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Norma Graciela Cuellar, Alyssia Miller, Jackson Knappen, Jacqueline Visina
INTRODUCTION: According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 17% of the U.S. population is Latino, with an expected increase to 31% by 2060. It is imperative that we prepare students who will be future health care providers with the resources needed to care for the Latino population, specifically increasing the number of Spanish-speaking health care providers who have some understanding of the Latino culture. There is a lack of health care providers who are educated about the Latino culture and lack mentorship in the development of medical conversational Spanish...
October 25, 2016: Hispanic Health Care International: the Official Journal of the National Association of Hispanic Nurses
Max E Winston, Daniel J C Kronauer, Corrie S Moreau
The emergence of the Isthmus of Panama is one of the most important events in recent geological history, yet its timing and role in fundamental evolutionary processes remain controversial. While the formation of the isthmus was complete around 3 million years ago (Ma), recent studies have suggested prior intercontinental biotic exchange. In particular, the possibility of early intermittent land bridges facilitating colonization constitutes a potential mechanism for speciation and colonization before full closure of the isthmus...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Gladys E Ibañez, Elaine Whitt, Tenesha Avent, Steve S Martin, Leah M Varga, Miguel A Cano, Daniel J O'Connell
OBJECTIVES: Latina women are disproportionately affected by HIV in the US, and account for 30% of all HIV infections in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The main risk for Latina women is heterosexual contact. Little is known about the relational and cultural factors that may impact women's HIV risk perception. This study aims to describe Latina women's perception of their HIV risk within a relational, cultural, and linguistic context. DESIGN: Eight focus groups of Latina women (n = 28), four English speaking groups and four Spanish speaking groups, were conducted between December 2013 and May 2014...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Peter Giovannini, Melanie-Jayne R Howes, Sarah E Edwards
The data described in this article is related to the review article "Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: a review" (Giovannini et al., 2016) [1]. We searched publications on the useful plants of Central America in databases and journals by using selected relevant keywords. We then extracted reported uses of medicinal plants within the disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunction, vision loss, and nerve damage...
June 2016: Data in Brief
Kelsey Chinnadurai, Lindy Fenlason, Brian Bridges, Mana Espahbodi, Sivakumar Chinnadurai, Jane Blood-Siegfried
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection in pediatric intensive care units (ICUs). Ventilator-associated pneumonia protocols decrease the incidence of VAP; however, many components of these protocols are not feasible in all settings. This study was done in a large pediatric hospital in Nicaragua. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to implement a sustainable evidence-based VAP protocol, in a different culture, for the purpose of decreasing VAP rates...
November 2016: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
Santiago Avila-Ríos, Claudia García-Morales, Margarita Matías-Florentino, Daniela Tapia-Trejo, Bismarck F Hernández-Álvarez, Sumaya E Moreira-López, Carlos J Quant-Durán, Guillermo Porras-Cortés, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
BACKGROUND: Increasing HIV pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR) levels have been observed in regions with increasing antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage. However, data is lacking for several low/middle-income countries. We present the first PDR survey in Nicaragua since ART introduction in the country in 2003. METHODS: HIV-infected, ART-naïve Nicaraguan individuals were enrolled at Roberto Calderón Hospital, the largest national HIV referral center, from 2011 to 2015...
2016: PloS One
Lauren Arnesen, Pablo Durán, Juan Silva, Luisa Brumana
Objective To consolidate available information from the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region on 1) national incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and 2) national-level government inputs on ROP (existing national policies, guidelines, programs, and financing for ROP prevention, detection, and treatment, including ROP screening) in 2014. Methods In March and April 2015, a multi-country online survey was distributed to 56 medical and public health experts working on ROP in LAC countries. Respondents were instructed to provide quantitative and qualitative information representative of the national situation in 2014 for ROP incidence and national-level government inputs (existing national policies, guidelines, programs, and financing for ROP prevention, detection, and treatment, including ROP screening) in their country...
June 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Celeste Aurora Sánchez González
Objective To review, organize, and share the experience of the regulatory authorities of countries involved in a project headed by the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Americas (ALBA) for the establishment of a regulatory center (ALBAMED) and a single registry to facilitate access to essential medicines while ensuring quality, safety, and effectiveness, as well as to demonstrate how the construction of this forum for regional cooperation has benefited these authorities and their respective regulatory systems...
May 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Mónica S Sierra, Isabelle Soerjomataram, David Forman
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: The incidence of prostate cancer has increased in Central and South America (CSA) in the last few decades. We describe the geographical patterns and trends of prostate cancer in CSA. METHODS: We obtained regional and national-level cancer incidence data from 48 population-based registries in 13 countries and nation-wide cancer deaths from the WHO mortality database for 18 countries. We estimated world population age-standardized incidence (ASR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 person-years for 2003-2007 and the estimated annual percent change (EAPC) to describe time trends...
September 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Andrew B T Smith
Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum, 1840 are described: Trigonopeltastes arborfloricola sp. n. from Nicaragua, Trigonopeltastes formidulosus sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes henryi sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes mombachoensis sp. n. from Nicaragua, and Trigonopeltastes warneri sp. n. from Belize and Guatemala. An updated key to species of Trigonopeltastes is presented. Trigonopeltastes nigrinus Bates, 1889 and Trigonopeltastes carus Bates, 1889 are placed in synonymy with Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841, syn...
2016: ZooKeys
Marta Llorca, Marinella Farré, Ethel Eljarrat, Sílvia Díaz-Cruz, Sara Rodríguez-Mozaz, Daniel Wunderlin, Damià Barcelo
Although it is known that emerging contaminants are widespread all over the globe, there is a gap of information about their distribution in some geographical areas, such as Latin America. This bibliographic work reviews the available literature about the presence of organic emerging contaminants in Latin American freshwater and marine biota between 2002 and 2016 and includes 23 works from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Nicaragua. In particular, the manuscript overviews the occurrence of continuously present contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pyrethroid insecticides as well as the new groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the halogenated flame retardants and the perfluoroalkyl substances...
September 26, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Cara Safon, Danya Keene, William J Ugarte Guevara, Sara Kiani, Darby Herkert, Erick Esquivel Muñoz, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
Breastfeeding has been shown to improve maternal and child health. In Nicaragua, the primary risk of death and disability-adjusted life years among children under 5 years of age is suboptimal breastfeeding. Although the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health promotes exclusive breastfeeding from within the first half hour through the first 6 months of life, less than a third of children in the country under 6 months of age are exclusively breastfed. As part of a larger, mixed-methods study, 21 semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with new mothers recruited from three primary health centers between June and August 2015 in order to identify the social, cultural, and structural factors that contribute to infant feeding practices and the discrepancy between recommendations and practices among mothers who delivered at an urban public hospital in León, Nicaragua...
September 20, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Bomar Mendez Rojas, Idrissa Beogo, Patrick Opiyo Owili, Oluwafunmilade Adesanya, Chuan-Yu Chen
BACKGROUND: Community attributes have been gradually recognized as critical determinants shaping sexual behaviors in young population; nevertheless, most of the published studies were conducted in high income countries. The study aims to examine the association between community social capital with the time to sexual onset and to first birth in Central America. METHODS: Building upon the 2011/12 Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Nicaragua, we identified a sample of 2766 community-dwelling female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years...
2016: BMC Public Health
C Muñoz-Antoli, A Pavón, P Pérez, R Toledo, J G Esteban
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) prevalence, intensity, polyparasitism and co-infections in 425 children from 3 schools of Laguna de Perlas (Nicaragua) were investigated. Single stool samples were analysed by the formalin-ether method and the Kato-Katz. A total of 402 (94.6%) children were infected. Trichuris trichiura 308 (72.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides 115 (27.1%) and Hookworms 54 (12.7%) were the most prevalent STHs. Polyparasitism (322; 75.8%) with two species was most prevalent (109; 25.6%). T. trichiura with A...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Eduardo Villamor, Caitlin C Finan, Manuel Ramirez-Zea, Ana Victoria Roman
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of cardiometabolic risk factors in adults and school-aged children from Mesoamerica. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with convenience sampling. In adults, metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. In children, we calculated a continuous sex- and age-standardized metabolic risk score using variables corresponding to adult ATP III criteria...
September 9, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
Seeta A Sistla, Adam B Roddy, Nicholas E Williams, Daniel B Kramer, Kara Stevens, Steven D Allison
Tropical forest conversion to pasture, which drives greenhouse gas emissions, soil degradation, and biodiversity loss, remains a pressing socio-ecological challenge. This problem has spurred increased interest in the potential of small-scale agroforestry systems to couple sustainable agriculture with biodiversity conservation, particularly in rapidly developing areas of the tropics. In addition to providing natural resources (i.e. food, medicine, lumber), agroforestry systems have the potential to maintain higher levels of biodiversity and greater biomass than lower diversity crop or pasture systems...
2016: PloS One
Orlando Mayorga, Silja Bühler, Veronika K Jaeger, Seraina Bally, Christoph Hatz, Gert Frösner, Ulrike Protzer, Pierre Van Damme, Matthias Egger, Christian Herzog
BACKGROUND:  Universal two-dose hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccination of toddlers effectively controls hepatitis A. High vaccine costs impede, however, implementation in endemic countries. To test single-dose vaccination as a possible alternative, we initiated an observational, longitudinal study in Nicaragua, to assess protective effectiveness and - through challenge vaccination - humoral immune memory response. METHODS:  Following a 2003 serosurvey, 130 originally seronegative children received 2005 one dose virosomal HAV vaccine, followed by yearly serological and clinical assessments until 2012...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jihong Chen, Xin Zeng, Yibing Deng
In recent years, the Nicaraguan government's renewed interest in constructing this interoceanic canal has once again aroused widespread concern, particularly in the global shipping industry. The project's immense ecological risks, coupled with the recent expansions of both the Panama Canal and the Suez Canal, have raised questions among scientists and experts about its viability. Whether the Nicaragua Canal is really feasible for international shipping, given its high marine pollution risks, requires the further study...
August 30, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Adriana Campos-Fumero, George L Delclos, David I Douphrate, Sarah A Felknor, Sergio Vargas-Prada, Consol Serra, David Coggon, David Gimeno Ruiz de Porras
OBJECTIVES: To assess the differences in the prevalence and incidence of low back pain (LBP) and associated disability among office workers in Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Spain. METHODS: Data were collected at baseline (n=947, 93% response) in November 2007 and at follow-up after 12 months (n=853, 90% response). Six outcome measures were examined: baseline prevalence of (1) LBP in the past 12 months, (2) LBP in the past month and (3) disabling LBP in the past month; and at follow-up: (4) incidence of new LBP in the past month, (5) new disabling LBP and (6) persistent LBP...
September 1, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Jesse J Waggoner, Lionel Gresh, Maria Jose Vargas, Gabriela Ballesteros, Yolanda Tellez, K James Soda, Malaya K Sahoo, Andrea Nuñez, Angel Balmaseda, Eva Harris, Benjamin A Pinsky
BACKGROUND:  Zika virus (ZIKV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and dengue virus (DENV) co-circulate in Nicaragua. In this study, we sought to compare the quantified viremia and clinical presentation of patients infected with one or more of these viruses. METHODS:  Acute-phase serum samples from 346 patients with a suspected arboviral illness were tested using a multiplex real-time RT-PCR for ZIKV, CHIKV, and DENV. Viremia was quantitated for each detected virus, and clinical information was recorded from request forms submitted with each sample...
August 30, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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