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Neural stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548278/neuropeptide-s-precursor-knockout-mice-display-memory-and-arousal-deficits
#1
Xiaobin Liu, Wei Si, Celia Garau, Kay Jüngling, Hans-Christian Pape, Stefan Schulz, Rainer K Reinscheid
Activation of Neuropeptide S (NPS) signaling has been found to produce arousal, wakefulness, anxiolytic-like behaviors and enhanced memory formation. In order to further study physiological functions of the NPS system, we generated NPS precursor knockout mice by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. NPS(-/-) mice were viable, fertile, and anatomically normal, when compared to their wildtype and heterozygous littermates. The total number of NPS neurons - although no longer synthesizing the peptide - was not affected by the knockout, as analyzed in NPS(-/-) /NPS(EGFP) double-transgenic mice...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547849/heparan-sulfate-alterations-in-extracellular-matrix-structures-and-fgf-2-signaling-impairment-in-the-aged-neurogenic-niche
#2
Taihei Yamada, Aurelien Kerever, Yusuke Yoshimura, Yuji Suzuki, Risa Nonaka, Kyohei Higashi, Toshihiko Toida, Frederic Mercier, Eri Arikawa-Hirasawa
Adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle decreases with age. In the subventricular zone, the specialized extracellular matrix structures, known as fractones, contact neural stem cells and regulate neurogenesis. Fractones are composed of extracellular matrix components, such as heparan sulfate proteoglycans. We previously found that fractones capture and store fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) via heparan sulfate binding, and may deliver FGF-2 to neural stem cells in a timely manner...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546680/the-impact-of-the-yogic-lifestyle-on-cancer-prognosis-and-survival-can-we-target-cancer-stem-cells-with-yoga
#3
Kavita Beri
Cancer has recently been known to originate from stem cell-like cells, called cancer stem cells (CSCs). Their unique properties of self-duplication, multiplication, as well as migration give the CSC resistance over conventional cancer therapies. Newer therapies are in developmental stage to target these stem cell-like populations and become the vanguard of future treatments. Several complementary and alternative treatments have been used in cancer management as an adjunct to conventional therapy to improve the overall quality of life and reduce recurrence...
May 2017: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546577/corrigendum-landscape-of-monoallelic-dna-accessibility-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-and-neural-progenitor-cells
#4
Jin Xu, Ava C Carter, Anne-Valerie Gendrel, Mikael Attia, Joshua Loftus, William J Greenleaf, Robert Tibshirani, Edith Heard, Howard Y Chang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546127/new-genes-for-accurate-normalization-of-qrt-pcr-results-in-study-of-ips-and-ips-derived-cells
#5
A S Artyukhov, E B Dashinimaev, V O Tsvetkov, A P Bolshakov, E V Konovalova, S N Kolbaev, E A Vorotelyak, A V Vasiliev
iPSC-derived cells (from induced pluripotent stem cells) are a useful source that provide a powerful and widely accepted tool for the study of various types of human cells in vitro. Indeed, iPSC-derived cells from patients with hereditary diseases have been shown to reproduce the hallmarks of these diseases in vitro, phenotypes that can then also be manipulated in vitro. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is often used to characterize the progress of iPSC differentiation, validate mature cell types and to determine levels of pathological markers...
May 22, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545819/comparative-approaches-to-understanding-thyroid-hormone-regulation-of-neurogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Jean-David Gothié, Barbara Demeneix, Sylvie Remaud
Thyroid hormone (TH) signalling, an evolutionary conserved pathway, is crucial for brain function and cognition throughout life, from early development to ageing. In humans, TH deficiency during pregnancy alters offspring brain development, increasing the risk of cognitive disorders. How TH regulates neurogenesis and subsequent behaviour and cognitive functions remains a major research challenge. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying TH signalling on proliferation, survival, determination, migration, differentiation and maturation have been studied in mammalian animal models for over a century...
May 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544974/cetuximab-modified-collagen-scaffold-directs-neurogenesis-of-injury-activated-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-for-acute-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#7
Xing Li, Yannan Zhao, Shixiang Cheng, Sufang Han, Muya Shu, Bing Chen, Xuyi Chen, Fengwu Tang, Nuo Wang, Yue Tu, Bin Wang, Zhifeng Xiao, Sai Zhang, Jianwu Dai
Studies have shown that endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) activated by spinal cord injury (SCI) primarily generate astrocytes to form glial scar. The NSCs do not differentiate into neurons because of the adverse microenvironment. In this study, we defined the activation timeline of endogenous NSCs in rats with severe SCI. These injury-activated NSCs then migrated into the lesion site. Cetuximab, an EGFR signaling antagonist, significantly increased neurogenesis in the lesion site. Meanwhile, implanting cetuximab modified linear ordered collagen scaffolds (LOCS) into SCI lesion sites in dogs resulted in neuronal regeneration, including neuronal differentiation, maturation, myelination, and synapse formation...
May 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544655/3d-bioprinting-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-constructs-for-in-situ-cell-proliferation-and-successive-multilineage-differentiation
#8
Qi Gu, Eva Tomaskovic-Crook, Gordon G Wallace, Jeremy M Crook
The ability to create 3D tissues from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is poised to revolutionize stem cell research and regenerative medicine, including individualized, patient-specific stem cell-based treatments. There are, however, few examples of tissue engineering using iPSCs. Their culture and differentiation is predominantly planar for monolayer cell support or induction of self-organizing embryoids (EBs) and organoids. Bioprinting iPSCs with advanced biomaterials promises to augment efforts to develop 3D tissues, ideally comprising direct-write printing of cells for encapsulation, proliferation, and differentiation...
May 24, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544378/concise-review-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-based-drug-discovery-for-mitochondrial-disease
#9
REVIEW
Gizem Inak, Carmen Lorenz, Pawel Lisowski, Annika Zink, Barbara Mlody, Alessandro Prigione
High attrition rates and loss of capital plague the drug discovery process. This is particularly evident for mitochondrial disease that typically involves neurological manifestations and is caused by nuclear or mitochondrial DNA defects. This group of heterogeneous disorders is difficult to target because of the variability of the symptoms among individual patients and the lack of viable modeling systems. The use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) might significantly improve the search for effective therapies for mitochondrial disease...
May 22, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541657/chemical-modulation-of-protein-o-glcnacylation-via-ogt-inhibition-promotes-human-neural-cell-differentiation
#10
Lissette M Andres, Ian W Blong, Angela C Evans, Neil G Rumachik, Teppei Yamaguchi, Nam D Pham, Pamela Thompson, Jennifer J Kohler, Carolyn R Bertozzi
The enzymes that determine protein O-GlcNAcylation, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), act on key transcriptional and epigenetic regulators and both are abundantly expressed in the brain. However, little is known about how alterations in O-GlcNAc cycling affect human embryonic stem cell (hESC) neural differentiation. Here, we studied the effects of perturbing O-GlcNAcylation during neural induction of hESCs using the metabolic inhibitor of OGT, peracetylated 5-thio-N-acetylglucosamine (Ac4-5SGlcNAc)...
May 25, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541431/emerging-safety-of-intramedullary-transplantation-of-human-neural-stem-cells-in-chronic-cervical-and-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Allan D Levi, David O Okonkwo, Paul Park, Arthur L Jenkins, Shekar N Kurpad, Ann M Parr, Aruna Ganju, Bizhan Aarabi, Dong Kim, Steven Casha, Michael G Fehlings, James S Harrop, Kim D Anderson, Allyson Gage, Jane Hsieh, Stephen Huhn, Armin Curt, Raphael Guzman
BACKGROUND: Human central nervous system stem cells (HuCNS-SC) are multipotent adult stem cells with successful engraftment, migration, and region-appropriate differentiation after spinal cord injury (SCI). OBJECTIVE: To present data on the surgical safety profile and feasibility of multiple intramedullary perilesional injections of HuCNS-SC after SCI. METHODS: Intramedullary free-hand (manual) transplantation of HuCNS-SC cells was performed in subjects with thoracic (n = 12) and cervical (n = 17) complete and sensory incomplete chronic traumatic SCI...
May 24, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540772/management-of-glaucoma-as-a-neurodegenerative-disease
#12
Gurjeet Jutley, Sheila Mh Luk, Mohammad H Dehabadi, M Francesca Cordeiro
Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease with an estimated prevalence of 60 million people, and the most common cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The mainstay of treatment has been aimed at lowering intraocular pressure, currently the only modifiable risk factor. Unfortunately, despite adequate pressure control, many patients go on to suffer irreversible visual loss. We first briefly examine currently established intraocular pressure lowering-treatments, with a discussion of their roles in neuroprotection as demonstrated by both animal and clinical studies...
April 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539859/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-generated-neural-cells-behaving-like-brain-and-spinal-cord-cells-an-insight-into-the-involvement-of-retinoic-acid-and-sonic-hedgehog-proteins
#13
Akinlolu Abdulazeez Adelaja
OBJECTIVES: The previous studies generated neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) using different protocols. However, the nature of the temporal or regional specificity of NPCs derived using these protocols is not well defined. Therefore, this study aimed to generate age- and region-specific NPCs from hiPSCs, which mimic in vivo fetal brain (FNPC-B) or spinal cord (FNPC-SC) tissues, in the absence or presence of retinoic acid (RA) and sonic hedgehog (SHH)...
April 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539263/nutrients-neurogenesis-and-brain-ageing-from-disease-mechanisms-to-therapeutic-opportunities
#14
REVIEW
Marco Fidaleo, Virve Cavallucci, Giovambattista Pani
Appreciation of the physiological relevance of mammalian adult neurogenesis has in recent years rapidly expanded from a phenomenon of homeostatic cell replacement and brain repair to the current view of a complex process involved in high order cognitive functions. In parallel, an array of endogenous or exogenous triggers of neurogenesis have also been identified, among which metabolic and nutritional cues have drawn significant attention. Converging evidence from animal and in vitro studies point to nutrient sensing and energy metabolism as major physiological determinants of neural stem cell fate, and modulators of the whole neurogenic process...
May 21, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537485/a-nad-parp1-sirt1-axis-in-aging
#15
Andrew R Mendelsohn, James Larrick
NAD+ levels decline with age in diverse animals from C. elegans to mice. Raising NAD+ levels by dietary supplementation with NAD+ precursors NR or NMN improves mitochondrial function and muscle, neural and melanocyte stem cell function in mice as well as increasing murine lifespan. Decreased NAD+ levels with age reduces SIRT1 function and reduces the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, which can be overcome by NR supplementation. Decreased NAD+ levels cause NAD+-binding protein DCB1 to form a complex with PARP1, inhibiting PARP catalytic activity...
May 24, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536952/ncam-affects-directional-lamellipodia-formation-of-bmscs-via-%C3%AE-1-integrin-signal-mediated-cofilin-activity
#16
Jia-Jia Bi, Jing Li, Bin-Feng Cheng, Hai-Jie Yang, Qiong-Qiong Ding, Rui-Fei Wang, Su-Juan Chen, Zhi-Wei Feng
The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), a key member of the immunoglobulin-like CAM family, was reported to regulate the migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). However, the detailed cellular behaviors including lamellipodia formation in the initial step of directional migration remain largely unknown. In the present study, we reported that NCAM affects the lamellipodia formation of BMSCs. Using BMSCs from Ncam knockout mice we found that Ncam deficiency significantly impaired the migration and the directional lamellipodia formation of BMSCs...
May 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536527/opiate-analgesics-as-negative-modulators-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-potential-implications-in-clinical-practice
#17
REVIEW
Valeria Bortolotto, Mariagrazia Grilli
During the past decade, studies of the mechanisms and functional implications of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (ahNG) have significantly progressed. At present, it is proposed that adult born neurons may contribute to a variety of hippocampal-related functions, including specific cognitive aspects and mood regulation. Several groups focussed on the factors that regulate proliferation and fate determination of adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC/NPC), including clinically relevant drugs. Opiates were the first drugs shown to negatively impact neurogenesis in the adult mammalian hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536319/-the-role-of-lncrna-in-regulation-of-neural-stem-cell-fate
#18
Ryuta Kinoshita, Yusuke Kishi, Yukiko Gotoh
Recent advances in analysis technology have revealed that non-coding RNAs(ncRNA)that are not translated and function as RNA itself. It has been revealed that long ncRNA(lncRNA), which has more than and 200 nucleotides, is involved in the regulation of fate decision in neural stem cells. In this article, we introduce some functional lncRNAs regulating neural stem cells and discuss the future perspective about this field.
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536180/yy1-and-ctcf-orchestrate-a-3d-chromatin-looping-switch-during-early-neural-lineage-commitment
#19
Jonathan A Beagan, Michael T Duong, Katelyn R Titus, Linda Zhou, Zhendong Cao, Jingjing Ma, Caroline V Lachanski, Daniel R Gillis, Jennifer E Phillips-Cremins
CTCF is an architectural protein with a critical role in connecting higher-order chromatin folding in pluripotent stem cells. Recent reports have suggested that CTCF binding is more dynamic during development than previously appreciated. Here we set out to understand the extent to which shifts in genome-wide CTCF occupancy contribute to the 3-D reconfiguration of fine-scale chromatin folding during early neural lineage commitment. Unexpectedly, we observe a sharp decrease in CTCF occupancy during the transition from naive/primed pluripotency to multipotent primary neural progenitor cells (NPCs)...
May 23, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536141/melk-and-ezh2-cooperate-to-regulate-medulloblastoma-cancer-stem-like-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#20
Hailong Liu, Qianwen Sun, Youliang Sun, Junping Zhang, Hongyu Yuan, Shuhuan Pang, Xueling Qi, Haoran Wang, Mingshan Zhang, Honwei Zhang, Chunjiang Yu, Chunyu Gu
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Although accumulated research has suggested that cancer stem-like cells play a key role in medulloblastoma tumorigenesis, the specific molecular mechanism regarding proliferation remains elusive. Here, we reported that more abundant expression of maternal embryonic leucine-zipper kinase (MELK) and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) in medulloblastoma stem-like cells than in neural stem cells and the interaction between the two proteins could mediate the self-renewal of sonic hedgehog (SHH)-subtype medulloblastoma...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
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