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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749629/knowledge-attitudes-and-perceptions-of-prostate-cancer-among-male-staff-of-the-university-of-nigeria
#1
Maxwell Ogochukwu Adibe, Deborah Oyine Aluh, Abdulmuminu Isah, Chibueze Anosike
Prostate cancer is the number one cancer in males in Africa, both in terms of incidence and mortality, accounting for 40,000 (13%) male cancers and 28,000 (11.3%) male cancer-associated deaths. In the developed world, the probability of being diagnosed with cancer is more than twice as high as in developing countries. In developing countries, most cancer victims are diagnosed at late stage, with incurable tumors, pointing to the need for education schemes and better detection programs. This study assessed knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of prostate cancer among male staff of the University of Nigeria...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749606/perceived-stress-is-associated-with-increased-rostral-middle-frontal-gyrus-cortical-thickness-a-family-based-and-discordant-sibling-investigation
#2
L J Michalski, C H Demers, D A A Baranger, D M Barch, M P Harms, G C Burgess, R Bogdan
BACKGROUND: Elevated stress perception and depression commonly co-occur, suggesting that they share a common neurobiology. Cortical thickness of the rostral middle frontal gyrus (RMFG), a region critical for executive function, has been associated with depression- and stress-related phenotypes. Here, we examined whether RMFG cortical thickness is associated with these phenotypes in a large family-based community sample. METHODS: RMFG cortical thickness was estimated using FreeSurfer among participants (n=879) who completed the ongoing Human Connectome Project...
July 27, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749563/a-probabilistic-framework-for-risk-analysis-of-widespread-flood-events-a-proof-of-concept-study
#3
Klaus Schneeberger, Matthias Huttenlau, Benjamin Winter, Thomas Steinberger, Stefan Achleitner, Johann Stötter
This article presents a flood risk analysis model that considers the spatially heterogeneous nature of flood events. The basic concept of this approach is to generate a large sample of flood events that can be regarded as temporal extrapolation of flood events. These are combined with cumulative flood impact indicators, such as building damages, to finally derive time series of damages for risk estimation. Therefore, a multivariate modeling procedure that is able to take into account the spatial characteristics of flooding, the regionalization method top-kriging, and three different impact indicators are combined in a model chain...
July 27, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749454/the-association-of-low-penetrance-variants-in-dna-repair-genes-with-colorectal-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Nikhil Aggarwal, Neil D Donald, Salim Malik, Subothini S Selvendran, Mark Jw McPhail, Kevin J Monahan
OBJECTIVES: Approximately 35% of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is attributable to heritable factors known hereditary syndromes, accounting for 6%. The remainder may be due to lower penetrance polymorphisms particularly of DNA repair genes. DNA repair pathways, including base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), mismatch repair (MMR), direct reversal repair (DRR), and double-strand break repair are complex, evolutionarily conserved, and critical in carcinogenesis. Germline mutations in these genes are associated with high-penetrance CRC syndromes such as Lynch syndrome...
July 27, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749449/food-sources-of-sodium-intake-in-an-adult-mexican-population-a-sub-analysis-of-the-salmex-study
#5
Eloisa Colin-Ramirez, Ángeles Espinosa-Cuevas, Paola Vanessa Miranda-Alatriste, Verónica Ivette Tovar-Villegas, JoAnne Arcand, Ricardo Correa-Rotter
Excessive dietary sodium intake increases blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. In Western diets, the majority of dietary sodium comes from packaged and prepared foods (≈75%); however, in Mexico there is no available data on the main food sources of dietary sodium. The main objective of this study was to identify and characterize the major food sources of dietary sodium in a sample of the Mexican Salt and Mexico (SALMEX) cohort. Adult male and female participants of the SALMEX study who provided a complete and valid three-day food record during the baseline visit were included...
July 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749444/a-possible-percutaneous-penetration-pathway-that-should-be-considered
#6
Ichiro Hatta, Noboru Ohta, Hiromitsu Nakazawa
The intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum form structures composed of ordered phases with orthorhombic and hexagonal hydrocarbon-chain packing structures and, in addition, a structure composed of a disordered fluid phase. Although the fluid phase plays an important role in percutaneous penetration, little attention has been paid to it in the literature thus far. Recently, a method to estimate the proportion of the fluid phase within the lipids of the stratum corneum was proposed and it was shown to reach about 80%...
July 27, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749407/multi-robot-interfaces-and-operator-situational-awareness-study-of-the-impact-of-immersion-and-prediction
#7
Juan Jesús Roldán, Elena Peña-Tapia, Andrés Martín-Barrio, Miguel A Olivares-Méndez, Jaime Del Cerro, Antonio Barrientos
Multi-robot missions are a challenge for operators in terms of workload and situational awareness. These operators have to receive data from the robots, extract information, understand the situation properly, make decisions, generate the adequate commands, and send them to the robots. The consequences of excessive workload and lack of awareness can vary from inefficiencies to accidents. This work focuses on the study of future operator interfaces of multi-robot systems, taking into account relevant issues such as multimodal interactions, immersive devices, predictive capabilities and adaptive displays...
July 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749375/towards-fast-online-intrafraction-replanning-for-free-breathing-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-with-the-mr-linac
#8
Charis Kontaxis, Gijsbert H Bol, Bjorn Stemkens, Markus Glitzner, Fieke M Prins, Linda G W Kerkmeijer, Jan J W Lagendijk, Bas W Raaymakers
The hybrid MRI-radiotherapy machines, like the MR-linac (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) installed at the UMC Utrecht (Utrecht, The Netherlands), will be able to provide real-time patient imaging during treatment. In order to take advantage of the system's capabilities and enable online adaptive treatments, a new generation of software should be developed, ranging from motion estimation to treatment plan adaptation. In this work we present a proof of principle adaptive pipeline designed for high precision Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) suitable for sites affected by respiratory motion, like Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC)...
July 27, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749347/approximate-message-passing-reconstruction-of-quantitative-acoustic-microscopy-images
#9
J-H Kim, J Mamou, P R Hill, N Canagarajah, D Kouame, A Basarab, A Achim
A novel framework for compressive sensing (CS) data acquisition and reconstruction in quantitative acoustic microscopy (QAM) is presented. Three different compressive sensing patterns, adapted to the specifics of QAM systems, were investigated as an alternative to the current raster-scanning approach. They consist of diagonal sampling, a row random and a spiral scanning pattern and they can all significantly reduce both the acquisition time and the amount of sampled data. For subsequent image reconstruction, we design and implement an innovative technique, whereby a recently proposed approximate message passing (AMP) method is adapted to account for the underlying data statistics...
July 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749346/attribute-and-or-grammar-for-joint-parsing-of-human-pose-parts-and-attributes
#10
Seyoung Park, Xiaohan Nie, Song-Chun Zhu
This paper presents an attribute and-or grammar (A-AOG) model for jointly inferring human body pose and human attributes in a parse graph with attributes augmented to nodes in the hierarchical representation. In contrast to other popular methods in the current literature that train separate classifiers for poses and individual attributes, our method explicitly represents the decomposition and articulation of body parts, and account for the correlations between poses and attributes. The A-AOG model is an amalgamation of three traditional grammar formulations: (i)Phrase structure grammar representing the hierarchical decomposition of the human body from whole to parts; (ii)Dependency grammar modeling the geometric articulation by a kinematic graph of the body pose; and (iii)Attribute grammar accounting for the compatibility relations between different parts in the hierarchy so that their appearances follow a consistent style...
July 25, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749273/a-retrospective-review-of-western-lowland-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla-mortality-in-european-zoologic-collections-between-2004-and-2014
#11
Victoria Strong, Kerstin Baiker, Marnie L Brennan, Sharon Redrobe, Frank Rietkerk, Malcolm Cobb, Kate White
An understanding of the main causes of mortality among captive gorillas is imperative to promoting their optimal care, health, and welfare. A retrospective observational review of mortality among the European zoo-housed western lowland gorilla ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla) population from 2004 to 2014 was carried out. This is the first published study of mortality in this population. Relevant postmortem data were requested from each collection reporting a death during the study period. Age at death enabled grouping into discrete age categories...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749264/pulmonary-lesions-caused-by-the-lungworm-didelphostrongylus-hayesi-in-the-opossum-didelphis-virginiana-in-colima-mexico
#12
Rubén A López-Crespo, Alfonso López-Mayagoitia, Rafael Ramírez-Romero, Julio Martínez-Burnes, Omar F Prado-Rebolledo, Luis J García-Márquez
Didelphostrongylus hayesi is an important and prevalent pulmonary nematode in the opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ). An in-depth description of the pulmonary lesions caused by this nematode is lacking. The objective of this investigation was to make a detailed account of the gross, subgross, and microscopic changes that occur in the lungs of opossums naturally infected with D. hayesi. Forty-four opossums trapped in the state of Colima, Mexico, were euthanized by an overdose of barbiturates. Following a postmortem examination, the right lung was cut from the main bronchi and placed in a Petri dish containing a saline solution for the detection and identification of live parasites...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749261/colonic-adenocarcinomas-in-a-familial-group-of-captive-amur-rat-snakes-elaphe-schrencki
#13
Benjamin Lamglait, Karin Lemberger
This article reports five cases of colonic adenocarcinomas in a family group of captive Amur rat snake (Elaphe schrenckii) from the Réserve Africaine de Sigean, France. This tumor was detected in three females and two males, all adults, and accounted for 16% of causes of death of adults of this species at this institution from 1986 to 2013. Grossly, mild to marked thickening of the intestinal wall cranially to the cloaca was found in four cases; tan to yellow firm masses were noted in the distal intestinal wall in the other case...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749232/behavioural-and-cognitive-sex-gender-differences-in-autism-spectrum-condition-and-typically-developing-males-and-females
#14
Laura Hull, William Mandy, K V Petrides
Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included in meta-analyses of sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition symptoms (social/communication impairments and restricted/repetitive behaviours and interests) and intelligence quotient...
August 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749230/the-history-of-children-s-nursing-and-its-direction-within-the-united-kingdom
#15
Sonya Clarke
This article presents an account of the "evolution of children's nursing." The pertinent topic was originally developed as part of a Doctorate in Education (EdD) as it was anticipated an understanding of children's nursing would provide a more comprehensive context for a doctoral study that aims to explore the child's experience of staying in Northern Ireland's regional children's hospital from the perspectives of children and children's nurses using child-centered methodology. Northern Ireland, England, Scotland, and Wales are the 4 countries collectively known as the United Kingdom (UK)...
September 2017: Compr Child Adolesc Nurs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749063/patients-as-rights-holders
#16
Johan Brännmark
Autonomy and consent have been central values in Western moral and political thought for centuries. One way of understanding the bioethical models that started to develop, especially in the 1970s, is that they were about the fusion of a long-standing professional ethics with the core values underpinning modern political institutions. That there was a need for this kind of fusion is difficult to dispute, especially since the provision of health care has in most developed countries become an ever more important concern of our political institutions, with governments playing a significant role in regulating and facilitating the provision of health care and in many countries even largely organizing it...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749061/decision-making-for-an-incapacitated-pregnant-patient
#17
Hilary Mabel, Susannah L Rose, Eric Kodish
Decisions about continuing or terminating a pregnancy touch on profound, individualized questions about bodily integrity, reproductive autonomy, deeply held values regarding one's capacity for parenthood, and, in the case of a high-risk pregnancy, the risks one is willing to take to have a baby. So far as possible, reproductive decisions are made between a patient, in some cases her partner, and her medical provider. However, this standard framework cannot be applied if the patient lacks decision-making capacity...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748917/oesophageal-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Elizabeth C Smyth, Jesper Lagergren, Rebecca C Fitzgerald, Florian Lordick, Manish A Shah, Pernilla Lagergren, David Cunningham
Oesophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide and is therefore a major global health challenge. The two major subtypes of oesophageal cancer are oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), which are epidemiologically and biologically distinct. OSCC accounts for 90% of all cases of oesophageal cancer globally and is highly prevalent in the East, East Africa and South America. OAC is more common in developed countries than in developing countries...
July 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748783/detection-of-echinococcus-multilocularis-and-other-foodborne-parasites-in-fox-cat-and-dog-faeces-collected-in-kitchen-gardens-in-a-highly-endemic-area-for-alveolar-echinococcosis
#19
Marie-Lazarine Poulle, Matthieu Bastien, Yolan Richard, Émilie Josse-Dupuis, Dominique Aubert, Isabelle Villena, Jenny Knapp
Echinococcus multilocularis, Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. are foodborne parasites whose eggs or oocysts are spread in the environment via canid or felid faeces. They can cause infections in humans following the raw consumption of contaminated fruit or vegetables. In this study, their occurrence was investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in 254 carnivore faeces deposited in 94 kitchen gardens of northeastern France that were sampled between two and six times from October 2011 to April 2013...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748740/the-use-of-fluoroscopic-guided-percutaneous-pedicle-screws-in-the-upper-thoracic-spine-t1-t6-is-it-safe
#20
Mun Keong Kwan, Chee Kidd Chiu, Chris Yin Wei Chan, Reza Zamani, Nils Hansen-Algenstaedt
PURPOSE: This study analysed the accuracy and safety of the fluoroscopic guided percutaneous screws in the upper thoracic vertebrae (T1-T6). METHODS: Computed tomography scans from 74 patients were retrospectively evaluated between January 2008 and December 2012. Pedicle perforations were classified by two types of grading systems. For medial, lateral, superior and inferior perforations: grade 0 - no violation; grade 1 - <2 mm; grade 2 - 2-4 mm and grade 3 - >4 mm...
May 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
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