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Tumor immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145317/complete-remission-and-long-term-survival-of-a-patient-with-melanoma-metastases-treated-with-high-dose-fever-inducing-viscum-album-extract-a-case-report
#1
Paul G Werthmann, Alexander Hintze, Gunver S Kienle
INTRODUCTION: Metastatic malignant cutaneous melanoma (MCM)-a highly immunogenic cancer-typically has a poor prognosis. Viscum album extracts (VAEs) have strong immune-stimulating, apoptogenic, and cytotoxic effects. CASE PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old MCM patient with newly diagnosed lymph node metastases opted for sole VAE treatment. VAEs were initially applied subcutaneously, and then later in exceptionally high, fever-inducing doses, both intravenously and intralesionally...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141313/-tocilizumab-for-refractory-systemic-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#2
J M Lai, F Q Wu, Z X Zhou, M Kang, X L Huang, G X Su, S N Li, J Zhu, X N Wang
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of tocilizumab for the treatment of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Method: In this prospective self case-control study, the children diagnosed with refractory systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis admitted to Department of Rheumatism and Immunology of Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatrics from December 2013 to June 2016 were enrolled and information before and after treatment of tocilizumab was analyzed. The tocilizumab was introvenously guttae in a dose of 8-12 mg/kg every 2 weeks...
November 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141027/the-efficacy-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-car-immunotherapy-in-animal-models-for-solid-tumors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Yingcheng Wu, Ran Xu, Keren Jia, Hui Shi
BACKGROUND: Most recently, an emerging theme in the field of tumor immunology predominates: chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy in treating solid tumors. The number of related preclinical trials was surging. However, an evaluation of the effects of preclinical studies remained absent. Hence, a meta-analysis was conducted on the efficacy of CAR in animal models for solid tumors. METHODS: The authors searched PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Google scholar up to April 2017...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139122/vaccination-with-human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-confer-effective-protection-in-a-murine-model-of-colon-adenocarcinoma
#4
M Tabatabaei, N Mosaffa, R Ghods, S Nikoo, S Kazemnejad, M Khanmohammadi, E Mirzadeghan, A Mahmoudi, M R Bolouri, R Falak, B Keshavarzi, M Ramezani, A H Zarnani
In spite of being the star of therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment, the results of immunotherapeutic approaches are still far from expectations. In this regard, primary prevention of cancer using prophylactic cancer vaccines has gained considerable attention. The immunologic similarities between cancer development and placentation have helped researchers to unravel molecular mechanisms responsible for carcinogenesis and to take advantage of stem cells from reproductive organs to elicit robust anti-cancer immune responses...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138980/cd28-neg-t-lymphocytes-of-a-melanoma-patient-harbor-tumor-immunity-and-a-high-frequency-of-germline-encoded-and-public-tcrs
#5
Hisayoshi Hashimoto, Marco Sterk, Karin Schilbach
Increased numbers of CD8(+)CD28(neg.) T cells have been detected in the peripheral blood of patients with several types of malignancies. However, the role of these cells in anticancer immunity are not yet clear and CD8(+)CD28(neg.) T cells are a controversially discussed subpopulation reported both as immunosuppressive and cytotoxic. In this study, we examined the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and complementarity-determining region 3 sequences of CD28(neg.) T cells in a melanoma patient with recurrent disease who achieved long-term disease-free status...
November 14, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138574/cancer-cell-dormancy-mechanisms-and-implications-of-cancer-recurrence-and-metastasis
#6
REVIEW
Xiao-Lei Gao, Mei Zhang, Ya-Ling Tang, Xin-Hua Liang
More recently, disease metastasis and relapse in many cancer patients several years (even some decades) after surgical remission are regarded as tumor dormancy. However, the knowledge of this phenomenon is cripplingly limited. Substantial quantities of reviews have summarized three main potential models that can be put forth to explain such process, including angiogenic dormancy, immunologic dormancy, and cellular dormancy. In this review, newly uncovered mechanisms governing cancer cell dormancy are discussed, with an emphasis on the cross talk between dormant cancer cells and their microenvironments...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137310/ex-vivo-evaluation-of-tumor-cell-specific-drug-responses-in-malignant-pleural-effusions
#7
Carl-Olof Hillerdal, Rita Ötvös, Tünde Szatmári, Sulaf Abd Own, Gunnar Hillerdal, Åsa-Lena Dackland, Katalin Dobra, Anders Hjerpe
The effect of chemotherapy may be improved by combining the most effective drugs based on testing the sensitivity of the individual tumor ex vivo. Such estimations of tumor cells from effusions have so far not been implemented in the clinical routine as a basis for individualized choice of therapy. One obstacle for such analyses is the admixture of benign cells that might obscure the results. In this paper we test and compare two ways of performing the analysis specifically on tumor cells. First we enrich the tumor cells, using antibody labeled magnetic separation, and measure the effects of subsequent drug exposure with the metabolic activity assays WST-1 and alamar blue...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137294/immunoprevention-of-kras-driven-lung-adenocarcinoma-by-a-multipeptide-vaccine
#8
Jing Pan, Qi Zhang, Shizuko Sei, Robert H Shoemaker, Ronald A Lubet, Yian Wang, Ming You
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Mutations in KRAS are detected in up to 30% of lung cancer cases. No effective therapies specifically targeting mutant KRAS have been developed. Vaccination against KRAS mutants is one of the venues of active exploration. The present study evaluated both immunogenicity and antitumor efficacy of a newly formulated multipeptide vaccine targeting multiple epitopes of the KRAS molecule. The formulated vaccine contained top four peptides, which elicited the strongest immunologic response and showed 100% sequence homology between human and mouse...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137272/immunological-cytokine-profiling-identifies-tnf-%C3%AE-as-a-key-molecule-dysregulated-in-autistic-children
#9
Jiang Xie, Li Huang, Xiaohong Li, Hua Li, Yongmei Zhou, Hua Zhu, Tianying Pan, Keith M Kendrick, Wenming Xu
Recent studies have suggested that the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be caused by immunological factors, particularly abnormalities in the innate immune system. However, it is still unclear which specific cytokines may be of most importance. The current study therefore investigated which cytokines showed altered concentrations in blood in ASD compared with healthy control children and which were also correlated with symptom severity. Our study sample included 32 children diagnosed with ASD and 28 age and sex-matched typically developing children...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137242/immune-profiling-of-nf1-associated-tumors-reveals-histologic-subtype-distinctions-and-heterogeneity-implications-for-immunotherapy
#10
Kellie B Haworth, Michael A Arnold, Christopher R Pierson, Kwangmin Choi, Nicholas D Yeager, Nancy Ratner, Ryan D Roberts, Jonathan L Finlay, Timothy P Cripe
Successful treatment of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-associated tumors poses a significant clinical challenge. While the primary underlying genetic defect driving RAS signaling is well described, recent evidence suggests immune dysfunction contributes to tumor pathogenesis and malignant transformation. As immunologic characterizations, prognostic and predictive of immunotherapeutic clinical response in other cancers, are not fully described for benign and malignant NF1-related tumors, we sought to define their immunologic profiles...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136276/targeted-therapies-immunologic-effects-and-potential-applications-outside-of-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Anna E Kersh, Spencer Ng, Yun Min Chang, Maiko Sasaki, Susan N Thomas, Haydn T Kissick, Gregory B Lesinski, Ragini R Kudchadkar, Edmund K Waller, Brian P Pollack
Two pharmacologic approaches that are currently at the forefront of treating advanced cancer are those that center on disrupting critical growth/survival signaling pathways within tumor cells (commonly referred to as "targeted therapies") and those that center on enhancing the capacity of a patient's immune system to mount an antitumor response (immunotherapy). Maximizing responses to both of these approaches requires an understanding of the oncogenic events present in a given patient's tumor and the nature of the tumor-immune microenvironment...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132408/using-semantics-for-representing-experimental-protocols
#12
Olga Giraldo, Alexander García, Federico López, Oscar Corcho
BACKGROUND: An experimental protocol is a sequence of tasks and operations executed to perform experimental research in biological and biomedical areas, e.g. biology, genetics, immunology, neurosciences, virology. Protocols often include references to equipment, reagents, descriptions of critical steps, troubleshooting and tips, as well as any other information that researchers deem important for facilitating the reusability of the protocol. Although experimental protocols are central to reproducibility, the descriptions are often cursory...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131037/paradoxical-reactions-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-agents-ustekinumab-secukinumab-ixekizumab-and-others
#13
Lluís Puig
Paradoxical reactions during treatment with a biologic agent can be defined as the appearance or exacerbation of a pathological condition that usually responds to this class of drug while treating a patient for another condition, which usually remains under control (even though there may be a change in morphology or phenotype). Paradoxical reactions were initially described as isolated case reports or case series in patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α agents, first in inflammatory rheumatic diseases, later in psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease...
2018: Current Problems in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129721/immunological-considerations-underlying-heat-shock-protein-mediated-cancer-vaccine-strategies
#14
REVIEW
Mathew Kelly, Douglas McNeel, Paul Fisch, Miroslav Malkovsky
The success of active immunotherapies in the prevention of many infectious diseases over the course of over 200 years has lead scientists to wonder if the same principles could be applied to cancer. Antigen-specific active immunotherapies for the treatment of cancer have been researched for over two decades, however, the overwhelming majority of these studies have failed to stimulate robust clinical responses. It is clear that current active immunotherapy research should incorporate methods to increase the immunostimulatory capacity of these therapies...
November 9, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129094/rational-combination-of-immunotherapy-for-triple-negative-breast-cancer-treatment
#15
Chia-Wei Li, Seung-Oe Lim, Jennifer L Hsu, Mien-Chie Hung
Recent evidence indicates that tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), including cytotoxic T cells, are present in the tumor microenvironment of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC). Despite the presence of cytotoxic T cells, these tumors still develop, progress, and metastasize, suggesting evasion of immune response. One mechanism of immunosuppression is the presence of the T cell inhibitory molecule, programmed death protein 1 (PD-1), on infiltrating T cells and its cognate ligand programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) on tumor cells, myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), and macrophages, in the tumor microenvironment...
October 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128804/hexachlorobenzene-as-a-persistent-organic-pollutant-toxicity-and-molecular-mechanism-of-action
#16
REVIEW
Beata Starek-Świechowicz, Bogusława Budziszewska, Andrzej Starek
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is an organochlorine pesticide widely distributed in the environment. Chronic exposure of humans to HCB leads to a number of effects, such as triggering of porphyria, microsomal enzyme induction, thyroid dysfunctions, neurological symptoms, and immunological disorders. In animals, HCB induced hepatic porphyria, neurotoxic effects, and toxic effects on the thyroid function, reproductive system, and immune system. HCB as a dioxin-like compound and a weak ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a hormonal disruptor...
July 1, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127106/a-melanin-mediated-cancer-immunotherapy-patch
#17
Yanqi Ye, Chao Wang, Xudong Zhang, Quanyin Hu, Yuqi Zhang, Qi Liu, Di Wen, Joshua Milligan, Adriano Bellotti, Leaf Huang, Gianpietro Dotti, Zhen Gu
Melanin is capable of transforming 99.9% of the absorbed sunlight energy into heat, reducing the risk of skin cancer. We here develop a melanin-mediated cancer immunotherapy strategy through a transdermal microneedle patch. B16F10 whole tumor lysate containing melanin is loaded into polymeric microneedles that allow sustained release of the lysate upon insertion into the skin. In combination with the near-infrared light irradiation, melanin in the patch mediates the generation of heat, which further promotes tumor-antigen uptake by dendritic cells, and leads to enhanced antitumor vaccination...
November 10, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126914/targeting-immuno-metabolism-to-improve-anti-cancer-therapies
#18
Kevin Beezhold, Craig A Byersdorfer
The immunology community has made significant strides in recent years in using the immune system to target and eliminate cancer. Therapies such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are the standard of care treatment for several malignancies, while therapies incorporating chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells or checkpoint molecule blockade have been revolutionary. However, these approaches are not optimal for all cancers and in some cases, have failed outright. The greatest obstacle to making these therapies more effective may be rooted in one of the most basic concepts of cell biology, metabolism...
November 7, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124456/serial-immunological-parameters-in-a-phase-ii-trial-of-exemestane-and-low-dose-oral-cyclophosphamide-in-advanced-hormone-receptor-positive-breast-cancer
#19
Maryann Kwa, Xiaochun Li, Yelena Novik, Ruth Oratz, Komal Jhaveri, Jennifer Wu, Ping Gu, Marleen Meyers, Franco Muggia, James Speyer, Alyssa Iwano, Maryam Bonakdar, Lina Kozhaya, Ece Tavukcuoglu, Bahar Budan, Roy Raad, Judith D Goldberg, Derya Unutmaz, Sylvia Adams
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Resistance to endocrine therapies in hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer is a significant challenge. Prior studies have shown that low-dose oral cyclophosphamide can transiently deplete regulatory T cells (Tregs) and improve anti-tumor immunity. We investigated the combination of exemestane with cyclophosphamide in patients with advanced HR-positive breast cancer and assessed changes in circulating immune cell subsets. METHODS: This was a single-arm phase II trial of exemestane with cyclophosphamide in patients with metastatic HR-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer who had progressed on prior endocrine therapy (ClinicalTrials...
November 9, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123959/immunological-efficacy-of-glypican-3-peptide-vaccine-in-patients-with-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Nobuhiro Tsuchiya, Toshiaki Yoshikawa, Norihiro Fujinami, Keigo Saito, Shoichi Mizuno, Yu Sawada, Itaru Endo, Tetsuya Nakatsura
We have previously conducted a phase I trial to test the efficacy of a glypican-3 (GPC3) peptide vaccine in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, its immunological mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we report a pilot study conducted to evaluate the immunological mechanisms of action of this GPC3 peptide vaccine (UMIN-CTR number 000005093). Eleven patients with advanced HCC were vaccinated with the GPC3 peptide in this trial. The primary end point was GPC3 peptide-specific immune response induced by the GPC3 peptide vaccination...
2017: Oncoimmunology
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