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Tumor immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549432/dendritic-cells-combined-with-tumor-cells-and-%C3%AE-galactosylceramide-induce-a-potent-therapeutic-and-nk-cell-dependent-antitumor-immunity-in-b-cell-lymphoma
#1
Laura Escribà-Garcia, Carmen Alvarez-Fernández, Marta Tellez-Gabriel, Jorge Sierra, Javier Briones
BACKGROUND: Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a small population of lymphocytes with unique specificity for glycolipid antigens presented by non-polymorphic CD1d receptor on dendritic cells (DCs). iNKT cells play a central role in tumor immunology since they are implicated in the coordination of innate and adaptive immune responses. These cells can be activated with the prototypic lipid α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), stimulating interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production and cytokine secretion, which contribute to the enhancement of T cell activation...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546779/emerging-treatment-options-for-the-management-of-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-clinical-utility-of-nivolumab
#2
REVIEW
David A Bond, Lapo Alinari
Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) is a B-cell malignancy comprised of pathologic Reed Sternberg cells with a surrounding immune-tolerant inflammatory milieu. RS cells evade immune recognition in part through programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) overexpression, which is genetically programmed through copy number alterations, polysomy, and amplification of the 9p24.1 locus encoding PD-L1. By engaging with PD-1+ T-cells, PD-L1 delivers a potent immune suppressive signal promoting immunologic escape of the tumor cell...
2017: Journal of Blood Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544818/ubiquitination-in-melanoma-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Jinyuan Ma, Weinan Guo, Chunying Li
Melanoma is one of the most aggressive skin cancers with fiercely increasing incidence and mortality. Since the progressive understanding of the mutational landscape and immunologic pathogenic factors in melanoma, the targeted therapy and immunotherapy have been recently established and gained unprecedented improvements for melanoma treatment. However, the prognosis of melanoma patients remains unoptimistic mainly due to the resistance and nonresponse to current available drugs. Ubiquitination is a posttranslational modification which plays crucial roles in diverse cellular biological activities and participates in the pathogenesis of various cancers, including melanoma...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539271/gene-expression-profiling-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-after-exposure-to-single-dose-irradiation
#4
Wei-Hsiang Kung, Ching-Fang Yu, Andy Chi-Lung Lee, Chi-Dung Yang, Yu-Chen Liu, Fang-Hsin Chen, Hsien-Da Huang
Radiotherapy (RT) is a common cancer treatment approach that accounts for nearly 50% of patient treatment; however, tumor relapse after radiotherapy is still a major issue. To study the crucial role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the regulation of tumor progression post-RT, microarray experiments comparing TAM gene expression profiles between unirradiated and irradiated tumors were conducted to discover possible roles of TAMs in initiation or contribution to tumor recurrence following RT, taking into account the relationships among gene expression, tumor microenvironment, and immunology...
April 30, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537908/increased-expression-of-irf8-in-tumor-cells-inhibits-the-generation-of-th17-cells-and-predicts-unfavorable-survival-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-patients
#5
Weijie Zhong, Xin Xu, Zhigang Zhu, Qinghua Du, Hong Du, Li Yang, Yanying Ling, Huabao Xiong, Qingshan Li
The immunological pathogenesis of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains elusive. Searching for new prognostic markers of DLBCL is a crucial focal point for clinical scientists. The aim of the present study was to examine the prognostic value of interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) expression and its effect on the development of Th17 cells in the tumor microenvironment of DLBCL patients. Flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative real-time PCR were used to detect the distribution of Th17 cells and related cytokines and IRF8 in tumor tissues from DLBCL patients...
May 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537249/airway-t-cells-protect-against-rsv-infection-in-the-absence-of-antibody
#6
E Kinnear, L Lambert, J U McDonald, H M Cheeseman, L J Caproni, J S Tregoning
Tissue resident memory T (Trm) cells act as sentinels and early responders to infection. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-specific Trm cells have been detected in the lungs after human RSV infection, but whether they have a protective role is unknown. To dissect the protective function of Trm cells, BALB/c mice were infected with RSV; infected mice developed antigen-specific CD8(+) Trm cells (CD103(+)/CD69(+)) in the lungs and airways. Intranasally transferring cells from the airways of previously infected animals to naïve animals reduced weight loss on infection in the recipient mice...
May 24, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536577/thyroid-autoimmunity-role-of-anti-thyroid-antibodies-in-thyroid-and-extra-thyroidal-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Eleonore Fröhlich, Richard Wahl
Autoimmune diseases have a high prevalence in the population, and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is one of the most common representatives. Thyroid autoantibodies are not only frequently detected in patients with AITD but also in subjects without manifest thyroid dysfunction. The high prevalence raises questions regarding a potential role in extra-thyroidal diseases. This review summarizes the etiology and mechanism of AITD and addresses prevalence of antibodies against thyroid peroxidase, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), and anti-thyroglobulin and their action outside the thyroid...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536029/specific-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-in-cancer-patients-undergoing-chronic-immunization-with-a-vegf-based-therapeutic-vaccine
#8
Yanelys Morera, Javier Sánchez, Mónica Bequet-Romero, Katty-Hind Selman-Housein, Ana de la Torre, Francisco Hernández-Bernal, Yenima Martín, Acralys Garabito, Jesús Piñero, Cimara Bermúdez, Josué de la Torre, Marta Ayala, Jorge V Gavilondo
CIGB-247 is a cancer therapeutic vaccine, based on recombinant modified human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as antigen, in combination with the adjuvant VSSP, a bacterially-derived adjuvant. The vaccine have demonstrated efficacy in several murine malignancy models. These studies supported the rationale for a phase I clinical trial where safety, tolerance, and immunogenicity of CIGB-247 was studied in patients with advanced solid tumors at three antigen dose level. Surviving individuals of this clinical trial were eligible to receive off-trial voluntary re-immunizations...
May 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533435/enzymatic-inactivation-of-endogenous-igg-by-ides-enhances%C3%A2-therapeutic-antibody-efficacy
#9
Sofia Järnum, Anna Runström, Robert Bockermann, Lena Winstedt, Max Crispin, Christian Kjellman
Endogenous plasma IgG sets an immunological threshold that dictates the activity of tumor-directed therapeutic antibodies. Saturation of cellular antibody receptors by endogenous antibody limits antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). Here we show how enzymatic cleavage of IgG using the bacterial enzyme IdeS can be utilized to empty both high and low affinity Fcγ-receptors and clear the entire endogenous antibody pool. Using in vitro models, tumor animal models as well as ex vivo analysis of sera collected during a previous clinical trial with IdeS, we show how clearing of competing plasma antibody levels with IdeS unblocks cellular antibody receptors...
May 22, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531337/correlation-of-immune-phenotype-with-idh-mutation-in-diffuse-glioma
#10
Anna Sophie Berghoff, Barbara Kiesel, Georg Widhalm, Dorothee Wilhelm, Orsolya Rajky, Sebastian Kurscheid, Philip Kresl, Adelheid Wöhrer, Christine Marosi, Monika E Hegi, Matthias Preusser
Background: Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) are targets of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Methods: Forty-three World Health Organization (WHO) grade II/III gliomas (39 IDH-mutant [mut], 4 IDH-wildtype [wt]) and 14 IDH-mut glioblastomas (GBM) were analyzed for TIL (CD3+; PD1+) infiltration and PD-L1 expression. Results were compared with the data of a previously published series of 117 IDH-wt glioblastomas. PD-L1 gene expression levels were evaluated in 677 diffuse gliomas grades II-IV from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database...
May 20, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529947/immune-checkpoint-blockade-for-hematologic-malignancies-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Matthew J Pianko, Yuzhou Liu, Srishti Bagchi, Alexander M Lesokhin
Immune checkpoint blockade has revolutionized the treatment of cancer, with impressive responses seen in a broad variety of tumor types. Blockade of immune checkpoints and immune signaling antibodies has shown promise in multiple types of hematologic malignancies (HMs), with dramatic single agent responses for pembrolizumab and nivolumab in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). In this review, we outline the current state of immune checkpoint blockade drug development in HMs, and discuss mechanisms of activity and resistance, and highlight potential targets in the immune tumor microenvironment (TME)...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529897/uncovering-the-immune-tumor-microenvironment-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-to-understand-response-rates-to-checkpoint-blockade-and-radiation
#12
REVIEW
Jonathan E Schoenhals, Steven N Seyedin, Clark Anderson, Eric D Brooks, Yun R Li, Ahmed I Younes, Sharareh Niknam, Ailin Li, Hampartsoum B Barsoumian, Maria Angelica Cortez, James W Welsh
The study of immunology has led to breakthroughs in treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The recent approval of an anti-PD1 checkpoint drug for NSCLC has generated much interest in novel combination therapies that might provide further benefit for patients. However, a better understanding of which combinations may (or may not) work in NSCLC requires understanding the lung immune microenvironment under homeostatic conditions and the changes in that microenvironment in the setting of cancer progression and with radiotherapy...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529575/japanese-kampo-medicine-ninjin-yoeito-synergistically-enhances-tumor-vaccine-effects-mediated-by-cd8-t-cells
#13
Shun Takaku, Masumi Shimizu, Hidemi Takahashi
Although Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo) has been widely applied to the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, their mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in detail, particularly regarding their role in tumor immunology. The present study investigated the antitumor effects of the Japanese Kampo medicine, ninjin'yoeito (NYT; Ren-Shen-Yang-Rong-Tang in Chinese), which was orally administered with or without an irradiated tumor cell vaccine to a subcutaneous CT26 colon carcinoma tumor model...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528702/detailed-characterization-of-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-from-a-large-cohort-of-aml-patients-demonstrates-a-definitive-link-to-treatment-outcomes
#14
Rafael Diaz de la Guardia, Belen Lopez-Millan, Jessie R Lavoie, Clara Bueno, Julio Castaño, Maite Gómez-Casares, Susana Vives, Laura Palomo, Manel Juan, Julio Delgado, Maria L Blanco, Josep Nomdedeu, Alberto Chaparro, Jose Luis Fuster, Eduardo Anguita, Michael Rosu-Myles, Pablo Menéndez
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are key components of the hematopoietic niche thought to have a direct role in leukemia pathogenesis. BM-MSCs from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have been poorly characterized due to disease heterogeneity. We report a functional, genetic, and immunological characterization of BM-MSC cultures from 46 AML patients, stratified by molecular/cytogenetics into low-risk (LR), intermediate-risk (IR), and high-risk (HR) subgroups. Stable MSC cultures were successfully established and characterized from 40 of 46 AML patients irrespective of the risk subgroup...
May 18, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527652/uveitis-induced-by-programmed-cell-death-protein-1-inhibitor-therapy-with-nivolumab-in-metastatic-melanoma-patient
#15
Hiroaki Kanno, Kyoko Ishida, Wataru Yamada, Takashi Nishida, Nobumichi Takahashi, Kiyofumi Mochizuki, Yuki Mizuno, Kanako Matsuyama, Tomoko Takahashi, Mariko Seishima
Nivolumab, a new immune checkpoint inhibitor, binds to programmed cell death-protein 1 receptors on T cell, blockades binding of its ligands, and augments the immunologic reaction against tumor cells. Augmented immune response, however, may lead to immune-related adverse events. Herein we describe a rare case of bilateral anterior uveitis induced by nivolumab treatment for metastatic melanoma. A 54-year-old woman presented with mild conjunctival redness and blurred vision two months after initiating nivolumab treatment...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526339/magnesium-isoglycyrrhizinate-blocks-fructose-induced-hepatic-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-and-lipid-metabolism-disorder
#16
Xiao-Juan Zhao, Yan-Zi Yang, Yan-Jing Zheng, Shan-Chun Wang, Hong-Mei Gu, Ying Pan, Shui-Juan Wang, Hong-Jiang Xu, Ling-Dong Kong
Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate as a hepatoprotective agent possesses immune modulation and anti-inflammation, and treats liver diseases. But its effects on immunological-inflammatory and metabolic profiles for metabolic syndrome with liver injury and underlying potential mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate alleviated liver inflammation and lipid accumulation in fructose-fed rats with metabolic syndrome. It also suppressed hepatic inflammatory signaling activation by reducing protein levels of phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (p-NF-κB p65), inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase α/β (p-IKKα/β) and inhibitor of NF-κB α (p-IκBα) as well as nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) and Caspase-1 in rats, being consistent with its reduction of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6 levels...
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522277/-immunotherapy-and-radiotherapy
#17
S Bockel, D Antoni, É Deutsch, F Mornex
Radiotherapy, primarily known for its cytotoxic effect on the tumor cells, via the induction of DNA damages, has the ability to induce a systemic antitumoral response. By an immunologic cell death, tumor cells exposed to radiation release a large amount of neoantigenes and pro-inflammatory mediators, acting as an in situ vaccine, resulting in an tumor regression within the primary irradiated site, but also in the distant "out of field" secondary tumors. However, this phenomenon is extremly rare with radiotherapy alone, suggesting that the radiation-induced antitumor immunity is not sufficient for overcoming the tumor's and its microenvironnement immunosuppressing effect...
May 15, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521429/b-cells-inhibit-the-antitumor-immunity-against-an-established-murine-fibrosarcoma
#18
Andrea Maglioco, Damián G Machuca, María Noel Badano, Paula Nannini, Gabriela V Camerano, Héctor Costa, Roberto Meiss, Raúl A Ruggiero, Mirta Giordano, Graciela I Dran
Despite the classic role of B cells in favoring the immune response, an inhibitory action of B lymphocytes in tumor immunity has emerged in certain studies. In methylcolanthrene-induced murine fibrosarcoma (MCC), the loss of immunogenicity and the establishment of tolerance are paralleled by systemic immune suppression and the appearance of B(+)IL-10(+) cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes. The present study aimed to assess the role of the B(+)IL-10(+) cell population in the immune evasion and tolerance induced by MCC through the depletion of B cells in mice at various times of tumor progression: Prior to or subsequent to tumor implantation...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520518/arrested-development-infantile-hemangioma-and-the-stem-cell-teratogenic-hypothesis
#19
Shaghayegh Harbi, Hannah Park, Michael Gregory, Peter Lopez, Luis Chiriboga, Paolo Mignatti
BACKGROUND: Early-life programming is defined by the adaptive changes made by the fetus in response to an adverse in utero environment. Infantile hemangioma (IH), a vascular anomaly, is the most common tumor of infancy. Here we take IH as the tumor model to propose the stem cell teratogenic hypothesis of tumorigenesis and the potential involvement of the immune system. OBJECTIVES: Teratogenic agents include chemicals, heavy metals, pathogens, and ionizing radiation...
May 18, 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515944/identifying-baseline-immune-related-biomarkers-to-predict-clinical-outcome-of-immunotherapy
#20
REVIEW
Sacha Gnjatic, Vincenzo Bronte, Laura Rosa Brunet, Marcus O Butler, Mary L Disis, Jérôme Galon, Leif G Hakansson, Brent A Hanks, Vaios Karanikas, Samir N Khleif, John M Kirkwood, Lance D Miller, Dolores J Schendel, Isabelle Tanneau, Jon M Wigginton, Lisa H Butterfield
As cancer strikes, individuals vary not only in terms of factors that contribute to its occurrence and development, but as importantly, in their capacity to respond to treatment. While exciting new therapeutic options that mobilize the immune system against cancer have led to breakthroughs for a variety of malignancies, success is limited to a subset of patients. Pre-existing immunological features of both the host and the tumor may contribute to how patients will eventually fare with immunotherapy. A broad understanding of baseline immunity, both in the periphery and in the tumor microenvironment, is needed in order to fully realize the potential of cancer immunotherapy...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
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