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Neural stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679758/validation-and-bioinformatic-analysis-of-propofol-induced-differentially-expressed-micrornas-in-primary-cultured-neural-stem-cells
#1
Yan Li, Youtan Liu, Jun Fan, Quan Zhou, Xiuling Song, Zhiyong Peng, Zaisheng Qin, Tao Tao
Propofol, a widely used intravenous anesthetic, was previously considered as a neuroprotective agent. Recently, however, accumulating evidence suggests that it may cause neurotoxicity, especially in the development of neural stem cells (NSCs). The potential mechanisms contributing to propofol-induced neurotoxicity during neurogenesis, such as those involving microRNAs (miRNAs), are still unknown. In this study, a total of 27 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in our initial screen and 6 miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR...
April 18, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679561/drosophila-nucleostemin-3-is-required-to-maintain-larval-neuroblast-proliferation
#2
Patrick W Johnson, Chris Q Doe, Sen-Lin Lai
Stem cells must maintain proliferation during tissue development, repair and homeostasis, yet avoid tumor formation. In Drosophila, neural stem cells (neuroblasts) maintain proliferation during embryonic and larval development and terminate cell cycle during metamorphosis. An important question for understanding how tissues are generated and maintained is: what regulates stem cell proliferation versus differentiation? We performed a genetic screen which identified nucleostemin 3 (ns3) as a gene required to maintain neuroblast proliferation...
April 18, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679497/ewsr1-patz1-gene-fusion-may-define-a-new-glioneuronal-tumor-entity
#3
Aurore Siegfried, Audrey Rousseau, Claude-Alain Maurage, Sarah Pericart, Yvan Nicaise, Frederic Escudie, David Grand, Alix Delrieu, Anne Gomez-Brouchet, Sophie Le Guellec, Camille Franchet, Sergio Boetto, Matthieu Vinchon, Jean-Christophe Sol, Franck-Emmanuel Roux, Valerie Rigau, Anne-Isabelle Bertozzi, David Tw Jones, Dominique Figarella-Branger, Emmanuelle Uro-Coste
We investigated the challenging diagnostic case of a ventricular cystic glioneuronal tumor with papillary features, by RNA sequencing using the Illumina TruSight RNA Fusion panel. We did not retrieve the SLC44A1-PRKCA fusion gene specific for papillary glioneuronal tumor, but an EWSR1-PATZ1 fusion transcript. RT-PCR followed by Sanger sequencing confirmed the EWSR1-PATZ1 fusion. It matched with canonic EWSR1 fusion oncogene, juxtaposing the entire N terminal transcriptional activation domain of EWSR1 gene and the C terminal DNA binding domain of a transcription factor gene, PATZ1...
April 21, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679327/engineering-human-neural-tissue-by-3d-bioprinting
#4
Qi Gu, Eva Tomaskovic-Crook, Gordon G Wallace, Jeremy M Crook
Bioprinting provides an opportunity to produce three-dimensional (3D) tissues for biomedical research and translational drug discovery, toxicology, and tissue replacement. Here we describe a method for fabricating human neural tissue by 3D printing human neural stem cells with a bioink, and subsequent gelation of the bioink for cell encapsulation, support, and differentiation to functional neurons and supporting neuroglia. The bioink uniquely comprises the polysaccharides alginate, water-soluble carboxymethyl-chitosan, and agarose...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678571/the-transcription-factor-mef2a-plays-a-key-role-in-the-differentiation-maturation-of-rat-neural-stem-cells-into-neurons
#5
Bangfu Zhu, Ruth E Carmichael, Luis Solabre Valois, Kevin A Wilkinson, Jeremy M Henley
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing multipotent stem cells that can be proliferated in vitro and differentiated into neuronal and/or glial lineages, making them an ideal model to study the processes involved in neuronal differentiation. Here we have used NSCs to investigate the role of the transcription factor MEF2A in neuronal differentiation and development in vitro. We show that although MEF2A is present in undifferentiated NSCs, following differentiation it is expressed at significantly higher levels in a subset of neuronal compared to non-neuronal cells...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675839/neural-crest-delamination-and-migration-looking-forward-to-the-next-150-years
#6
REVIEW
Nadège Gouignard, Cyril Andrieu, Eric Theveneau
Neural crest (NC) cells were described for the first time in 1868 by Wilhelm His. Since then, this amazing population of migratory stem cells has been intensively studied. It took a century to fully unravel their incredible abilities to contribute to nearly every organ of the body. Yet, our understanding of the cell and molecular mechanisms controlling their migration is far from complete. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on epithelial-mesenchymal transition and collective behavior of NC cells and propose further stops at which the NC train might be calling in the near future...
April 20, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675776/pluripotent-stem-cells-for-retinal-tissue-engineering-current-status-and-future-prospects
#7
REVIEW
Ratnesh Singh, Oscar Cuzzani, François Binette, Hal Sternberg, Michael D West, Igor O Nasonkin
The retina is a very fine and layered neural tissue, which vitally depends on the preservation of cells, structure, connectivity and vasculature to maintain vision. There is an urgent need to find technical and biological solutions to major challenges associated with functional replacement of retinal cells. The major unmet challenges include generating sufficient numbers of specific cell types, achieving functional integration of transplanted cells, especially photoreceptors, and surgical delivery of retinal cells or tissue without triggering immune responses, inflammation and/or remodeling...
April 19, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675520/designing-well-defined-photopolymerized-synthetic-matrices-for-three-dimensional-culture-and-differentiation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Elisa M Ovadia, David W Colby, April M Kloxin
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are of interest for the study of disease, where these cells can be derived from patients and have the potential to be differentiated into any cell type; however, three-dimensional (3D) culture and differentiation of iPSCs within well-defined synthetic matrices for these applications remains limited. Here, we aimed to establish synthetic cell-degradable hydrogels that allow precise presentation of specific biochemical cues for 3D culture of iPSCs with relevance for hypothesis testing and lineage-specific differentiation...
April 20, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674963/a-bivalent-securinine-compound-sn3-l6-induces-neuronal-differentiation-via-translational-upregulation-of-neurogenic-transcription-factors
#9
Yumei Liao, Xiaoji Zhuang, Xiaojie Huang, Yinghui Peng, Xuanyue Ma, Zhi-Xing Huang, Feng Liu, Junyu Xu, Ying Wang, Wei-Min Chen, Wen-Cai Ye, Lei Shi
Developing therapeutic approaches that target neuronal differentiation will be greatly beneficial for the regeneration of neurons and synaptic networks in neurological diseases. Protein synthesis (mRNA translation) has recently been shown to regulate neurogenesis of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). However, it has remained unknown whether engineering translational machinery is a valid approach for manipulating neuronal differentiation. The present study identifies that a bivalent securinine compound SN3-L6, previously designed and synthesized by our group, induces potent neuronal differentiation through a novel translation-dependent mechanism...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673616/nxy-059-a-failed-stroke-neuroprotectant-offers-no-protection-to-stem-cell-derived-human-neurons
#10
Ana Antonic, Mirella Dottori, Malcolm R Macleod, Geoffrey A Donnan, David W Howells
BACKGROUND: Developing new medicines is a complex process where understanding the reasons for both failure and success takes us forward. One gap in our understanding of most candidate stroke drugs before clinical trial is whether they have a protective effect on human tissues. NXY-059 is a spin-trap reagent hypothesized to have activity against the damaging oxidative biology which accompanies ischemic stroke. Re-examination of the preclinical in vivo dataset for this agent in the wake of the failed SAINT-II RCT highlighted the presence of a range of biases leading to overestimation of the magnitude of NXY-059's effects in laboratory animals...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673477/symmetric-stem-cell-division-at-the-heart-of-adult-neurogenesis
#11
Violeta Silva-Vargas, Ana C Delgado, Fiona Doetsch
Obernier et al. (2018) show that the primary mode of division of adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) neural stem cells is symmetric, with the majority generating two non-stem cell progeny, and a minority self-renewing. This discovery has important implications for understanding stem cell dynamics and adult neurogenesis.
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671028/biochemical-profiling-of-rat-embryonic-stem-cells-grown-on-electrospun-polyester-fibers-using-synchrotron-infrared-microspectroscopy
#12
Ernesto Doncel-Pérez, Gary Ellis, Christophe Sandt, Peter S Shuttleworth, Agatha Bastida, Julia Revuelta, Eduardo García-Junceda, Alfonso Fernández-Mayoralas, Leoncio Garrido
Therapeutic options for spinal cord injuries are severely limited; current treatments only offer symptomatic relief and rehabilitation focused on educating the individual on how to adapt to their new situation to make best possible use of their remaining function. Thus, new approaches are needed, and interest in the development of effective strategies to promote the repair of neural tracts in the central nervous system inspired us to prepare functional and highly anisotropic polymer scaffolds. In this work, an initial assessment of the behavior of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) seeded on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) fiber scaffolds using synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy (SIRMS) is described...
April 18, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670286/pluripotency-factors-functionally-premark-cell-type-restricted-enhancers-in-es-cells
#13
Hong Sook Kim, Yuliang Tan, Wubin Ma, Daria Merkurjev, Eugin Destici, Qi Ma, Tom Suter, Kenneth Ohgi, Meyer Friedman, Dorota Skowronska-Krawczyk, Michael G Rosenfeld
Enhancers for embryonic stem (ES) cell-expressed genes and lineage-determining factors are characterized by conventional marks of enhancer activation in ES cells1-3 , but it remains unclear whether enhancers destined to regulate cell-type-restricted transcription units might also have distinct signatures in ES cells. Here we show that cell-type-restricted enhancers are 'premarked' and activated as transcription units by the binding of one or two ES cell transcription factors, although they do not exhibit traditional enhancer epigenetic marks in ES cells, thus uncovering the initial temporal origins of cell-type-restricted enhancers...
April 18, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670193/pineal-dependent-increase-of-hypothalamic-neurogenesis-contributes-to-the-timing-of-seasonal-reproduction-in-sheep
#14
Martine Batailler, Didier Chesneau, Laura Derouet, Lucile Butruille, Stéphanie Segura, Juliette Cognié, Joëlle Dupont, Delphine Pillon, Martine Migaud
To survive in temperate latitudes, species rely on the photoperiod to synchronize their physiological functions, including reproduction, with the predictable changes in the environment. In sheep, exposure to decreasing day length reactivates the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis, while during increasing day length, animals enter a period of sexual rest. Neural stem cells have been detected in the sheep hypothalamus and hypothalamic neurogenesis was found to respond to the photoperiod. However, the physiological relevance of this seasonal adult neurogenesis is still unexplored...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669468/inducible-alpha-synuclein-expression-affects-human-neural-stem-cell-behavior
#15
Jacopo Zasso, Ahmed Mastad, Alessandro Cutarelli, Luciano Conti
Converging evidence suggest that levels of alpha-Synuclein (aSyn) expression play a critical role in Parkinson's disease (PD). Several mutations of the SNCA gene, encoding for aSyn have been associated to either the familial or the sporadic forms of PD. Nonetheless, the mechanism underlying wild type aSyn-mediated neurotoxicity in neuronal cells as well as its specific driving role in PD pathogenesis has yet to be fully clarified. In this view, the development of proper in vitro cellular systems is a crucial step...
April 19, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666786/modeling-neuropsychiatric-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
REVIEW
Elizabeth A LaMarca, Samuel K Powell, Schahram Akbarian, Kristen J Brennand
Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have revolutionized our ability to model neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, and recent progress in the field is paving the way for improved therapeutics. In this review, we discuss major advances in generating hiPSC-derived neural cells and cutting-edge techniques that are transforming hiPSC technology, such as three-dimensional "mini-brains" and clustered, regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas systems. We examine specific examples of how hiPSC-derived neural cells are being used to uncover the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease, and consider the future of this groundbreaking research...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666564/neural-induction-potential-and-mri-of-adscs-labeled-cationic-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticle-in-vitro
#17
Weiqiong Ma, Qi Xie, Baolin Zhang, Huixian Chen, Jianyi Tang, Zhengxian Lei, Minyi Wu, Dingxuan Zhang, Jiani Hu
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with contrast agents is believed to be useful for stem cell tracking in vivo, and the aim of this research was to investigate the biosafety and neural induction of SD rat-originated adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) using cationic superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle which was synthesized by the improved polyol method, in order to allow visualization using in vitro MRI. The scan protocols were performed with T2-mapping sequence; meanwhile, the ultrastructure of labeled cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) while the iron content was measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666444/aligned-contiguous-microfiber-platform-enhances-neural-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells
#18
Zhenjie Liu, Zhengqing Hu
A microfiber platform that is able to enhance neuronal differentiation and guide aligned neurite outgrowths is essential to the repair of nerve damage. To achieve this aim, we utilized biocompatible and biodegradable poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) to design a novel Aligned Contiguous Microfiber Platform (ACMFP) as substrates for the neuronal induction of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. To generate the ACMFP, a modified micro-fluid chip system was established to control microfiber parameters including fiber diameter, alignment, and the distance between fibers...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666271/desynchronization-of-slow-oscillations-in-the-basal-ganglia-during-natural-sleep
#19
Aviv D Mizrahi-Kliger, Alexander Kaplan, Zvi Israel, Hagai Bergman
Slow oscillations of neuronal activity alternating between firing and silence are a hallmark of slow-wave sleep (SWS). These oscillations reflect the default activity present in all mammalian species, and are ubiquitous to anesthesia, brain slice preparations, and neuronal cultures. In all these cases, neuronal firing is highly synchronous within local circuits, suggesting that oscillation-synchronization coupling may be a governing principle of sleep physiology regardless of anatomical connectivity. To investigate whether this principle applies to overall brain organization, we recorded the activity of individual neurons from basal ganglia (BG) structures and the thalamocortical (TC) network over 70 full nights of natural sleep in two vervet monkeys...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666150/epigenetics-and-epitranscriptomics-in-temporal-patterning-of-cortical-neural-progenitor-competence
#20
REVIEW
Ki-Jun Yoon, Caroline Vissers, Guo-Li Ming, Hongjun Song
During embryonic brain development, neural progenitor/stem cells (NPCs) sequentially give rise to different subtypes of neurons and glia via a highly orchestrated process. To accomplish the ordered generation of distinct progenies, NPCs go through multistep transitions of their developmental competence. The molecular mechanisms driving precise temporal coordination of these transitions remains enigmatic. Epigenetic regulation, including changes in chromatin structures, DNA methylation, and histone modifications, has been extensively investigated in the context of cortical neurogenesis...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
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