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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350167/rickettsia-africae-and-novel-rickettsial-strain-in-amblyomma-spp-ticks-nicaragua-2013
#1
Helena Vogel, Janet Foley, Christine V Fiorello
We report molecular detection of Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma ovale ticks from Nicaragua and a novel rickettsial strain in an A. triste tick. Of 146 ticks from dogs, 16.4% were Rickettsia PCR positive. The presence of Rickettsia spp. in human-biting ticks in Nicaragua may pose a public health concern.
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348515/genetic-evidence-for-panmixia-in-a-colony-breeding-crater-lake-cichlid-fish
#2
T K Lehtonen, K R Elmer, M Lappalainen, A Meyer
Fine-scaled genetic structuring, as seen for example in many lacustrine fish, typically relates to the patterns of migration, habitat use, mating system or other ecological factors. Because the same processes can also affect the propensity of population differentiation and divergence, assessments of species from rapidly speciating clades, or with particularly interesting ecological traits, can be especially insightful. For this study, we assessed the spatial genetic relationships, including the genetic evidence for sex-biased dispersal, in a colony-breeding cichlid fish, Amphilophus astorquii, endemic to Crater Lake Apoyo in Nicaragua, using 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci (n = 123 individuals from three colonies)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344399/contested-discourses-and-culture-sensitivity-norwegian-nursing-students-experience-of-clinical-placement-in-nicaragua
#3
Solveig Kirsti Grudt, Hans Hadders
Aim: The purpose of this study was to gain understanding of Norwegian students' practical experience of "culture sensitivity." Design: Using focus-group interviews and individual written assignments, we draw on a Foucauldian-inspired approach to analyse nursing students' narratives about their clinical placement in Nicaragua. Method: Seven third-year bachelor nursing students enrolled in a clinical placement programme on the Caribbean coast in Nicaragua and participated in focus-group interviews...
January 2018: Nursing Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305550/comparison-of-four-serological-methods-and-two-rt-pcr-assays-for-diagnosis-and-surveillance-of-zika
#4
Angel Balmaseda, Jose Victor Zambrana, Damaris Collado, Nadezna Garcia, Saira Saborío, Douglas Elizondo, Juan Carlos Mercado, Karla Gonzalez, Cristhiam Cerpas, Andrea Nuñez, Davide Corti, Jesse J Waggoner, Guillermina Kuan, Raquel Burger-Calderon, Eva Harris
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is responsible for recent explosive epidemics in the Americas. Notably, ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been found to cause congenital birth defects, including microcephaly, and ZIKV has been associated with Guillain Barré Syndrome in adults. Diagnosis and surveillance of Zika in the Americas have been challenging due to similar clinical manifestations and extensive antibody cross-reactivity with endemic flaviviral diseases, like dengue. We evaluated four serological and two RT-PCR methods in acute (mean day 1...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297270/regarding-otoacoustic-emissions-in-rural-nicaragua-cost-analysis-and-implications-for-newborn-hearing-screening
#5
Davis Thomas Pulimoottil, Karthikeyan Padmanabhan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262408/phylogeography-of-the-mantled-howler-monkey-alouatta-palliata-atelidae-primates-across-its-geographical-range-by-means-of-mitochondrial-genetic-analyses-and-new-insights-about-the-phylogeny-of-alouatta
#6
Manuel Ruiz-García, Ángela Cerón, Sebastián Sánchez-Castillo, Pilar Rueda-Zozaya, Myreya Pinedo-Castro, Gustavo Gutierrez-Espeleta, Joseph Mark Shostell
We analyzed 156 specimens of diverse howler monkey taxa (Alouatta; Atelidae, Primates) for different mitochondrial genes (5,567 base pairs), with special emphasis on A. palliata and related taxa. Our results showed no relevant differences among individuals of different putative taxa, A. p. palliata, A. p. aequatorialis, A. coibensis coibensis, and A. c. trabeata. We found no spatial differences in genetic structure of A. p. palliata throughout Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Honduras. A. p. mexicana (genetic distance: 1...
December 21, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260648/enteroparasites-in-preschool-children-on-the-pacific-region-of-nicaragua
#7
Carla Muñoz-Antoli, Mónica Gozalbo, Aleyda Pavón, Paloma Escobedo, Rafael Toledo, Jose-Guillermo Esteban
The aim of this study was to determine for the first time the prevalence of enteroparasites in preschool children originating from the seven departments of the Pacific region in Nicaragua. One stool sample of each of 1,217 children, from 6 months to 5 years of age, was collected and personal data were recorded on delivery of the container. Samples fixed in 10% formalin were processed by a formol-acetate concentration and a modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. The overall prevalence of enteroparasite infections was 68...
December 18, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202900/food-allergen-labeling-a-latin-american-approach
#8
Maria Cristina Lopez
Food allergy is a public health concern almost all over the world. Although most of the countries that regulate the declaration of allergens in prepackaged foods include the list recommended by the Codex Alimentarius, some countries have added other allergens to this list due to prevalence data and regional incidence, whereas others have incorporated exceptions for some products derived from allergenic foods. Within this context, the situation in Latin America regarding these regulations is diverse. Data about prevalence of food hypersensitivity are very limited in the region...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199107/species-limits-in-the-morelet-s-alligator-lizard-anguidae-gerrhonotinae
#9
Israel Solano-Zavaleta, Adrián Nieto-Montes de Oca
The widely distributed, Central American anguid lizard Mesaspis moreletii is currently recognized as a polytypic species with five subspecies (M. m. fulvus, M. m. moreletii, M. m. rafaeli, M. m. salvadorensis, and M. m. temporalis). We reevaluated the species limits within Mesaspis moreletii using DNA sequences of one mitochondrial and three nuclear genes. The multi-locus data set included samples of all of the subspecies of M. moreletii, the other species of Mesaspis in Central America (M. cuchumatanus and M...
November 30, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178896/estimating-the-value-of-point-of-care-hpv-testing-in-three-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-modeling-study
#10
Nicole G Campos, Vivien Tsu, Jose Jeronimo, Mercy Mvundura, Jane J Kim
BACKGROUND: Where resources are available, the World Health Organization recommends cervical cancer screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing and subsequent treatment of HPV-positive women with timely cryotherapy. Newer technologies may facilitate a same-day screen-and-treat approach, but these testing systems are generally too expensive for widespread use in low-resource settings. METHODS: To assess the value of a hypothetical point-of-care HPV test, we used a mathematical simulation model of the natural history of HPV and data from the START-UP multi-site demonstration project to estimate the health benefits and costs associated with a shift from a 2-visit approach (requiring a return visit for treatment) to 1-visit HPV testing (i...
November 25, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162294/early-detection-of-acute-tubulointerstitial-nephritis-in-the-genesis-of-mesoamerican-nephropathy
#11
Rebecca S B Fischer, Chandan Vangala, Luan Truong, Sreedhar Mandayam, Denis Chavarria, Orlando M Granera Llanes, Marcos U Fonseca Laguna, Alvaro Guerra Baez, Felix Garcia, Ramón García-Trabanino, Kristy O Murray
Mesoamerican nephropathy is a devastating disease of unknown etiology that affects mostly young agricultural workers in Central America. An understanding of the mechanism of injury and the early disease process is urgently needed and will aid in identification of the underlying cause and direct treatment and prevention efforts. We sought to describe the renal pathology in Mesoamerican nephropathy at its earliest clinical appearance in prospectively identified acute case patients in Nicaragua. We considered those with elevated (or increased at least 0...
November 18, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135974/early-meteorological-records-from-latin-america-and-the-caribbean-during-the-18th-and-19th-centuries
#12
Fernando Domínguez-Castro, José Manuel Vaquero, María Cruz Gallego, Ana María Marín Farrona, Juan Carlos Antuña-Marrero, Erika Elizabeth Cevallos, Ricardo García Herrera, Cristina de la Guía, Raúl David Mejía, José Manuel Naranjo, María Del Rosario Prieto, Luis Enrique Ramos Guadalupe, Lizardo Seiner, Ricardo Machado Trigo, Marcos Villacís
This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122684/sequence-based-hla-a-b-c-dp-dq-and-dr-typing-of-339-adults-from-managua-nicaragua
#13
Daniela Weiskopf, Alba Grifoni, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Michael Angelo, Shay Leary, John Sidney, April Frazier, Steven J Mack, Elizabeth Phillips, Simon Mallal, Cristhiam Cerpas, Angel Balmaseda, Eva Harris, Alessandro Sette
DNA sequence-based typing at the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DPB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, and -DRB1 loci was performed on anonymized samples provided by 339 healthy adult blood bank donors in Managua, Nicaragua. The purpose of the study was to characterize allele frequencies in the local population to support studies of T cell immunity against pathogens, including Dengue virus. Deviations from Hardy Weinberg proportions were detected for all class II loci (HLA-DPB1, -DQA1, -DQB1 and -DRB1), and at the class I C locus, but not at the class I A and B loci...
November 7, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110845/an-international-epidemiological-analysis-of-young-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-adujov-clicap
#14
Luis Corrales-Rodríguez, Oscar Arrieta, Luis Mas, Renata Báez-Saldaña, Omar Castillo-Fernández, Normand Blais, Claudio Martín, Melissa Juárez, Priyanka Khanna, Allan Ramos-Esquivel, Ludwing Bacon, Leonardo Rojas, Beatriz Wills, George Oblitas, María Angelina Pérez, Mauricio Cuello, Andrés Felipe Cardona
BACKGROUND: A proportion of patients with NSCLC is diagnosed at 40 years or younger. These patients tend to be never-smokers, usually present with stage IV adenocarcinoma, and have somatic genomic alterations. Few studies have documented and analyzed epidemiological characteristics of this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an international epidemiological analysis of 389 young patients with NSCLC. Data was collected from centers participating in the Latin American Consortium for Lung Cancer Research (AduJov-CLICaP)...
November 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107508/waste-picker-livelihoods-and-inclusive-neoliberal-municipal-solid-waste-management-policies-the-case-of-the-la-chureca-garbage-dump-site-in-managua-nicaragua
#15
Chris Hartmann
The modernization (i.e. mechanization, formalization, and capital intensification) and enclosure of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems threaten waste picker livelihoods. From 2009 to 2013, a major development project, embodying traditional neoliberal policies with inclusive social policies, transformed the Managua, Nicaragua, municipal solid waste site from an open-air dump where as many as 2,000 informal waste pickers toiled to a sanitary landfill. To investigate waste pickers' social and economic condition, including labor characteristics, household income, and poverty incidence, after the project's completion, 146 semi-structured survey questionnaires were administered to four communities adjacent to the landfill and 45 semi-structured interviews were completed with key stakeholders...
October 26, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097492/antibody-dependent-enhancement-of-severe-dengue-disease-in-humans
#16
Leah C Katzelnick, Lionel Gresh, M Elizabeth Halloran, Juan Carlos Mercado, Guillermina Kuan, Aubree Gordon, Angel Balmaseda, Eva Harris
For dengue viruses 1 to 4 (DENV1-4), a specific range of antibody titer has been shown to enhance viral replication in vitro and severe disease in animal models. Although suspected, such antibody-dependent enhancement of severe disease has not been shown to occur in humans. Using multiple statistical approaches to study a long-term pediatric cohort in Nicaragua, we show that risk of severe dengue disease is highest within a narrow range of preexisting anti-DENV antibody titers. By contrast, we observe protection from all symptomatic dengue disease at high antibody titers...
November 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081779/global-assessment-of-dengue-virus-specific-cd4-t-cell-responses-in-dengue-endemic-areas
#17
Alba Grifoni, Michael A Angelo, Benjamin Lopez, Patrick H O'Rourke, John Sidney, Cristhiam Cerpas, Angel Balmaseda, Cassia G T Silveira, Alvino Maestri, Priscilla R Costa, Anna P Durbin, Sean A Diehl, Elizabeth Phillips, Simon Mallal, Aruna D De Silva, Godwin Nchinda, Celine Nkenfou, Matthew H Collins, Aravinda M de Silva, Mei Qiu Lim, Paul A Macary, Filippo Tatullo, Tom Solomon, Vijaya Satchidanandam, Anita Desai, Vasanthapram Ravi, Josefina Coloma, Lance Turtle, Laura Rivino, Esper G Kallas, Bjoern Peters, Eva Harris, Alessandro Sette, Daniela Weiskopf
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a major public health problem worldwide. Assessment of adaptive immunity is important to understanding immunopathology and to define correlates of protection against dengue virus (DENV). To enable global assessment of CD4(+) T cell responses, we mapped HLA-DRB1-restricted DENV-specific CD4(+) T cell epitopes in individuals previously exposed to DENV in the general population of the dengue-endemic region of Managua, Nicaragua. METHODS: HLA class II epitopes in the population of Managua were identified by an in vitro IFNγ ELISPOT assay...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077748/coastal-livelihood-transitions-under-globalization-with-implications-for-trans-ecosystem-interactions
#18
Daniel B Kramer, Kara Stevens, Nicholas E Williams, Seeta A Sistla, Adam B Roddy, Gerald R Urquhart
Anthropogenic threats to natural systems can be exacerbated due to connectivity between marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems, complicating the already daunting task of governance across the land-sea interface. Globalization, including new access to markets, can change social-ecological, land-sea linkages via livelihood responses and adaptations by local people. As a first step in understanding these trans-ecosystem effects, we examined exit and entry decisions of artisanal fishers and smallholder farmers on the rapidly globalizing Caribbean coast of Nicaragua...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055580/assessment-of-ecosystem-health-disturbance-in-mangrove-lined-caribbean-coastal-systems-using-the-oyster-crassostrea-rhizophorae-as-sentinel-species
#19
J Aguirre-Rubí, A Luna-Acosta, M Ortiz-Zarragoitia, B Zaldibar, U Izagirre, M J Ahrens, L Villamil, I Marigómez
This investigation was aimed at contributing to develop a suitable multi-biomarker approach for pollution monitoring in mangrove-lined Caribbean coastal systems using as sentinel species, the mangrove cupped oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae. A pilot field study was carried out in 8 localities (3 in Nicaragua; 5 in Colombia), characterized by different environmental conditions and subjected to different levels and types of pollution. Samples were collected in the rainy and dry seasons of 2012-2013. The biological effects at different levels of biological complexity (Stress-on-Stress response, reproduction, condition index, tissue-level biomarkers and histopathology) were determined as indicators of health disturbance, integrated as IBR/n index, and compared with tissue burdens of contaminants in order to achieve an integrative biomonitoring approach...
October 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031287/leprosy-associated-with-atypical-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-nicaragua-and-honduras
#20
Lucrecia Acosta Soto, Nelson Caballero, Lesny Ruth Fuentes, Pedro Torres Muñoz, Jose Ramón Gómez Echevarría, Montserrat Pérez López, Fernando Jorge Bornay Llinares, John L Stanford, Cynthia A Stanford, Helen D Donoghue
In Central America, few cases of leprosy have been reported, but the disease may be unrecognized. Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and histology. Preliminary field work in Nicaragua and Honduras found patients, including many children, with skin lesions clinically suggestive of atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis or indeterminate leprosy. Histology could not distinguish these diseases although acid-fast organisms were visible in a few biopsies. Lesions healed after standard antimicrobial therapy for leprosy...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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