused for more than 90 years...
2017: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222925/linking-national-wood-consumption-with-global-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-service-losses
#13
Abhishek Chaudhary, L Roman Carrasco, Thomas Kastner
Identifying the global hotspots of forestry driven species, ecosystem services losses and informing the consuming nations of their environmental footprint domestically and abroad is essential to design demand side interventions and induce sustainable production methods. Here we first use countryside species area relationship model to project species extinctions of four vertebrate taxa (mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles) due to forest land use in 174 countries. We combine the projected extinctions with a global database on the monetary value of ecosystem services provided by different biomes and with bilateral trade data of wood products to calculate species extinctions and ecosystem services losses inflicted by national wood consumption and international wood trade...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213138/fever-and-arthralgia-after-volcano-boarding-in-nicaragua
#14
Maud Ariaans, Marion José Valladares, Monique Keuter, Paul Verweij, Andre J van der Ven, Quirijn de Mast
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201988/molecular-characterization-of-mhc-class-iib-genes-of-sympatric-neotropical-cichlids
#15
Melinda J Hofmann, Seraina E Bracamonte, Christophe Eizaguirre, Marta Barluenga
BACKGROUND: The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a key component of the adaptive immune system of all vertebrates and consists of the most polymorphic genes known to date. Due to this complexity, however, MHC remains to be characterized in many species including any Neotropical cichlid fish. Neotropical crater lake cichlids are ideal models to study evolutionary processes as they display one of the most convincing examples of sympatric and repeated parallel radiation events within and among isolated crater lakes...
February 15, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187628/an-analytical-review-of-halffter-s-mexican-transition-zone-and-its-relevance-for-evolutionary-biogeography-ecology-and-biogeographical-regionalization
#16
Gonzalo Halffter, Juan J Morrone
The Mexican transition zone (MTZ) is the complex area where the Neotropical and Nearctic biotas overlap, including south-western United States, Mexico and a large part of Central America extending to the Nicaraguan lowlands. In a strict sense, it corresponds to the mountain highlands of Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Nicaragua. We review Halffter's theory explaining the biotic evolution of the MTZ, including the description and discussion of the distributional patterns and cenocrons recognized within it...
January 25, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179114/medicinal-plants-used-to-treat-snakebite-in-central-america-review-and-assessment-of-scientific-evidence
#17
REVIEW
Peter Giovannini, Melanie-Jayne R Howes
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Every year between 1.2 and 5.5 million people worldwide are victims of snakebites, with about 400,000 left permanently injured. In Central America an estimated 5,500 snakebite cases are reported by health centres, but this is likely to be an underestimate due to unreported cases in rural regions. The aim of this study is to review the medicinal plants used traditionally to treat snakebites in seven Central American countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161995/population-history-and-mitochondrial-genetic-substructure-of-the-rama-amerindians-from-nicaragua
#18
Norberto F Baldi, Michael H Crawford
The Rama are a coastal population from southern Nicaragua who in large part were able to resist, at least for a time, the cultural changes and social reorganization brought on by colonial and modern influences. Historical information leaves the Rama origins and biological relationships with nearby extinct and extant groups ambiguous. The objective of this study was to examine the internal genetic microdifferentiation based on the first hypervariable region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of approximately 20% of the population, and to expand the few available historical and anthropological data on the Rama by exploring the effects of cultural practices and historical events on genetic structure, providing an integrative perspective on the Rama genetic history...
April 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147894/molecular-morphological-and-ecological-data-of-saccocoelioides-szidat-1954-digenea-haploporidae-from-middle-america-supported-the-reallocation-from-culuwiya-cichlidorum-to-saccocoelioides
#19
Martin Garcia Varela, Leopoldo Andrade-Gã Â Mez, Carlos D Pinacho-Pinacho
This study investigates the systematic position of some species of the genus Saccocoelioides Szidat, 1954, and the species Culuwiya cichlidorum Aguirre-Macedo and Scholz, 2005 from North and Middle America using new morphological data and partial sequences of 2 nuclear genes, the large subunit (LSU) and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) from ribosomal DNA. In total 74 specimens representing 4 species of Saccocoelioides (41 of Saccocoelioides sogandaresi, 3 of Saccocoelioides chauhani, 6 of Saccocoelioides lamothei, and 12 of Saccocoelioides olmecae) plus 12 specimens of Culuwiya cichlidorum were analyzed...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28136698/breaking-the-cycles-of-poverty-strategies-achievements-and-lessons-learned-in-los-cuatro-santos-nicaragua-1990-2014
#20
Elmer Zelaya Blandón, Carina Källestål, Rodolfo Peña, Wilton Perez, Staffan Berglund, Mariela Contreras, Lars-Åke Persson
BACKGROUND: In a post-war frontier area in north-western Nicaragua that was severely hit by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, local stakeholders embarked on and facilitated multi-dimensional development initiatives to break the cycles of poverty. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe the process of priority-setting, and the strategies, guiding principles, activities, achievements, and lessons learned in these local development efforts from 1990 to 2014 in the Cuatro Santos area, Nicaragua...
2017: Global Health Action
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