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Tumor immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214553/mimicking-oxygen-delivery-and-waste-removal-functions-of-blood
#1
Huaifa Zhang, Jake E Barralet
In addition to immunological and wound healing cell and platelet delivery, ion stasis and nutrient supply, blood delivers oxygen to cells and tissues and removes metabolic wastes. For decades researchers have been trying to develop approaches that mimic these two immediately vital functions of blood. Oxygen is crucial for the long-term survival of tissues and cells in vertebrates. Hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) and even at times anoxia (absence of oxygen) can occur during organ preservation, organ and cell transplantation, wound healing, in tumors and engineering of tissues...
February 15, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210393/has-vitamin-d-had-its-time-in-the-sun-for-melanoma
#2
Christopher J Huerter, Adam Vaudreuil, Devendra K Agrawal, Austin Huy Nguyen
Growing evidence suggests a pivotal role for vitamin D in cancers, particularly melanoma. The broad immunologic effects of vitamin D and its signaling axis make for a complex interplay between tumor cells and the immune system. Preclinical evidence suggests vitamin D to have protective effects in melanoma oncogenesis and progression, creating a potential role for vitamin D supplementation in cancer prevention and/or adjuvant therapy. In this commentary, the authors highlight studies of vitamin D in melanoma with clinical implications and call for large clinical trials to definitively determine the role of supplementation in patients to prevent and help treat melanoma...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209609/pancreatic-cancer-progress-and-challenges-in-a-rapidly-moving-field
#3
Eric A Collisson, Kenneth P Olive
"Pancreatic Cancer: Advances in Science and Clinical Care," a Special Conference of the American Association for Cancer Research, was held in Orlando, FL, on May 12 to 15, bringing together more than 450 basic, translational, clinical, and epidemiologic pancreatic cancer researchers as well as pancreatic cancer patients, survivors, and advocates. Pancreatic cancer remains one of the great challenges in medicine, but the accelerating pace of research and early hints of clinical successes to come were palpable throughout the meeting...
February 16, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202703/investigations-in-gabaa-receptor-antibody-associated-encephalitis
#4
Marianna Spatola, Mar Petit-Pedrol, Mateus Mistieri Simabukuro, Thaís Armangue, Fernanda J Castro, Maria I Barcelo Artigues, Maria R Julià Benique, Leslie Benson, Mark Gorman, Ana Felipe, Ruben L Caparó Oblitas, Myrna R Rosenfeld, Francesc Graus, Josep Dalmau
OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical features, comorbidities, receptor subunit targets, and outcome in patients with anti-GABAA receptor (GABAAR) encephalitis. METHODS: Clinical study of 26 patients, including 17 new (April 2013-January 2016) and 9 previously reported patients. Antibodies to α1, β3, and γ2 subunits of the GABAAR were determined using reported techniques. RESULTS: Patients' median age was 40.5 years (interquartile range 48...
February 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201977/targeting-the-immune-niche-within-the-bone-marrow-microenvironment-the-rise-of-immunotherapy-in-multiple-myeloma
#5
Klaus Podar, D Jäger
Multiple Myeloma (MM) cells inhibit the development of an effective anti-MM immune response via defects in T cell function, ineffective antigen presentation; reduced phagocytic capacity; natural killer and dendritic cell dysfunction; decreased responsiveness to IL-2 and defects in B cell immunity; upregulation of inhibitory pathways; and production of excessive pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, immune cells including plasmacytoid dendritic cells and macrophages trigger tumor cell proliferation, survival, and drug resistance...
February 13, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199204/the-crossroads-between-cancer-immunity-and-autoimmunity-antibodies-to-self-antigens
#6
Monica Benvenuto, Rosanna Mattera, Laura Masuelli, Ilaria Tresoldi, Maria Gabriella Giganti, Giovanni Vanni Frajese, Vittorio Manzari, Andrea Modesti, Roberto Bei
The production of autoantibodies to self antigens is dependent on the failure of immune tolerance. Cancer cells express antigens which elicit a spontaneous immune response in cancer patients. The repertoire of autoantibodies found in cancer patients partly covers that of patients with autoimmune diseases. Biological activities of autoantibodies to self antigens may induce paraneoplastic syndromes which reflect the attempt of cancer patients to counteract tumor growth. Autoantibodies with similar specificities may have different effects in cancer and autoimmune disease patients due to different immunological microenvironments...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198830/-final-common-pathway-of-human-cancer-immunotherapy-targeting-random-somatic-mutations
#7
REVIEW
Eric Tran, Paul F Robbins, Steven A Rosenberg
Effective clinical cancer immunotherapies, such as administration of the cytokine IL-2, adoptive cell transfer (ACT) and the recent success of blockade of the checkpoint modulators CTLA-4 and PD-1, have been developed without clear identification of the immunogenic targets expressed by human cancers in vivo. Immunotherapy of patients with cancer through the use of ACT with autologous lymphocytes has provided an opportunity to directly investigate the antigen recognition of lymphocytes that mediate cancer regression in humans...
February 15, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197385/prognostic-and-predictive-aspects-of-the-tumor-immune-microenvironment-and-immune-checkpoints-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#8
Elly Marcq, Vasiliki Siozopoulou, Jorrit De Waele, Jonas van Audenaerde, Karen Zwaenepoel, Eva Santermans, Niel Hens, Patrick Pauwels, Jan P van Meerbeeck, Evelien L J Smits
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer with a poor prognosis and an increasing incidence, for which novel therapeutic strategies are urgently required. Since the immune system has been described to play a presumed role in the protection against MPM, characterization of its tumor immune microenvironment (TME) and immune checkpoints can identify new immunotherapeutic targets and their predictive and/or prognostic value. To characterize the TME and the immune checkpoint expression profile, we performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue sections from 54 MPM patients (40 at time of diagnosis; 14 treated with chemotherapy)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197381/immunological-mechanisms-of-intravesical-chitosan-interleukin-12-immunotherapy-against-murine-bladder-cancer
#9
Sean G Smith, John L Baltz, Bhanu Prasanth Koppolu, Sruthi Ravindranathan, Khue Nguyen, David A Zaharoff
There is a critical unmet clinical need for bladder cancer immunotherapies capable of inducing durable antitumor immunity. We have shown that four intravesical treatments with a simple co-formulation of interleukin-12 and the biopolymer chitosan not only destroy orthotopic bladder tumors, but also promote a potent long-lasting systemic immune response as evidenced through tumor-specific in vitro killing assays, complete protection from rechallenge, and abscopal antitumor responses at distant non-treated tumors...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197368/immunosuppressive-cd14-hla-dr-lo-neg-monocytes-are-elevated-in-pancreatic-cancer-and-primed-by-tumor-derived-exosomes
#10
Naureen Javeed, Michael P Gustafson, Shamit K Dutta, Yi Lin, William R Bamlet, Ann L Oberg, Gloria M Petersen, Suresh T Chari, Allan B Dietz, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay
Immunological strategies to treat pancreatic cancer offer new therapeutic approaches to improve patient outcomes. Understanding alterations in the immune systems of pancreatic cancer patients will likely lead to advances in immunotherapy for the disease. We profiled peripheral blood leukocytes from pancreatic cancer patients (n = 22) and age-matched controls (n = 20) using flow cytometry. Immune profiling of pancreatic cancer patients identified phenotypic changes in various immune cell populations, including a population of immunosuppressive monocytes (CD14(+)HLA-DR(lo/neg)), which were shown to be increased in these patients...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194445/diverse-repetitive-element-rna-expression-defines-epigenetic-and-immunologic-features-of-colon-cancer
#11
Niyati Desai, Dipti Sajed, Kshitij S Arora, Alexander Solovyov, Mihir Rajurkar, Jacob R Bledsoe, Srinjoy Sil, Ramzi Amri, Eric Tai, Olivia C MacKenzie, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Martin J Aryee, Cristina R Ferrone, David L Berger, Miguel N Rivera, Benjamin D Greenbaum, Vikram Deshpande, David T Ting
There is tremendous excitement for the potential of epigenetic therapies in cancer, but the ability to predict and monitor response to these drugs remains elusive. This is in part due to the inability to differentiate the direct cytotoxic and the immunomodulatory effects of these drugs. The DNA-hypomethylating agent 5-azacitidine (AZA) has shown these distinct effects in colon cancer and appears to be linked to the derepression of repeat RNAs. LINE and HERV are two of the largest classes of repeats in the genome, and despite many commonalities, we found that there is heterogeneity in behavior among repeat subtypes...
February 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188495/cancer-treatment-and-the-kir-hla-system-an-overview
#12
REVIEW
Patrizia Leone, Valli De Re, Angelo Vacca, Franco Dammacco, Vito Racanelli
Accumulating evidence indicates that the success of cancer therapy depends not only on a combination of adequate procedures (surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy) that aim to eliminate all tumor cells, but also on the functional state of the host immune system. HLA and KIR molecules, in particular, are critical to the interactions between tumor cells and both innate and adaptive immune cells such as NK cells and T cells. Different KIR-HLA gene combinations as well as different HLA expression levels on tumor cells associate with variable tumor prognosis and response to treatment...
February 10, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181678/safety-and-immunological-efficacy-of-a-dna-vaccine-encoding-the-androgen-receptor-ligand-binding-domain-ar-lbd
#13
Brian M Olson, Eric S Bradley, Thomas Sawicki, Weixiong Zhong, Erik A Ranheim, Jordan E Bloom, Viswa T Colluru, Laura E Johnson, Brian T Rekoske, Jens C Eickhoff, Douglas G McNeel
BACKGROUND: The androgen receptor (AR) is a key oncogenic driver of prostate cancer, and has been the primary focus of prostate cancer treatment for several decades. We have previously demonstrated that the AR is also an immunological target antigen, recognized in patients with prostate cancer, and targetable by means of vaccines in rodent models with delays in prostate tumor growth. The current study was performed to determine the safety and immunological efficacy of a GMP-grade plasmid DNA vaccine encoding the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the AR, pTVG-AR...
February 9, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178711/experimental-treatments-for-leptomeningeal-metastases-from-solid-malignancies
#14
Solmaz Sahebjam, Peter A Forsyth, Keiran S Smalley, Nam D Tran
BACKGROUND: Leptomeningeal metastasis is a consequence of advanced solid malignancies and has limited treatment options. It is possible that it is becoming more common as the leptomeninges act as a sanctuary site for recurrence from systemic cancer. METHODS: Potential targeted and immunotherapy agents for the most common types of solid-tumor leptomeningeal metastasis are reviewed, as are their dosing/delivery strategies and novel, immunological approaches. RESULTS: Historically, patients with leptomeningeal metastasis have been excluded from clinical trials, and data on the management of leptomeningeal metastasis come from single case reports and retrospective analyses...
January 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178038/p-selectin-glycoprotein-ligand-1-in-t-cells
#15
Michael Abadier, Klaus Ley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) as a selectin and chemokine-binding adhesion molecule. PSGL-1 is widely studied in neutrophils. Here, we focus on T cells, because PSGL-1 was recently described as a major immunomodulatory molecule during viral infection. PSGL-1 also plays a crucial role in T-cell homeostasis by binding to lymphoid chemokines, and can induce tolerance by enhancing the functions of regulatory T cells. RECENT FINDINGS: PSGL-1 was originally described as a leukocyte ligand for P-selectin, but it is actually a ligand for all selectins (P-, L- and E-selectin), binds chemokines, activates integrins and profoundly affects T-cell biology...
February 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176790/architectural-and-functional-alterations-of-the-small-intestinal-mucosa-in-classical-whipple-s-disease
#16
H-J Epple, J Friebel, V Moos, H Troeger, S M Krug, K Allers, K Schinnerling, A Fromm, B Siegmund, M Fromm, J D Schulzke, T Schneider
Classical Whipple's disease (CWD) affects the gastrointestinal tract and rather elicits regulatory than inflammatory immune reactions. Mechanisms of malabsorption, diarrhea, and systemic immune activation are unknown. We here analyzed mucosal architecture, barrier function, and immune activation as potential diarrheal trigger in specimens from 52 CWD patients. Our data demonstrate villus atrophy and crypt hyperplasia associated with epithelial apoptosis and reduced alkaline phosphatase expression in the duodenum of CWD patients...
February 8, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174424/targeting-a2-adenosine-receptors-in-cancer
#17
REVIEW
David Allard, Martin Turcotte, John Stagg
Tumor cells use various ways to evade antitumor immune responses. Adenosine, a potent immunosuppressive metabolite, is often found elevated in the extracellular tumor microenvironment. Therefore, targeting adenosine-generating enzymes (CD39 and CD73) or adenosine receptors has emerged as a novel means to stimulate antitumor immunity. In particular, the A2 (A2a and A2b) adenosine receptors exhibit similar immunosuppressive and pro-angiogenic functions, yet have distinct biological roles in cancer. In this review, we describe the common and distinct biological consequences of A2a and A2b adenosine receptor signaling in cancer...
February 8, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168749/promising-therapeutic-efficacy-of-a-novel-reic-dkk-3-expressing-adenoviral-vector-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Hiroaki Sawahara, Hidenori Shiraha, Daisuke Uchida, Hironari Kato, Ryo Kato, Atsushi Oyama, Teruya Nagahara, Masaya Iwamuro, Shigeru Horiguchi, Koichiro Tsutsumi, Mari Mandai, Tetsushige Mimura, Nozomu Wada, Yasuto Takeuchi, Kenji Kuwaki, Hideki Onishi, Shinichiro Nakamura, Masami Watanabe, Masakiyo Sakaguchi, Akinobu Takaki, Kazuhiro Nouso, Takahito Yagi, Yasutomo Nasu, Hiromi Kumon, Hiroyuki Okada
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Reduced expression in immortalized cells (REIC)/dickkopf 3 (Dkk-3) is a tumor suppressor gene that is downregulated in various cancers. In our previous study of prostate cancer, the REIC/Dkk-3-expressing adenoviral vector (Ad-REIC) was found to induce cancer-selective apoptosis. We recently developed a novel super gene expression (SGE) system and used this system to re-construct an Ad-REIC vector, termed the Ad-SGE-REIC, to achieve more effective therapeutic outcomes...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166767/microparticles-shed-from-multidrug-resistant-breast-cancer-cells-provide-a-parallel-survival-pathway-through-immune-evasion
#19
Ritu Jaiswal, Michael S Johnson, Deep Pokharel, S Rajeev Krishnan, Mary Bebawy
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Resident macrophages at distant sites provide a highly responsive and immunologically dynamic innate immune response against foreign infiltrates. Despite extensive characterization of the role of macrophages and other immune cells in malignant tissues, there is very little known about the mechanisms which facilitate metastatic breast cancer spread to distant sites of immunological integrity. The mechanisms by which a key healthy defense mechanism fails to protect distant sites from infiltration by metastatic cells in cancer patients remain undefined...
February 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162837/immunotherapy-in-breast-cancer-an-introduction
#20
Mary L Disis, Sasha E Stanton
The field of breast cancer immunology has progressed tremendously over the last decade. Twenty years ago immunotherapy was not considered for the treatment of breast cancers because breast cancer was not considered immunogenic. Today we know that most patients with breast cancer have some evidence of an adaptive immune response against their tumors, detectable either in the peripheral blood or in the tumor. Moreover, immunity to breast cancer begins at the earliest stages of the disease, in some patients prior to diagnosis...
February 3, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
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