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Tumor immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734176/cancer-immunotherapy-moving-forward-with-peptide-t-cell-vaccines
#1
REVIEW
Takumi Kumai, Aaron Fan, Yasuaki Harabuchi, Esteban Celis
Recent advances in cancer immunology, such as the discovery of immune checkpoint inhibitors, have validated immune cells as potential key players for effective cancer treatment. The efficacy of these therapies seems to be codependent on a tumor-reactive T lymphocyte response. For many years, numerous attempts and strategies in developing vaccines to generate tumor-reactive T cells have yielded poor results in the clinic due to suboptimal immunogenicity and the inability to overcome an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment...
July 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731197/metastatic-gallbladder-carcinoma-in-meningioma-a-case-report
#2
Burak Eren, Feyza Karagoz Guzey, Ilker Gulec, Azmi Tufan
Metastases from tumors to systemic cancers are rare. The most common intracranial recipient tumor is meningioma. Metastasis from gallbladder cancer has been previously reported from only one patient during autopsy. We present the case of a 72-year-old woman who underwent surgery for right frontal skull base meningioma.The tumor was completely removed. Histological specimens showed gallbladder carcinomatous metastasis with diffuse neuroendocrine differentiation in meningothelial meningioma. The Ki-67 proliferation index of the meningioma was 3%...
June 2, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727830/the-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-axl-promotes-migration-and-invasion-in-colorectal-cancer
#3
Diana J Uribe, Edward K Mandell, Adam Watson, Jesse D Martinez, Jonathan A Leighton, Sourav Ghosh, Carla V Rothlin
The receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) TYRO3, AXL and MERTK (TAM) have well-described oncogenic functions in a number of cancers. Notwithstanding, TAM RTKs are also potent and indispensable inhibitors of inflammation. The combined deletion of Axl and Mertk in mice enhances chronic inflammation and autoimmunity, including increased inflammation in the gut and colitis-associated cancer. On the other hand, deletion of Tyro3 increases the risk of allergic responses. Therefore, the indiscriminate inhibition of these TAM RTKs could result in undesirable immunological diseases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726209/characteristics-of-mel-ibr-melanoma-line-subclone-after-treatment-with-chicken-embryo-extract
#4
N M Suraeva, L F Morozova, O O Ryabaya, Yu A Khochenkova, A V Samoilov, O S Burova, N V Golubtsova, A E Barmashov, M A Baryshnikova
We continue analysis of the phenotype of human melanoma cell Mel Ibr subclone obtained previously by treatment of the parental cell line by chicken embryo extract. The present study is focused on detection of markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition that determine enhanced metastatic and invasive potential of malignant tumors of various locations. Analysis of the expression of E-cadherin and vimentin genes in the subclone and parental cells detected activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the subclone...
July 18, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726153/immunological-issues-after-stem-cell-based-%C3%AE-cell-replacement
#5
REVIEW
Valeria Sordi, Silvia Pellegrini, Lorenzo Piemonti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Islet and pancreas transplantation prove that β cell replacement can cure the glycemic derangements in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can differentiate into functional insulin-producing cells, able to restore normoglycemia in diabetic animal models. iPSCs in particular can be derived from the somatic cells of a person with T1D. This review aims to clarify if it is possible to transplant autologous iPSC-derived β cells without immunosuppression or which are the alternative approaches...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725449/therapeutic-options-for-treatment-of-human-papillomavirus-associated-cancers-novel-immunologic-vaccines-adxs11-001
#6
REVIEW
Brett Miles, Howard P Safran, Bradley J Monk
Survival of patients with advanced, recurrent, or metastatic human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancer is suboptimal despite the availability of various treatment modalities. The recently developed bacterial vector Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) activates innate and adaptive immune responses and is expected to offer immunologic advantages. Axalimogene filolisbac (AXAL or ADXS11-001) is a novel immunotherapeutic based on the live, irreversibly attenuated Lm fused to the nonhemolytic fragment of listeriolysin O (Lm-LLO) and secretes the Lm-LLO-HPV E7 fusion protein targeting HPV-positive tumors...
2017: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725429/pretreatment-antigen-specific-immunity-and-regulation-association-with-subsequent-immune-response-to-anti-tumor-dna-vaccination
#7
Laura E Johnson, Brian M Olson, Douglas G McNeel
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapies have demonstrated clinical benefit for many types of cancers, however many patients do not respond, and treatment-related adverse effects can be severe. Hence many efforts are underway to identify treatment predictive biomarkers. We have reported the results of two phase I trials using a DNA vaccine encoding prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer. In both trials, persistent PAP-specific Th1 immunity developed in some patients, and this was associated with favorable changes in serum PSA kinetics...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725428/highlights-of-the-31st-annual-meeting-of-the-society-for-immunotherapy-of-cancer-sitc-2016
#8
REVIEW
James L Gulley, Elizabeth A Repasky, Laura S Wood, Lisa H Butterfield
Therapeutic efforts to engage the immune system against cancer have yielded exciting breakthroughs and a growing list of approved immune-based agents across a variety of disease states. Despite the early successes and durable responses associated with treatments such as immune checkpoint inhibition, there is still progress to be made in the field of cancer immunotherapy. The 31st annual meeting of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016), which took place November 11-13, 2016 in National Harbor, Maryland, showcased the latest advancements in basic, translational, and clinical research focused on cancer immunology and immunotherapy...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723667/resistance-to-ctla-4-checkpoint-inhibition-reversed-through-selective-elimination-of-granulocytic-myeloid-cells
#9
Paul E Clavijo, Ellen C Moore, Jianhong Chen, Ruth J Davis, Jay Friedman, Young Kim, Carter Van Waes, Zhong Chen, Clint T Allen
PURPOSE: Local immunosuppression remains a critical problem that limits clinically meaningful response to checkpoint inhibition in patients with head and neck cancer. Here, we assessed the impact of MDSC elimination on responses to CTLA-4 checkpoint inhibition. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Murine syngeneic carcinoma immune infiltrates were characterized by flow cytometry. Granulocytic MDSCs (gMDSCs) were depleted and T-lymphocyte antigen-specific responses were measured...
June 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723659/data-driven-analysis-of-immune-infiltrate-in-a-large-cohort-of-breast-cancer-and-its-association-with-disease-progression-er-activity-and-genomic-complexity
#10
Ruth Dannenfelser, Marianne Nome, Andliena Tahiri, Josie Ursini-Siegel, Hans Kristian Moen Vollan, Vilde D Haakensen, Åslaug Helland, Bjørn Naume, Carlos Caldas, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Vessela N Kristensen, Olga G Troyanskaya
The tumor microenvironment is now widely recognized for its role in tumor progression, treatment response, and clinical outcome. The intratumoral immunological landscape, in particular, has been shown to exert both pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic effects. Identifying immunologically active or silent tumors may be an important indication for administration of therapy, and detecting early infiltration patterns may uncover factors that contribute to early risk. Thus far, direct detailed studies of the cell composition of tumor infiltration have been limited; with some studies giving approximate quantifications using immunohistochemistry and other small studies obtaining detailed measurements by isolating cells from excised tumors and sorting them using flow cytometry...
July 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723576/an-atlas-of-human-regulatory-t-helper-like-cells-reveals-features-of-th2-like-tregs-that-support-a-tumorigenic-environment
#11
Leena Halim, Marco Romano, Reuben McGregor, Isabel Correa, Polychronis Pavlidis, Nathali Grageda, Sec-Julie Hoong, Muhammed Yuksel, Wayel Jassem, Rosalind F Hannen, Mark Ong, Olivia Mckinney, Bu'Hussain Hayee, Sophia N Karagiannis, Nicholas Powell, Robert I Lechler, Estefania Nova-Lamperti, Giovanna Lombardi
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a pivotal role in maintaining immunological tolerance, but they can also play a detrimental role by preventing antitumor responses. Here, we characterized T helper (Th)-like Treg subsets to further delineate their biological function and tissue distribution, focusing on their possible contribution to disease states. RNA sequencing and functional assays revealed that Th2-like Tregs displayed higher viability and autocrine interleukin-2 (IL-2)-mediated activation than other subsets...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721019/inhibitors-of-the-pd-1-pd-l1-axis-for-the-treatment-of-head-and-neck-cancer-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Xiongwen Ran, Kai Yang
Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a common malignant tumor, but traditional therapeutic methods have unsatisfactory curative effects and many complications occur. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop therapeutic methods that can elicit curative effects as well as low toxic and few side effects. With the development of cancer molecular biology and immunology, targeted therapy for immune checkpoints of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) has shown enormous development prospects for HNC treatment...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720900/low-frequency-ultrasound-induced-vegf-suppression-and-synergy-with-dendritic-cell-mediated-anti-tumor-immunity-in-murine-prostate-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#13
Wei Zhang, Wen-De Shou, Yan-Jun Xu, Wen-Kun Bai, Bing Hu
High tumor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels are associated with poor treatment outcomes in prostate cancer (PCa), and immune deficiency in the PCa microenvironment, especially suppression of dendritic cell (DC) proliferation, has been confirmed. In this study, we (1) investigated whether VEGF participates in DC suppression in murine PCa cells (RM-1), (2) down-regulated VEGF expression using low-frequency ultrasound and microbubbles (UM), and (3) further explored any synergistic effect on immunological activation...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720686/oncolytic-virus-induced-cell-death-and-immunity-a-match-made-in-heaven
#14
REVIEW
Jolien De Munck, Alex Binks, Iain A McNeish, Joeri L Aerts
Our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for cancer development has increased enormously over the last decades. However, for many cancers, this has not been translated into a significant improvement in overall survival, and overall mortality remains high. Treatment for many malignancies remains based on surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Significant progress has been made toward the development of more specific, more potent, and less invasive treatment modalities, but such targeted therapies remain the exception for most cancers...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720549/evolutionary-basis-of-a-new-approach-for-the-treatment-of-malignant-brain-tumors-from-mice-to-humans
#15
Pedro R Lowenstein, Maria G Castro
Glioma cells are one of the most aggressive and malignant tumors. Following initial surgery, and radio-chemotherapy they progress rapidly, so that patients' median survival remains under two years. They invade throughout the brain, which makes them difficult to treat, and are universally lethal. Though total resection is always attempted it is not curative. Standard of care in 2016 comprises surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy (temozolomide). Median survival is currently ~14-20months post-diagnosis though it can be higher in high complexity medical university centers, or during clinical trials...
July 15, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720544/degalactosylation-of-xyloglucans-modify-their-pro-inflammatory-properties-on-murine-peritoneal-macrophages
#16
Mariana Maia Taulois do Rosário, Guilhermina Rodrigues Noleto, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira Petkowicz
Considering the potential applications of partially degalactosylated xyloglucans as a drug delivery vehicle and reconstruction of tissues, the aim of this study was to investigate whether degalactosylated xyloglucans are immunologically active. The effects of the degalactosylated xyloglucan from seeds of Copaifera langsdorffii (XGCd), Hymenaea courbaril (XGJd), and Tamarindus indica (XGTd) on murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro were evaluated. XGCd, XGJd, and XGTd stimulated NO production in a dose-dependent manner reaching ∼280% for XGTd at 50μg/mL...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720430/oncogenic-pathways-that-affect-antitumor-immune-response-and-immune-checkpoint-blockade-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Xianda Zhao, Subbaya Subramanian
Mechanistic insights of cancer immunology have led to the development of immune checkpoint blockade therapy (ICBT), which has elicited a remarkable clinical response in some cancer patients. Increasing evidence suggests that activation of oncogenic pathways, such as RAS/RAF/MAPK and PI3K signaling, impairs the antitumor immune response. Such oncogenic signaling, in turn, activates many inhibitory factors, including expression of immune checkpoint genes-allowing active infiltration of immunosuppressive cells into the tumor environment and inducing resistance against T-cell killing...
July 15, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718432/autoantibodies-opportunities-for-early-cancer-detection
#18
REVIEW
Isabel K Macdonald, Celine B Parsy-Kowalska, Caroline J Chapman
Cancer cells can induce an immunological response resulting in the production of tumor-associated (TA) autoantibodies. These serum immunobiomarkers have been detected for a range of cancers at an early stage before the development of clinical symptoms. Their measurement is minimally invasive and cost effective using established technologies. TA autoantibodies are present in a clinically significant number of individuals and could supplement current screening modalities to aid early diagnosis of high-risk populations and assist the clinical management of patients...
March 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716985/two-microrna-signatures-for-malignancy-and-immune-infiltration-predict-overall-survival-in-advanced-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#19
Ilya Korsunsky, Janaki Parameswaran, Iuliana Shapira, John Lovecchio, Andrew Menzin, Jill Whyte, Lisa Dos Santos, Sharon Liang, Tawfiqul Bhuiya, Mary Keogh, Houman Khalili, Cassandra Pond, Anthony Liew, Andrew Shih, Peter K Gregersen, Annette T Lee
MicroRNAs have been established as key regulators of tumor gene expression and as prime biomarker candidates for clinical phenotypes in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We analyzed the coexpression and regulatory structure of microRNAs and their co-localized gene targets in primary tumor tissue of 20 patients with advanced EOC in order to construct a regulatory signature for clinical prognosis. We performed an integrative analysis to identify two prognostic microRNA/mRNA coexpression modules, each enriched for consistent biological functions...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716484/the-anti-tumor-activity-of-the-stat3-inhibitor-stx-0119-occurs-via-promotion-of-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocyte-accumulation-in-temozolomide-resistant-glioblastoma-cell-line
#20
Yasuto Akiyama, Chizu Nonomura, Tadashi Ashizawa, Akira Iizuka, Ryota Kondou, Haruo Miyata, Takashi Sugino, Koichi Mitsuya, Nakamasa Hayashi, Yoko Nakasu, Akira Asai, Mamoru Ito, Yoshio Kiyohara, Ken Yamaguchi
STAT3 is considered to be a key molecule to mediating tumor-induced immunosuppression in various manners at tumor sites, by acting through immune-regulatory cytokines derived from the tumor cells. Specific anti-STAT3 inhibitors have been developed using nude mouse models transplanted with human tumor cells. However, mouse systems cannot accurately represent the human immune response induced by STAT3 inhibitors, and more humanized therapeutic model based on human immune cells and tumors are needed. In the present study, an immune-deficient NOG mouse with the deletion of both MHC-class I and class II genes, an MHC-double knockout mouse (dKO-NOG), was developed and used to establish humanized immunotherapeutic model...
July 14, 2017: Immunology Letters
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