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Tumor immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105852/the-effect-of-isoprinosine-treatment-on-persistent-infection-of-balb-c-mice-infected-with-murine-gammaherpesvirus-68-mhv-68
#1
O Janíčková, L Ančicová, K Briestenská, J Mistríková
We demonstrated the positive effect of Isoprinosine treatment on persistent infection of Balb/c mice with MHV-68. Increased number of leukocytes, increased percentage of neutrophils, elevated levels of virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies, reduced number of atypical lymphocytes and reduced virus titers were detected in the examined organs after a 14-day treatment. The positive effect of Isoprinosine therapy vanished after 120-150 days. After this interval, we demonstrated lower numbers of leukocytes, lower levels of VN antibodies and an increased number of atypical lymphoid monocytes in the Isoprinosine-treated group...
January 19, 2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105368/clinical-and-immunologic-correlates-of-response-to-pd-1-blockade-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-renal-medullary-carcinoma
#2
Kathryn E Beckermann, Pradeep C Jolly, Ju Y Kim, Jennifer Bordeaux, Igor Puzanov, W Kimryn Rathmell, Douglas B Johnson
BACKGROUND: Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare kidney tumor that occurs in adolescent and young adults, typically in association with sickle cell trait. RMC exhibits rapid disease progression, frequent metastases at diagnosis, and dismal clinical outcomes. Currently available therapies, including cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy, multi-tyrosine kinase, and mTOR inhibitor strategies demonstrate either transient responses or minimal activity. Therefore, further molecular characterization and additional treatment strategies are urgently needed in this aggressive disease...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104443/mhc-class-ii-restricted-neoantigen-a-promising-target-in-tumor-immunotherapy
#3
Zhichen Sun, Fangjun Chen, Fanyan Meng, Jia Wei, Baorui Liu
Neoantigen is a patient-specific tumor antigen resulted from mutations during oncogenesis. Emerging data suggested that immune responsiveness against neoantigens correlated with the success of clinical tumor immunotherapies. Nowadays, the majority of studies on neoantigens have focused on MHC class I restricted antigens recognized by CD8+ T cells. With improved understanding of the underlying principles of tumor biology and immunology, increasing emphasis has been put on CD4+ T cells and MHC class II restricted antigens...
January 16, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104168/meld-and-child-pugh-scores-are-related-to-immune-status-of-intrahepatic-natural-killer-cells-in-liver-transplant-candidates
#4
N Tanimine, Y Tanaka, T Abe, J Piao, K Ishiyama, T Kobayashi, K Ide, M Ohira, H Tahara, S Shimizu, Y Saeki, H Sakai, T Yano, H Ohdan
BACKGROUND: The role and phenotypic alterations of intrahepatic natural killer (NK) cells in liver disease were investigated. Although intrahepatic NK cells reportedly functionally deteriorate in the fibrotic liver, it remains unclear how the clinical severity of liver disease affects intrahepatic NK cells in patients with advanced liver failure. METHODS: We analyzed the phenotypic properties of intrahepatic NK cells by using mononuclear cells extracted from ex vivo liver perfusate effluents from patients who underwent liver transplantation...
January 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101800/is-the-genetic-background-of-co-stimulatory-cd28-ctla-4-pathway-the-risk-factor-for-prostate-cancer
#5
Lidia Karabon, K Tupikowski, A Tomkiewicz, A Partyka, E Pawlak-Adamska, A Wojciechowski, A Kolodziej, J Dembowski, R Zdrojowy, I Frydecka
The impairment of immunological surveillance caused by aberrant T cell activation can lead to an inadequate anti-tumor response. Therefore, deregulation in co-stimulatory pathway might be associated with cancer susceptibility. Here we undertook a prospective study to investigate whether genetic variations in gene encoding molecule CD28 and CTLA-4 playing pivotal role in regulating adoptive immune response can influence susceptibility to prostate cancer. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CTLA-4 and CD28 genes were genotyped in 301 prostate cancer (PCa) patients and 301 controls...
January 18, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101786/evaluation-of-t-regulatory-lymphocytes-transcription-factors-in-htlv-1-associated-myelopathy-tropical-spastic-paraparesis-ham-tsp-patients
#6
Sanaz Ahmadi Ghezeldasht, Hamed Sadeghian, Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh, Seyyed Ali Akbar Shamsian, Houshang Rafatpanah, Mahmood Mahmoodi, Seyyed Abdolrahim Rezaee
HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is an aggressive neurological disease. The CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell population plays pivotal roles in the maintenance of immunological tolerance and prevention of such autoimmune diseases. In the current study, proviral load (PVL), factor forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) gene expression and regulatory T cells (Tregs) counts of 21 HAM/TSP patients and 16 HTLV-1 healthy carriers (ACs) were measured using real-time PCR, TaqMan method, and flow cytometry...
January 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100240/reactivation-of-dormant-anti-tumor-immunity-a-clinical-perspective-of-therapeutic-immune-checkpoint-modulation
#7
REVIEW
Richard Greil, Evelyn Hutterer, Tanja Nicole Hartmann, Lisa Pleyer
In favor of their outgrowth, cancer cells must resist immune surveillance and edit the immune response. Cancer immunoediting is characterized by fundamental changes in the cellular composition and the inflammatory cytokine profiles in the microenvironment of the primary tumor and metastatic niches, with an ever increasing complexity of interactions between tumor cells and the immune system. Recent data suggest that genetic instability and immunoediting are not necessarily disparate processes. Increasing mutational load may be associated with multiple neoepitopes expressed by the tumor cells and thus increased chances for the immune system to recognize and combat these cells...
January 19, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098886/novel-zinc-phthalocyanine-as-a-promising-photosensitizer-for-photodynamic-treatment-of-esophageal-cancer
#8
Weronika Kuzyniak, Jacob Schmidt, Wojciech Glac, Janine Berkholz, Gustav Steinemann, Björn Hoffmann, Eugeny A Ermilov, Ayşe Gül Gürek, Vefa Ahsen, Bianca Nitzsche, Michael Höpfner
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has gathered much attention in the field of cancer treatment and is increasingly used as an alternative solution for esophageal cancer therapy. However, there is a constant need for improving the effectiveness and tolerability of the applied photosensitizers (PS). Here, we propose tetra-triethyleneoxysulfonyl substituted zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) as a promising PS for photodynamic treatment of esophageal cancer. ZnPc-induced phototoxicity was studied in two human esophageal cancer cell lines: OE-33 (adenocarcinoma) and Kyse-140 (squamous cell carcinoma)...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096240/coevolution-of-leukemia-and-host-immune-cells-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#9
Noelia Purroy, C J Wu
Cumulative studies on the dissection of changes in driver genetic lesions in cancer across the course of the disease have provided powerful insights into the adaptive mechanisms of tumors in response to the selective pressures of therapy and environmental changes. In particular, the advent of next-generation-sequencing (NGS)-based technologies and its implementation for the large-scale comprehensive analyses of cancers have greatly advanced our understanding of cancer as a complex dynamic system wherein genetically distinct subclones interact and compete during tumor evolution...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096237/the-human-microbiome-and-cancer
#10
Seesandra V Rajagopala, Sanjay Vashee, Lauren M Oldfield, Yo Suzuki, J Craig Venter, Amalio Telenti, Karen E Nelson
Recent scientific advances have significantly contributed to our understanding of the complex connection between the microbiome and cancer. Our bodies are continuously exposed to microbial cells, both resident and transient, as well as their by-products including toxic metabolites. Circulation of toxic metabolites may contribute to cancer onset or progression at locations distant from where a particular microbe resides. Moreover, microbes may migrate to other locations in the human body and become associated with tumor development...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093319/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-the-salvia-sclarea-l-ethanolic-extract-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-periodontitis-in-rats
#11
Milica Kostić, Dušanka Kitić, Milica B Petrović, Tatjana Jevtović-Stojmenov, Marko Jović, Aleksandar Petrović, Slavoljub Živanović
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salvia sclarea L., clary, is an aromatic plant traditionally used in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases and conditions. Although it has been primarily used as a stomachic, there are data on traditional use of S. sclarea as an agent against gingivitis, stomatitis and aphthae. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the S. sclarea ethanolic extract on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced periodontitis in rats from the immunological and histopathological standpoint...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090647/the-multifaceted-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-metastasis-priming-the-soil-for-seeding
#12
REVIEW
Brunna Dos Anjos Pultz, Felipe Andrés Cordero da Luz, Sara Socorro Faria, Leandro Peixoto Ferreira de Souza, Paula Cristina Brígido Tavares, Vivian Alonso Goulart, Wagner Fontes, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Marcelo José Barbosa Silva
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, play a key role in inter and intracellular communication, promoting the proliferation and invasion of recipient cells to support tumor growth and metastasis. Metastasis comprises multiple steps that first include the detachment of tumor cells through epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), allowing the physical dissemination to distant organs. Thereafter, cancer-derived exosomes are still critical components for preparing the tumor microenvironment by (i) enabling tumor cells to escape from the immunological surveillance and (ii) arranging the pre-metastatic site for the engraftment of detached cancer cells...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090093/upar-promotes-tumor-like-biologic-behaviors-of-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-through-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#13
Yan Liu, Yun Feng Pan, You-Qiu Xue, Lin-Kai Fang, Xing-Hua Guo, Xin Guo, Meng Liu, Bi-Yao Mo, Meng-Ru Yang, Fang Liu, Yun-Ting Wu, Nancy Olsen, Song Guo Zheng
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), is a multifunctional receptor on cell surface, widely present in endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and a variety of malignant cells. Current studies have suggested that uPAR overexpressed on synovial tissues or in synovial fluid or plasma in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, there are limited researches regarding the role of uPAR on fibroblast-like synoviocytes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA-FLSs) and its underlying mechanisms. Here, our studies show that the expression of uPAR protein was significantly higher in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) from RA than those from osteoarthritis or traumatic injury patients...
January 16, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088065/methionine-enkephalin-menk-mounts-antitumor-effect-via-regulating-dendritic-cells-dcs
#14
Yiming Meng, Xinghua Gao, Wenna Chen, Nicolas P Plotnikoff, Noreen Griffin, Guirong Zhang, Fengping Shan
MENK, an endogenous opioid peptide has been reported to have many immunological and antitumor activities. So far the detailed mechanisms of antitumor through regulating DCs by MENK have not been elucidated yet. The aim of this work was to investigate the antitumor mechanisms of MENK via regulating DC. The monitoring methods, such as ELISA, MTS assay, CFSE, Real-time PCR and Western blot were included in our research. We found bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) in 36 female C57BL/6 mice treated with MENK enhanced expression of key surface molecules, increased production of critical cytokines reduced endocytosis of FITC-dextran, upregulated TLR4 through MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway and mounted higher antitumor activity...
January 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078840/mast-cell-and-cancer-with-special-emphasis-on-il-37-an-anti-inflammatory-and-inhibitor-of-innate-immunity-new-frontiers
#15
F Carinci, G Lessiani, E Spinas, S K Kritas, G Ronconi, Al Caraffa, P Conti
Mast cells (MCs) are mediators of allergy and inflammation and participate in the growth of cancer cells. MCs can promote both neoangiogenesis and tumor growth. They increase in the stroma of certain tumors where they can be recruited by tumor-derived chemoattractants, such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), RANTES and stem cell factor (SCF) to selectively secrete inflammatory molecules including chemical mediators and cytokines (TNF, IL-6 and IL-1). However, MC differentiation pathways and heterogeneity in cancer are still poorly understood...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077173/is-cd47-an-innate-immune-checkpoint-for-tumor-evasion
#16
REVIEW
Xiaojuan Liu, Hyunwoo Kwon, Zihai Li, Yang-Xin Fu
Cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) (also known as integrin-associated protein) is a ubiquitously expressed glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily that plays a critical role in self-recognition. Various solid and hematologic cancers exploit CD47 expression in order to evade immunological eradication, and its overexpression is clinically correlated with poor prognoses. One essential mechanism behind CD47-mediated immune evasion is that it can interact with signal regulatory protein-alpha (SIRPα) expressed on myeloid cells, causing phosphorylation of the SIRPα cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs and recruitment of Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases to ultimately result in delivering an anti-phagocytic-"don't eat me"-signal...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074529/epigenetic-mediated-immune-suppression-of-positive-co-stimulatory-molecules-in-chemoresistant-ovarian-cancer-cells
#17
Ercan Cacan
The immunological response against cancer is a critical balance between immune-activating and immune-suppressing mechanisms. Ovarian cancer creates a suppressive microenvironment to escape immune elimination; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood, and it is unclear whether chemotherapeutic drugs exert an immunoreactive or immunosuppressive effect on the tumor microenvironment. 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL/CD157) and OX-40 ligand (OX-40L/CD252) are important regulators of effector cytotoxic T-cells activity...
January 11, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074285/t-cell-receptor-repertoire-usage-in-cancer-as-a-surrogate-marker-for-immune-responses
#18
REVIEW
David Schrama, Cathrin Ritter, Jürgen C Becker
Characterizing the interaction of cancer cells with the host adaptive immune system is critical for understanding tumor immunology and the modus operandi of immunotherapeutic interventions to treat cancer. As the key cellular effectors of adaptive immunity, T cells are endowed with specialized receptors (the T cell receptor; TCR), to recognize and to eliminate cancer cells. The diversity of the TCR repertoire results from specialized genetic diversification mechanisms that generate an incredible variability allowing recognizing extensive collections of antigens...
January 10, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073842/expression-of-cd14-il-10-and-tolerogenic-signature-in-dendritic-cells-inversely-correlate-with-response-to-tarp-vaccination-in-prostate-cancer-patients
#19
Luciano Castiello, Marianna Sabatino, Jiaqiang Ren, Masaki Terabe, Hanh Khuu, Lauren V Wood, Jay A Berzofsky, David F Stroncek
PURPOSE: Despite the vast number of clinical trials conducted so far, Dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccines have mostly shown unsatisfactory results. Factors and manufacturing procedures essential for these therapeutics to induce effective anti-tumor immune responses have yet to be fully characterized. We here aimed to identify DC markers correlating with clinical and immunological response in a prostate carcinoma vaccination regimen. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed an extensive characterization of DCs used to vaccinate 18 prostate carcinoma patients enrolled in a pilot trial of TCR gamma alternate reading frame protein (TARP) peptide vaccination (NCT00908258)...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072882/impact-of-dietary-protein-concentration-and-quality-on-immune-function-of-cats
#20
Nadine Paßlack, Barbara Kohn, Marcus G Doherr, Jürgen Zentek
Protein levels and quality in cat food can vary significantly and might affect immune function in various ways. In the present study, 3 diets with a low protein quality (LQ) and 3 diets with a high protein quality (HQ) were offered to 10 healthy adult cats for 6 weeks each, using a randomized cross-over design. The LQ and HQ diets differed in the collagen content and had low (36.7% and 36.2%), medium (45.0% and 43.3%) and high (56.1% and 54.9%) protein levels. At the end of each feeding period, blood was collected for phenotyping of leukocyte subsets, lymphocyte proliferation assay and cytokine measurements, phagocytosis assay and differential blood count...
2017: PloS One
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