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Tumor immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334492/anti-il-10-mediated-enhancement-of-antitumor-efficacy-of-a-dendritic-cell-targeting-mip3%C3%AE-gp100-vaccine-in-the-b16f10-mouse-melanoma-model-is-dependent-on-type-i-interferons
#1
James T Gordy, Kun Luo, Brian Francica, Charles Drake, Richard B Markham
The chemokine MIP3α (CCL20) binds to CCR6 on immature dendritic cells. Vaccines fusing MIP3α to gp100 have been shown to be effective in therapeutically reducing melanoma tumor burden and prolonging survival in a mouse model. Other studies have provided evidence that interleukin-10 (IL-10) neutralizing antibodies (αIL-10) enhance immunologic melanoma therapies by modulating the tolerogenic tumor microenvironment. In the current study, we have utilized the B16F10 syngeneic mouse melanoma model to demonstrate for the first time that a therapy neutralizing IL-10 enhances the antitumor efficacy of a MIP3α-gp100 DNA vaccine, leading to significantly smaller tumors, slower growing tumors, and overall increases in mouse survival...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334374/transitory-presence-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-neonates-is-critical-for-control-of-inflammation
#2
Yu-Mei He, Xing Li, Michela Perego, Yulia Nefedova, Andrew V Kossenkov, Erik A Jensen, Valerian Kagan, Yu-Feng Liu, Shu-Yu Fu, Qing-Jian Ye, Yan-Hong Zhou, Lai Wei, Dmitry I Gabrilovich, Jie Zhou
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are pathologically activated and relatively immature myeloid cells that have been implicated in the immunological regulation of many pathologic conditions. Phenotypically and morphologically, MDSCs are similar to neutrophils (PMN-MDSCs) and monocytes (M-MDSCs). However, they have potent suppressive activity and distinct gene expression profiles and biochemical characteristics. No or very few MDSCs are observed in steady-state physiological conditions. Therefore, until recently, accumulation of MDSCs was considered a consequence of pathological processes or pregnancy...
January 15, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332705/cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-management-of-advanced-and-high-stage-tumors
#3
REVIEW
Syril Keena T Que, Fiona O Zwald, Chrysalyne D Schmults
While the majority of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) can be treated surgically, the additional work-up and treatments indicated for high-risk cSCC remain undefined. In recent years, improvements in tumor staging systems have allowed for the more accurate stratification of tumors into high- and low-risk categories. This insight, along with the publication of cSCC guidelines, brings us closer to the development of a consensus approach. The second article in this continuing medical education series addresses in question and answer format the most common questions related to advanced and high-stage cSCCs, with a simplified flowchart...
February 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332322/tumor-immunology-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Chi Young Jung, Scott J Antonia
Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although progress in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been made over the past decade, the 5-year survival rate in patients with lung cancer remains only 10%-20%. Obviously, new therapeutic options are required for patients with advanced NSCLC and unmet medical needs. Cancer immunotherapy is an evolving treatment modality that uses a patient's own immune systems to fight cancer...
January 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331323/regulation-of-inflammatory-factors-by-double-stranded-rna-receptors-in-breast-cancer-cells
#5
Amritha Venkatesh, Harika Nandigam, Maria Muccioli, Manindra Singh, Tiffany Loftus, Deana Lewis, Michelle Pate, Fabian Benencia
Malignant cells are not the only components of a tumor mass since other cells (e.g., fibroblasts, infiltrating leukocytes and endothelial cells) are also part of it. In combination with the extracellular matrix, all these cells constitute the tumor microenvironment. In the last decade the role of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression has gained increased attention and prompted efforts directed to abrogate its deleterious effects on anti-cancer therapies. The immune system can detect and attack tumor cells, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (particularly CD8 T cells) have been associated with improved survival or better response to therapies in colorectal, melanoma, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer patients among others...
November 22, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330750/immunologic-and-gene-expression-profiles-of-spontaneous-canine-oligodendrogliomas
#6
Anna Filley, Mario Henriquez, Tanmoy Bhowmik, Brij Nath Tewari, Xi Rao, Jun Wan, Margaret A Miller, Yunlong Liu, R Timothy Bentley, Mahua Dey
Malignant glioma (MG), the most common primary brain tumor in adults, is extremely aggressive and uniformly fatal. Several treatment strategies have shown significant preclinical promise in murine models of glioma; however, none have produced meaningful clinical responses in human patients. We hypothesize that introduction of an additional preclinical animal model better approximating the complexity of human MG, particularly in interactions with host immune responses, will bridge the existing gap between these two stages of testing...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328786/connections-between-metabolism-and-epigenetics-in-programming-cellular-differentiation
#7
Danielle A Chisolm, Amy S Weinmann
Researchers are intensifying efforts to understand the mechanisms by which changes in metabolic states influence differentiation programs. An emerging objective is to define how fluctuations in metabolites influence the epigenetic states that contribute to differentiation programs. This is because metabolites such as S-adenosylmethionine, acetyl-CoA, α-ketoglutarate, 2-hydroxyglutarate, and butyrate are donors, substrates, cofactors, and antagonists for the activities of epigenetic-modifying complexes and for epigenetic modifications...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327244/antibody-based-delivery-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-l19-tnf%C3%AE-and-interleukin-2-l19-il2-to-tumor-associated-blood-vessels-has-potent-immunological-and-anticancer-activity-in-the-syngeneic-j558l-balb-c-myeloma-model
#8
Hans D Menssen, Ulf Harnack, Ulrike Erben, Dario Neri, Burkhard Hirsch, Horst Dürkop
PURPOSE: To analyze the impact of TNFα or IL2 on human lymphocytes in vitro and the anti-tumor and immune-modifying effects of L19-IL2 and L19-TNFα on subcutaneously growing J558L myeloma in immunocompetent mice. METHODS: PBMCs from three healthy volunteers were incubated with IL2, TNFα, or with IL2 plus addition of TNFα (final 20 h). BALB/c J558L mice with subcutaneous tumors were treated with intravenous L19-TNFα plus L19-IL2, or controls. Tumor growth and intra- and peri-tumoral tissues were analyzed for micro-vessel density, necrosis, immune cell composition, and PD1 or PD-L1 expressing cells...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325247/-impact-of-prdm1-gene-inactivation-on-c-myc-regulation-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#9
X Y Zhang, Z P Ma, W L Cui, X L Pang, R Chen, L Wang, W Zhang, X X Li
Objective: To investigate the role of PRDM1 gene inactivaion in the regulation of C-MYC in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and to explore the correlation of its immunophenotype and prognosis. Methods: 100 cases paraffin-embedded DLBCL tissues were collected from January 2009 to December 2015 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University along with 20 cases of reactive proliferative lymph nodes as control. Immunohistochemical methods were used to detect the expression of CD20, CD10, MUM1, Ki-67, bcl-6, PRDM1/Blimp1, C-MYC and PAX5 protein...
January 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323725/serum-igg-antibodies-from-healthy-subjects-up-to-100-years-old-react-to-jc-polyomavirus
#10
Ilaria Bononi, Elisa Mazzoni, Silvia Pietrobon, Marco Manfredini, Elena Trregiani, Marika Rossini, Francesca Lotito, Giovanni Guerra, Paola Rizzo, Fernanda Martini, Mauro Tognon
JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) was identified in 1971 in the brain tissue of a patient (J.C.) affected by the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCPyV encodes for the oncoproteins large T antigen (Tag) and small t-antigen (tag). These oncoproteins are responsible of the cell transformation and tumorigenesis in experimental animals. JCPyV is ubiquitous in human populations. After the primary infection, which is usually asymptomatic, JCPyV remains lifelong in the host in a latent phase. Its reactivation may occur in heathy subjects and immunocompromised patients...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323162/high-co-expression-of-il-34-and-m-csf-correlates-with-tumor-progression-and-poor-survival-in-lung-cancers
#11
Muhammad Baghdadi, Hiraku Endo, Atsushi Takano, Kozo Ishikawa, Yosuke Kameda, Haruka Wada, Yohei Miyagi, Tomoyuki Yokose, Hiroyuki Ito, Haruhiko Nakayama, Yataro Daigo, Nao Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro Seino
Despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment of lung cancers, the 5-year survival rate remains unsatisfactory, which necessitates the identification of novel factors that associates with disease progression and malignant degree for improving diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Recent progress in cancer immunology research has unveiled critical roles for colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) in multiple aspects of the tumor microenvironment. CSF1R is expressed on tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), and mediates important pro-tumorigenic functions...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322218/-paraneoplasms-of-the-skin
#12
REVIEW
C Gießen-Jung, A Wollenberg, M Reinholz
The cutaneous manifestations of malignancies include nonmalignant skin disorders that occur in association with malignancies (facultative paraneoplastic dermatoses) and skin disorders that are always associated with hematologic diseases or solid tumors (obligate paraneoplastic dermatoses). Paraneoplastic increase of growth factors or immunological reactions lead to a variety of inflammatory, hyperkeratotic or proliferative skin reactions. When paraneoplastic dermatoses develop before cancer is diagnosed, recognition of these skin diseases can accelerate both the diagnosis and treatment...
January 10, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320898/did-i-miss-it-discovering-hidden-coexisting-hematological-neoplasms-a-single-institutional-review-of-100-collision-tumors
#13
Evan Himchak, Etan Marks, Yang Shi, Yanhua Wang
A collision tumor is defined as two histologically distinct tumor types identified at the same anatomic site. Hematolymphoid proliferative disorders (HLPDs), which coincide with non-hematological neoplasms, can mimic an immune response and can easily be overlooked as an immune reaction to a solid organ neoplasm, especially when low grade. In order to avoid a delay in the diagnosis of a HLPD during the workup for a non-hematological neoplasm, we identified a cohort of 100 cases with a HLPD diagnosis during the initial workup and treatment of a non-hematological neoplasm, or vice versa...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316717/scanning-the-immunopathogenesis-of-psoriasis
#14
REVIEW
Andrea Chiricozzi, Paolo Romanelli, Elisabetta Volpe, Giovanna Borsellino, Marco Romanelli
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, the immunologic model of which has been profoundly revised following recent advances in the understanding of its pathophysiology. In the current model, a crosstalk between keratinocytes, neutrophils, mast cells, T cells, and dendritic cells is thought to create inflammatory and pro-proliferative circuits mediated by chemokines and cytokines. Various triggers, including recently identified autoantigens, Toll-like receptor agonists, chemerin, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin may activate the pathogenic cascade resulting in enhanced production of pro-inflammatory and proliferation-inducing mediators such as interleukin (IL)-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-23, IL-22, interferon (IFN)-α, and IFN-γ by immune cells...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316430/tumor-evolution-of-glioma-intrinsic-gene-expression-subtypes-associates-with-immunological-changes-in-the-microenvironment
#15
Qianghu Wang, Baoli Hu, Xin Hu, Hoon Kim, Massimo Squatrito, Lisa Scarpace, Ana C deCarvalho, Sali Lyu, Pengping Li, Yan Li, Floris Barthel, Hee Jin Cho, Yu-Hsi Lin, Nikunj Satani, Emmanuel Martinez-Ledesma, Siyuan Zheng, Edward Chang, Charles-Etienne Gabriel Sauvé, Adriana Olar, Zheng D Lan, Gaetano Finocchiaro, Joanna J Phillips, Mitchel S Berger, Konrad R Gabrusiewicz, Guocan Wang, Eskil Eskilsson, Jian Hu, Tom Mikkelsen, Ronald A DePinho, Florian Muller, Amy B Heimberger, Erik P Sulman, Do-Hyun Nam, Roel G W Verhaak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2018: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313945/endocrine-dysfunction-induced-by-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-practical-recommendations-for-diagnosis-and-clinical-management
#16
REVIEW
Romualdo Barroso-Sousa, Patrick A Ott, F Stephen Hodi, Ursula B Kaiser, Sara M Tolaney, Le Min
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized cancer therapy. However, because ICIs block coinhibitory molecules on T cells and other immune cells, unleashing them to mediate tumor cell killing, they also can disrupt the maintenance of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. Compared with chemotherapy, ICIs have a different toxicity profile, especially the occurrence of autoimmune-like manifestations against multiple organ systems, including endocrine glands, commonly referred to as immune-related adverse events...
January 3, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312770/development-of-pulmonary-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-in-a-patient-with-established-adenocarcinoma-of-the-lung
#17
Or Kalchiem-Dekel, Adina Paulk, Seth J Kligerman, Allen P Burke, Nirav G Shah, Renee K Dixon
Newly-appearing lung nodules on surveillance imaging in patients with pre-existing lung cancer can present a diagnostic dilemma when attempting to differentiate between metastatic disease, infection, and other inflammatory conditions. Here we report a case of an EGFR-/ALK-/BRAF+ metastatic adenocarcinoma patient who underwent lung biopsy for evaluation of upper-lobe predominant lung nodules revealed to represent pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH). The patient was a heavy smoker and admitted to increase her smoking habit after initially learning about her diagnosis with lung cancer...
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311388/chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapy-challenges-to-bench-to-bedside-efficacy
#18
REVIEW
Shivani Srivastava, Stanley R Riddell
Immunotherapy with T cells genetically modified to express chimeric Ag receptors (CARs) that target tumor-associated molecules have impressive efficacy in hematological malignancies. The field has now embraced the challenge of applying this approach to treat common epithelial malignancies, which make up the majority of cancer cases but evade immunologic attack by a variety of subversive mechanisms. In this study, we review the principles that have guided CAR T cell design and the extraordinary clinical results being achieved in B cell malignancies targeting CD19 with a single infusion of engineered T cells...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311379/a-believer-s-overview-of-cancer-immunosurveillance-and-immunotherapy
#19
REVIEW
Olivera J Finn
The field of tumor immunology has grown around the idea that one of the important roles of the immune system is to eliminate cancer. This idea was difficult to reconcile with the accepted notion that the immune system evolved to distinguish self from nonself and therefore tumors derived from self-tissues would not be recognized. Lack of appropriate animal models prevented experimental testing of cancer immunosurveillance. This changed with the realization that the immune system evolved to recognize danger and with the advent of mouse models deficient in one or more immune function, which showed predicted increases in susceptibility to cancer...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310643/galega-officinalis-extract-regulate-the-diabetes-mellitus-related-violations-of-proliferation-functions-and-apoptosis-of-leukocytes
#20
Mariia Nagalievska, Mariya Sabadashka, Halyna Hachkova, Nataliia Sybirna
BACKGROUND: An impaired leukocytes function is the factor causing the susceptibility of patients with diabetes mellitus to infections. The outmost importance for the understanding of the immunological processes involved in diabetes pathogenesis is to give the characteritics of the immunological profile and changes therein, during the course of desease. Long-used in folk medicine to treat diabetes Galega officinalis L. has been chosen for the correction of the immune system dysfunction...
January 8, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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