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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621054/delivery-mode-and-breastfeeding-outcomes-among-new-mothers-in-nicaragua
#1
Sara N Kiani, Katherine M Rich, Darby Herkert, Cara Safon, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
Breastfeeding has been shown to benefit infants and mothers. Women who have caesarean deliveries (C-sections) are expected to be less likely to initiate and continue breastfeeding than those who have vaginal deliveries. Given the high rate of C-sections in Nicaragua, the importance of breastfeeding, and the centrality of culture in choices about breastfeeding, this study sought to examine if mode of delivery relates with breastfeeding initiation and exclusivity in Nicaragua. Two hundred fifty mothers were surveyed about birth experiences and breastfeeding behaviour in 3 public clinics in León, Nicaragua, between June and August 2015...
June 16, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619772/cost-effectiveness-of-hpv-based-cervical-cancer-screening-in-the-public-health-system-in-nicaragua
#2
Nicole G Campos, Mercy Mvundura, Jose Jeronimo, Francesca Holme, Elisabeth Vodicka, Jane J Kim
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing (versus Papanicolaou (Pap)-based screening) for cervical cancer screening in Nicaragua. DESIGN: A previously developed Monte Carlo simulation model of the natural history of HPV infection and cervical cancer was calibrated to epidemiological data from Nicaragua. Cost data inputs were derived using a micro-costing approach in Carazo, Chontales and Chinandega departments; test performance data were from a demonstration project in Masaya department...
June 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614476/integrated-community-case-management-iccm-of-childhood-infection-saves-lives-in-hard-to-reach-communities-in-nicaragua
#3
Dixmer Rivera, Rashed Shah, Tanya Guenther, Meredith Adamo, Jeanne Koepsell, Carmen Maria Reyes, Mary McInerney, David R Marsh
Objective: To describe Nicaragua's integrated community case management (iCCM) program for hard-to-reach, rural communities and to evaluate its impact using monitoring data, including annual, census-based infant mortality data. Method: This observational study measured the strength of iCCM implementation and estimated trends in infant mortality during 2007-2013 in 120 remote Nicaraguan communities where brigadistas ("health brigadiers") offered iCCM services to children 2-59 months old...
June 8, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596954/assessment-of-health-needs-in-children-with-congenital-upper-limb-differences-in-nicaragua-community-case-study
#4
Maria F Canizares, Jairo J Rios Roque, Gabriel Ramos Zelaya, Michelle A James
Congenital anomalies are prevalent in Nicaragua, and disability is estimated to be 10% in the general population. We studied children with congenital upper limb differences, as they are vulnerable to disability. This case study documents a collaborative effort between American and Nicaraguan orthopedic surgeons to determine unmet health needs of children with congenital upper limb differences at Hospital Manuel de Jesus Rivera ("La Mascota" Hospital) in Nicaragua, with the goal of developing programs that successfully address these needs within the context of the priorities of the community...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555746/tropical-insect-diversity-evidence-of-greater-host-specialization-in-seed-feeding-weevils
#5
Guille Peguero, Raúl Bonal, Daniel Sol, Alberto Muñoz, Victoria L Sork, Josep Maria Espelta
Host specialization has long been hypothesized to explain the extraordinary diversity of phytophagous insects in the tropics. However, addressing this hypothesis has proved challenging because of the risk of over-looking rare interactions, and hence biasing specialization estimations, and the difficulties to separate the diversity component attributable to insect specialization from that related to host diversity. As a result, the host specialization hypothesis lacks empirical support for important phytophagous insect clades...
May 27, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548622/fungal-contamination-in-green-coffee-beans-samples-a-public-health-concern
#6
Carla Viegas, Cátia Pacífico, Tiago Faria, Ana Cebola de Oliveira, Liliana Aranha Caetano, Elisabete Carolino, Anita Quintal Gomes, Susana Viegas
Studies on the microbiology of coffee cherries and beans have shown that the predominant toxigenic fungal genera (Aspergillus and Penicillium) are natural coffee contaminants. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of fungi in Coffea arabica L. (Arabica coffee) and Coffea canephora L. var. robusta (Robusta coffee) green coffee samples obtained from different sources at the pre-roasting stage. Twenty-eight green coffee samples from different countries of origin (Brazil, Timor, Honduras, Angola, Vietnam, Costa Rica, Colombia, Guatemala, Nicaragua, India, and Uganda) were evaluated...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542624/pathogenic-seedborne-viruses-are-rare-but-phaseolus-vulgaris-endornaviruses-are-common-in-bean-varieties-grown-in-nicaragua-and-tanzania
#7
Noora Nordenstedt, Delfia Marcenaro, Daudi Chilagane, Beatrice Mwaipopo, Minna-Liisa Rajamäki, Susan Nchimbi-Msolla, Paul J R Njau, Deusdedith R Mbanzibwa, Jari P T Valkonen
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an annual grain legume that was domesticated in Mesoamerica (Central America) and the Andes. It is currently grown widely also on other continents including Africa. We surveyed seedborne viruses in new common bean varieties introduced to Nicaragua (Central America) and in landraces and improved varieties grown in Tanzania (eastern Africa). Bean seeds, harvested from Nicaragua and Tanzania, were grown in insect-controlled greenhouse or screenhouse, respectively, to obtain leaf material for virus testing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537030/chemical-contamination-assessment-in-mangrove-lined-caribbean-coastal-systems-using-the-oyster-crassostrea-rhizophorae-as-biomonitor-species
#8
Javier R Aguirre-Rubí, Andrea Luna-Acosta, Nestor Etxebarría, Manu Soto, Félix Espinoza, Michael J Ahrens, Ionan Marigómez
This paper aims to contribute to the use of mangrove cupped oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae, as a biomonitor species for chemical contamination assessment in mangrove-lined Caribbean coastal systems. Sampling was carried out in eight localities (three in Nicaragua and five in Colombia) with different types and levels of contamination. Oysters were collected during the rainy and dry seasons of 2012-2013 and the tissue concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512730/examining-the-role-of-transmission-of-chelonid-alphaherpesvirus-5
#9
Andrea Chaves, A Alonso Aguirre, Kinndle Blanco-Peña, Andrés Moreira-Soto, Otto Monge, Ana M Torres, José L Soto-Rivas, Yuanan Lu, Didiher Chacón, Luis Fonseca, Mauricio Jiménez, Gustavo Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Michael Lierz
Marine turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a devastating neoplastic disease characterized by single or multiple cutaneous and visceral fibrovascular tumors. Chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) has been identified as the most likely etiologic agent. From 2010 to 2013, the presence of ChHV5 DNA was determined in apparently normal skin, tumors and swab samples (ocular, nasal and cloacal) collected from 114 olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) and 101 green (Chelonia mydas) turtles, with and without FP tumors, on the Pacific coasts of Costa Rica and Nicaragua...
May 16, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465095/association-of-influenza-vaccination-during-pregnancy-with-birth-outcomes-in-nicaragua
#10
Carmen S Arriola, Nancy Vasconez, Mark G Thompson, Sonja J Olsen, Ann C Moen, Joseph Bresee, Alba María Ropero
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that influenza vaccination during pregnancy reduces the risk of influenza disease in pregnant women and their offspring. Some have proposed that maternal vaccination may also have beneficial effects on birth outcomes. In 2014, we conducted an observational study to test this hypothesis using data from two large hospitals in Managua, Nicaragua. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate associations between influenza vaccination and birth outcomes...
May 25, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457225/otoacoustic-emissions-in-rural-nicaragua-cost-analysis-and-implications-for-newborn-hearing-screening
#11
Lye-Yeng Wong, Francisca Espinoza, Karen Mojica Alvarez, Dave Molter, James E Saunders
Objective (1) Determine the incidence and risk factors for congenital hearing loss. (2) Perform cost analysis of screening programs. Study Design Proportionally distributed cross-sectional survey. Setting Jinotega, Nicaragua. Subjects and Methods Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) were used to screen 640 infants <6 months of age from neonatal intensive care unit, institutional, and home birth settings. Data on 15 risk factors were analyzed. Cost of 4 implementation strategies was studied: universal screening, screening at the regional health center (RHC), targeted screening, and screening at the RHC plus targeted screening...
May 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449403/effects-of-malnutrition-on-treatment-related-morbidity-and-survival-of-children-with-cancer-in-nicaragua
#12
Allison K Pribnow, Roberta Ortiz, Luis Fulgencio Báez, Luvy Mendieta, Sandra Luna-Fineman
BACKGROUND: Most children with cancer live in resource-limited countries where malnutrition is often prevalent. We identified the relationship between malnutrition and treatment-related morbidity (TRM), abandonment of therapy, and survival of children with cancer in Nicaragua to better inform targeted nutritional interventions. PROCEDURE: We conducted a retrospective review of patients aged 6 months to 18 years with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), Wilms tumor, Hodgkin lymphoma, or Burkitt lymphoma (BL) who were treated between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2007 at Children's Hospital Manuel de Jesus Rivera in Managua, Nicaragua...
April 27, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443277/pediatric-hand-surgery-training-in-nicaragua-a-sustainable-model-of-surgical-education-in-a-resource-poor-environment
#13
Mary Claire B Manske, Jairo J Rios Roque, Gabriel Ramos Zelaya, Michelle A James
Recent reports have demonstrated that nearly two-thirds of the world's population do not have access to adequate surgical care, a burden that is borne disproportionately by residents of resource-poor countries. Although the reasons for limited access to surgical care are complex and multi-factorial, among the most substantial barriers is the lack of trained surgical providers. This is particularly true in surgical subspecialties that focus on life-improving, rather than life-saving, treatments, such as pediatric hand and upper extremity surgery, which manages such conditions as congenital malformations, trauma and post-traumatic deformities including burns, and neuromuscular conditions (brachial plexus birth palsy, spinal cord injury, and cerebral palsy)...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441094/background-rates-of-disease-in-latin-american-children-from-a-rotavirus-vaccine-study
#14
Marc Baay, Kaatje Bollaerts, Claudio Struchiner, Thomas Verstraeten
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of background rates of adverse events is crucial to assess vaccine safety concerns. We used data from a rotavirus vaccine study (Ruiz-Palacios et al., NEJM, 2006) including 63,225 infants from 11 Latin American countries to investigate reporting rates of serious adverse events (SAEs) among these infants, and describe rates by country, gender, age, and season. METHODS: For this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, investigators from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela recruited 6-to-13-week-old healthy infants...
April 25, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395541/hb-presbyterian-hbb-c-327c-g-in-a-nicaraguan-family
#15
Allan Pernudy-Ubau, Jaslyn Salinas-Molina, Yaneris Requenez, Marianela Ortiz-Lopez, Ann-Christin Puller, Kenia García-Rosales, Anaishelle Rodríguez-Estrada, Walter Rodríguez-Romero, Gerardo Mejía-Baltodano, Hong-Yuan Luo, David H K Chui
Hemoglobin (Hb) is the protein responsible for oxygen transportation. It is a tetrameric protein comprising two α- and two β-globin subunits. In the literature, a large number of mutations in the α- and β-globin genes have been documented. Among these mutations, Hb Presbyterian (HBB: c.327 C>G), is a naturally occurring mutant exerting low oxygen affinity. The C to G exchange (AAC>AAG) at codon 108 of the β-globin gene results in the substitution of asparagine by lysine. Here, we document the identification of HBB: c...
April 11, 2017: Hemoglobin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381638/antibody-epitopes-identified-in-critical-regions-of-dengue-virus-nonstructural-1-protein-in-mouse-vaccination-and-natural-human-infections
#16
Tomer Hertz, P Robert Beatty, Zachary MacMillen, Sarah S Killingbeck, Chunling Wang, Eva Harris
Dengue is a global public health problem and is caused by four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (DENV1-4). A major challenge in dengue vaccine development is that cross-reactive anti-DENV Abs can be protective or potentially increase disease via Ab-dependent enhancement. DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) has long been considered a vaccine candidate as it avoids Ab-dependent enhancement. In this study, we evaluated survival to challenge in a lethal DENV vascular leak model in mice immunized with NS1 combined with aluminum and magnesium hydroxide, monophosphoryl lipid A + AddaVax, or Sigma adjuvant system+CpG DNA, compared with mice infected with a sublethal dose of DENV2 and mice immunized with OVA (negative control)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378782/global-evolutionary-history-and-spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-dengue-virus-type-2
#17
Kaifa Wei, Yuhan Li
DENV-2 spread throughout the tropical and subtropical regions globally, which is implicated in deadly outbreaks of DHF and DSS. Since dengue cases have grown dramatically in recent years, about half of the world's population is now at risk. Our timescale analysis indicated that the most recent common ancestor existed about 100 years ago. The rate of nucleotide substitution was estimated to be 8.94 × 10(-4) subs/site/year. Selection pressure analysis showed that two sites 160 and 403 were under positive selection, while E gene is mainly shaped by stronger purifying selection...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367535/endemic-nephropathy-around-the-world
#18
REVIEW
Fiona J Gifford, Robert M Gifford, Michael Eddleston, Neeraj Dhaun
There have been several global epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu). Some, such as Itai-Itai disease in Japan and Balkan endemic nephropathy, have been explained, whereas the etiology of others remains unclear. In countries such as Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and India, CKDu is a major public health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite their geographical separation, however, there are striking similarities between these endemic nephropathies. Young male agricultural workers who perform strenuous labor in extreme conditions are the worst affected...
March 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345666/members-of-gammaproteobacteria-as-indicator-species-of-healthy-banana-plants-on-fusarium-wilt-infested-fields-in-central-america
#19
Martina Köberl, Miguel Dita, Alfonso Martinuz, Charles Staver, Gabriele Berg
Culminating in the 1950's, bananas, the world's most extensive perennial monoculture, suffered one of the most devastating disease epidemics in history. In Latin America and the Caribbean, Fusarium wilt (FW) caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC), forced the abandonment of the Gros Michel-based export banana industry. Comparative microbiome analyses performed between healthy and diseased Gros Michel plants on FW-infested farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica revealed significant shifts in the gammaproteobacterial microbiome...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344900/temporal-patterns-and-geographic-heterogeneity-of-zika-virus-zikv-outbreaks-in-french-polynesia-and-central-america
#20
Ying-Hen Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission has been reported in 67 countries/territories in the Oceania region and the Americas since 2015, prompting the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare ZIKV as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2016, due to its strong association with medical complications such as microcephaly and Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). However, a substantial gap in knowledge still exists regarding differing temporal pattern and potential of transmission of ZIKV in different regions of the world...
2017: PeerJ
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