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Neural stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053968/multiscale-3d-genome-rewiring-during-mouse-neural-development
#1
Boyan Bonev, Netta Mendelson Cohen, Quentin Szabo, Lauriane Fritsch, Giorgio L Papadopoulos, Yaniv Lubling, Xiaole Xu, Xiaodan Lv, Jean-Philippe Hugnot, Amos Tanay, Giacomo Cavalli
Chromosome conformation capture technologies have revealed important insights into genome folding. Yet, how spatial genome architecture is related to gene expression and cell fate remains unclear. We comprehensively mapped 3D chromatin organization during mouse neural differentiation in vitro and in vivo, generating the highest-resolution Hi-C maps available to date. We found that transcription is correlated with chromatin insulation and long-range interactions, but dCas9-mediated activation is insufficient for creating TAD boundaries de novo...
October 19, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053743/in-vitro-modeling-of-experimental-succinic-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase-deficiency-ssadhd-using-brain-derived-neural-stem-cells
#2
Kara R Vogel, Garrett R Ainslie, Erwin E Jansen, Gajja S Salomons, Jean-Baptiste Roullet, K Michael Gibson
We explored the utility of neural stem cells (NSCs) as an in vitro model for evaluating preclinical therapeutics in succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase-deficient (SSADHD) mice. NSCs were obtained from aldh5a1+/+ and aldh5a1-/- mice (aldh5a1 = aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 = SSADH). Multiple parameters were evaluated including: (1) production of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyrate), the biochemical hallmark of SSADHD; (2) rescue from cell death with the dual mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) inhibitor, XL-765, an agent previously shown to rescue aldh5a1-/- mice from premature lethality; (3) mitochondrial number, total reactive oxygen species, and mitochondrial superoxide production, all previously documented as abnormal in aldh5a1-/- mice; (4) total ATP levels and ATP consumption; and (5) selected gene expression profiles associated with epilepsy, a prominent feature in both experimental and human SSADHD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051854/an-important-function-of-petrosiol-e-in-inducing-the-differentiation-of-neuronal-progenitors-and-in-protecting-them-against-oxidative-stress
#3
Jing Liu, Linlin Wang, Yuguo Du, Sijin Liu
Insufficient endogenous neurotrophin supply contributes to neurodegeneration. Meanwhile, neuronal injuries are also attributed to oxidative stress upon toxin exposure. Thus, reconstruction neurite extension and antioxidative stress are the potential strategies for ameliorating neuronal injuries. However, there is no well-defined therapeutic developed in this regard. In search of such therapeutics, Petrosiol E is identified here as a potent inducer to guide the differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells. Petrosiol E also considerably promotes embryonic stem cell differentiation into neural ectoderm features...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050935/the-l1-adhesion-molecule-normalizes-neuritogenesis-in-rett-syndrome-derived-neural-precursor-cells
#4
Myungsik Yoo, Cassiano Carromeu, Ohyoon Kwon, Alysson Muotri, Melitta Schachner
Therapeutic intervention is an important need in ameliorating the severe consequences of Rett Syndrome (RTT), a neurological disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked gene methyl-CpG-binding protein-2 (MeCP2). Following previously observed morphological defects in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons obtained from female RTT patients, we hypothesized transfection with the L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1) could contribute to normalizing a pathological male cell system bearing a nonsense mutation of MeCP2...
October 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050872/manf-promotes-differentiation-and-migration-of-neural-progenitor-cells-with-potential-neural-regenerative-effects-in-stroke
#5
Kuan-Yin Tseng, Jenni E Anttila, Konstantin Khodosevich, Raimo K Tuominen, Maria Lindahl, Andrii Domanskyi, Mikko Airavaara
Cerebral ischemia activates endogenous reparative processes, such as increased proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and migration of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) toward the ischemic area. However, this reparative process is limited because most of the NPCs die shortly after injury or are unable to arrive at the infarct boundary. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that endogenous mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) protects NSCs against oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced injury and has a crucial role in regulating NPC migration...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050826/live-cell-time-lapse-imaging-and-single-cell-tracking-of-in-vitro-cultured-neural-stem-cells-tools-for-analyzing-dynamics-of-cell-cycle-migration-and-lineage-selection
#6
Katja M Piltti, Brian J Cummings, Krystal Carta, Ayla Manughian-Peter, Colleen Worne, Kulbir Singh, Danier Ong, Yuriy Maksymyuk, Michelle Khine, Aileen J Anderson
Neural stem cell (NSC) cultures have been considered technically challenging for time-lapse analysis due to high motility, photosensitivity, and growth at confluent densities. We have tested feasibility of long-term live-cell time-lapse analysis for NSC migration and differentiation studies. Here, we describe a method to study the dynamics of cell cycle, migration, and lineage selection in cultured multipotent mouse or human NSCs using single-cell tracking during a long-term, 7-14 day live-cell time-lapse analysis...
October 16, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049740/phenotypic-plasticity-in-uveal-melanoma-is-not-restricted-to-a-tumor-subpopulation-and-is-unrelated-to-cancer-stem-cell-characteristics
#7
Rachel E Doherty, Karen Sisley, David W Hammond, Ian G Rennie, Neil A Cross
Purpose: Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults and approximately half of those diagnosed will die of metastasis. This study investigates whether UM progression is driven by a subpopulation of stem-like cells, termed "cancer stem cells" (CSCs). Methods: Expression of postulated stem cell markers aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), CD44, and CD133 was analyzed in UM cell lines and primary UM short-term cultures (STCs) established from tumor samples...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049289/a-molecular-atlas-of-the-developing-ectoderm-defines-neural-neural-crest-placode-and-nonneural-progenitor-identity-in-vertebrates
#8
Jean-Louis Plouhinec, Sofía Medina-Ruiz, Caroline Borday, Elsa Bernard, Jean-Philippe Vert, Michael B Eisen, Richard M Harland, Anne H Monsoro-Burq
During vertebrate neurulation, the embryonic ectoderm is patterned into lineage progenitors for neural plate, neural crest, placodes and epidermis. Here, we use Xenopus laevis embryos to analyze the spatial and temporal transcriptome of distinct ectodermal domains in the course of neurulation, during the establishment of cell lineages. In order to define the transcriptome of small groups of cells from a single germ layer and to retain spatial information, dorsal and ventral ectoderm was subdivided along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes by microdissections...
October 19, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047282/a-new-cell-separation-method-based-on-antibody-immobilized-nanoneedle-arrays-for-the-detection-of-intracellular-markers
#9
Ryuzo Kawamura, Minami Miyazaki, Keita Shimizu, Yuta Matsumoto, Yaron R Silberberg, Ramachandra Rao Sathuluri, Masumi Iijima, Shun'ichi Kuroda, Futoshi Iwata, Takeshi Kobayashi, Chikashi Nakamura
Focusing on intracellular targets, we propose a new cell separation technique based on a nanoneedle array (NNA) device, which allows simultaneous insertion of multiple needles into multiple cells. The device is designed to target and lift ('fish') individual cells from a mixed population of cells on a substrate using an antibody-functionalized NNA. The mechanics underlying this approach were validated by force analysis using an atomic force microscope. Accurate high-throughput separation was achieved using one-to-one contacts between the nanoneedles and the cells by preparing a single-cell array in which the positions of the cells were aligned with 10,000 nanoneedles in the NNA...
October 19, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046917/effects-of-an-injectable-functionalized-self-assembling-nanopeptide-hydrogel-on-angiogenesis-and-neurogenesis-for-regeneration-of-the-central-nervous-system
#10
Tzu-Wei Wang, Kai-Chieh Chang, Liang-Hsin Chen, Shih-Yung Liao, Chia-Wei Yeh, Yung-Jen Chuang
Brain injury is a devastating medical condition and represents a major health problem. Tissue and organ reconstruction have been regarded as promising therapeutic strategies. Here, we propose a regenerative methodology focusing on the provision of functionalized nanopeptide scaffolds to facilitate angiogenesis and neurogenesis at the brain injury site. The peptide RADA16-SVVYGLR undergoes self-assembly to construct an interconnected network with intertwining nanofibers, and can be controlled to display various physicochemical properties by the adjustment of microenvironmental factors such as pH and ion concentration...
October 19, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046883/human-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-into-the-corpus-callosum-of-alzheimer-s-mice
#11
Lisa M McGinley, Osama N Kashlan, Kevin S Chen, Elizabeth S Bruno, John M Hayes, Carey Backus, Seth Feldman, Bader N Kashlan, Karl Johe, Eva L Feldman
The hippocampus has been the target of stem cell transplantations in preclinical studies focused on Alzheimer's disease, with results showing improvements in histological and behavioral outcomes. The corpus callosum is another structure that is affected early in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we hypothesize that this structure is a novel target for human neural stem cell transplantation in transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse models. This study demonstrates the feasibility of targeting the corpus callosum and identifies an effective immunosuppression regimen for transplanted neural stem cell survival...
October 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045725/stemmapper-a-curated-gene-expression-database-for-stem-cell-lineage-analysis
#12
José P Pinto, Rui S R Machado, Ramiro Magno, Daniel V Oliveira, Susana Machado, Raquel P Andrade, José Bragança, Isabel Duarte, Matthias E Futschik
Transcriptomic data have become a fundamental resource for stem cell (SC) biologists as well as for a wider research audience studying SC-related processes such as aging, embryonic development and prevalent diseases including cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. Access and analysis of the growing amount of freely available transcriptomics datasets for SCs, however, are not trivial tasks. Here, we present StemMapper, a manually curated gene expression database and comprehensive resource for SC research, built on integrated data for different lineages of human and mouse SCs...
October 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044560/regulating-the-transcriptomes-that-mediate-the-conversion-of-fibroblasts-to-various-nervous-system-neural-cell-types
#13
Niusha Khazaei, Shima Rastegar-Pouyani, Nicholas O'Toole, Ping Wee, Abdulshakour Mohammadnia, Moein Yaqubi
Our understanding of the mechanism of cell fate transition during the direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into various central nervous system (CNS) neural cell types has been limited by the lack of a comprehensive analysis on generated cells, independently and in comparison with other CNS neural cell types. Here, we applied an integrative approach on 18 independent high throughput expression data sets to gain insight into the regulation of the transcriptome during the conversion of fibroblasts into induced neural stem cells, induced neurons, induced astrocytes, and induced oligodendrocyte progenitor cells...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040813/developmental-neurotoxic-effects-of-a-low-dose-of-tce-on-3d-neurosphere-system
#14
Mohamed Elsaid Abdraboh, Sherif H Abdeen, Mohamed Salama, Mahmoud Elhussiny, Yasser M El-Sherbini, Nada M Eldeen
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the industrial toxic products that ever-present in air, soil and water. Several studies illustrated the toxicity of high doses of TCE on several organs. This study aims to determine the toxic effect of a low dose of TCE on development of rat neural stem cells (NSCs). Rat pups brains were collected, minced and harvested cells were cultured in the presence of neural growth factors B27/N8 to develop neurospheres. Afterwards, cells were subjected to a dose of 1µM TCE for 1 and 2 weeks...
October 17, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039576/effects-of-ginsenoside%C3%A2-rg1-on-the-proliferation-and-glial%C3%A2-like-directed-differentiation-of-embryonic-rat-cortical-neural-stem-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro
#15
Jian Gao, Feng Wan, Mo Tian, Yuanyuan Li, Yuxuan Li, Qiang Li, Jianping Zhang, Yongxue Wang, Xiang Huang, Lijuan Zhang, Yinchu Si
Ginsenoside‑Rg1, the main active component of Panax notoginseng, exhibits a number of pharmacological functions, including promoting protein synthesis in the brain, increasing the number of synapses, improving memory and promoting recovery of brain function following injury. The effect of ginsenoside‑Rg1 on proliferation and glial‑like‑directed differentiation in the cortical neural stem cells (NSCs) of embryonic rat brain was investigated. The present study used MTS assays to identify the optimum dose and window time of ginsenoside‑Rg1 administration to stimulate the proliferation of cortical NSCs in the rat embryonic tissue...
October 6, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038007/baicalin-and-ginsenoside-rb1-promote-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells-in-alzheimer-s-disease-model-rats
#16
Jiwei Zhao, Shanshan Lu, Hongli Yu, Shurong Duan, Jingkun Zhao
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the effect of ginsenoside Rb1 and baicalin on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSC) in Alzheimer's disease model rats. METHOD: The healthy Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, model group, ginsenoside Rb1 group and baicalin group. Besides, the animal model of dementia was induced by the injection of Aβ1-40. 2 weeks later, the rats in the baicalin and ginsenoside Rb1 groups were injected with baicalin and ginsenoside Rb1, respectively...
October 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037816/in-vitro-segregation-and-isolation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-crest-cells
#17
Sabine Münst, Philipp Koch, Jaideep Kesavan, Michael Alexander-Mays, Bernhard Münst, Sandra Blaess, Oliver Brüstle
The neural crest (NC) is a transient embryonic cell population with remarkable characteristics. After delaminating from the neural tube, NC cells (NCCs) migrate extensively, populate nearly every tissue of the body and differentiate into highly diverse cell types such as peripheral neurons and glia, but also mesenchymal cells including chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes. While the NC has been extensively studied in several animal models, little is known about human NC development. A number of methods have been established to derive NCCs in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC)...
October 13, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036922/microrna-and-mrna-dysregulation-in-astrocytes-infected-with-zika-virus
#18
Robert A Kozak, Anna Majer, Mia J Biondi, Sarah J Medina, Lee W Goneau, Babu V Sajesh, Jessy A Slota, Vanessa Zubach, Alberto Severini, David Safronetz, Shannon L Hiebert, Daniel R Beniac, Timothy F Booth, Stephanie A Booth, Gary P Kobinger
The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic is an ongoing public health concern. ZIKV is a flavivirus reported to be associated with microcephaly, and recent work in animal models demonstrates the ability of the virus to cross the placenta and affect fetal brain development. Recent findings suggest that the virus preferentially infects neural stem cells and thereby deregulates gene expression, cell cycle progression, and increases cell death. However, neuronal stem cells are not the only brain cells that are susceptible to ZIKV and infection of other brain cells may contribute to disease progression...
October 14, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036908/propofol-induces-apoptosis-of-neurons-but-not-astrocytes-oligodendrocytes-or-neural-stem-cells-in-the-neonatal-mouse-hippocampus
#19
Yasheng Yan, Shigang Qiao, Chika Kikuchi, Ivan Zaja, Sarah Logan, Congshan Jiang, Thiago Arzua, Xiaowen Bai
It has been shown that propofol can induce widespread apoptosis in neonatal mouse brains followed by long-term cognitive dysfunction. However, selective brain area and cell vulnerability to propofol remains unknown. This study was aimed to dissect toxic effect of propofol on multiple brain cells, including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neural stem cells (NSCs). Seven-day-old mice were intraperitoneally administrated propofol or intralipid as a vehicle control for 6 hours. To identify vulnerable cells undergoing apoptosis following propofol exposure, brain sagittal sections were co-stained with antibodies against an apoptosis marker along with neuron, astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, or NSC markers using immunofluorescence staining...
October 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036709/deep-learning-of-the-splicing-epi-genetic-code-reveals-a-novel-candidate-mechanism-linking-histone-modifications-to-esc-fate-decision
#20
Yungang Xu, Yongcui Wang, Jiesi Luo, Weiling Zhao, Xiaobo Zhou
Alternative splicing (AS) is a genetically and epigenetically regulated pre-mRNA processing to increase transcriptome and proteome diversity. Comprehensively decoding these regulatory mechanisms holds promise in getting deeper insights into a variety of biological contexts involving in AS, such as development and diseases. We assembled splicing (epi)genetic code, DeepCode, for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) differentiation by integrating heterogeneous features of genomic sequences, 16 histone modifications with a multi-label deep neural network...
September 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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