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Pancreas cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815403/overexpression-of-topoisomerase-2-alpha-confers-a-poor-prognosis-in-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-identified-by-co-expression-analysis
#1
Zhou Zhou, Shi Liu, Meng Zhang, Rui Zhou, Jing Liu, Ying Chang, Qiu Zhao
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth most common cause of human cancer-related death in the developed countries. Its progression and prognosis are influenced by a complex network of gene interactions. AIMS: The purpose of this study is to explore key genes associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and to predict the possible mechanisms. METHODS: A weighted gene co-expression network was constructed to identify gene modules associated with the progression of PDAC...
August 16, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815078/surgical-anatomy-of-the-omental-bursa-and-the-stomach-based-on-a-minimally-invasive-approach-different-approaches-and-technical-steps-to-resection-and-lymphadenectomy
#2
Hylke J F Brenkman, Nicole I van der Wielen, Jelle P Ruurda, Maarten S van Leeuwen, Joris J G Scheepers, Donald L van der Peet, Richard van Hillegersberg, Ronald L A W Bleys, Miguel A Cuesta
BACKGROUND: It is imperative for surgeons to have a proper knowledge of the omental bursa in order to perform an adequate dissection during minimally invasive surgery (MIS) of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This study aimed to describe (1) the various approaches which can be used to enter the bursa and to perform a complete lymphadenectomy, (2) the boundaries and anatomical landmarks of the omental bursa as seen during MIS, and (3) whether a bursectomy should be performed for oncological reasons in upper GI cancer...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814218/diagnosis-and-management-of-pancreatic-exocrine-insufficiency
#3
Mehrdad Nikfarjam, Jeremy S Wilson, Ross C Smith
In 2015, the Australasian Pancreatic Club (APC) published the Australasian guidelines for the management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (http://pancreas.org.au/2016/01/pancreatic-exocrine-insufficiency-guidelines). Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) occurs when normal digestion cannot be sustained due to insufficient pancreatic digestive enzyme activity. This may be related to a breakdown, at any point, in the pancreatic digestive chain: pancreatic stimulation; synthesis, release or transportation of pancreatic enzymes; or synchronisation of secretions to mix with ingested food...
August 21, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813661/tissue-resident-macrophages-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-originate-from-embryonic-hematopoiesis-and-promote-tumor-progression
#4
Yu Zhu, John M Herndon, Dorothy K Sojka, Ki-Wook Kim, Brett L Knolhoff, Chong Zuo, Darren R Cullinan, Jingqin Luo, Audrey R Bearden, Kory J Lavine, Wayne M Yokoyama, William G Hawkins, Ryan C Fields, Gwendalyn J Randolph, David G DeNardo
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are essential components of the cancer microenvironment and play critical roles in the regulation of tumor progression. Optimal therapeutic intervention requires in-depth understanding of the sources that sustain macrophages in malignant tissues. In this study, we investigated the ontogeny of TAMs in murine pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) models. We identified both inflammatory monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages as sources of TAMs. Unexpectedly, significant portions of pancreas-resident macrophages originated from embryonic development and expanded through in situ proliferation during tumor progression...
August 15, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811309/cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-coordinating-pancreas-development
#5
REVIEW
Aimée Bastidas-Ponce, Katharina Scheibner, Heiko Lickert, Mostafa Bakhti
The pancreas is an endoderm-derived glandular organ that participates in the regulation of systemic glucose metabolism and food digestion through the function of its endocrine and exocrine compartments, respectively. While intensive research has explored the signaling pathways and transcriptional programs that govern pancreas development, much remains to be discovered regarding the cellular processes that orchestrate pancreas morphogenesis. Here, we discuss the developmental mechanisms and principles that are known to underlie pancreas development, from induction and lineage formation to morphogenesis and organogenesis...
August 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808930/hospitalization-in-the-year-preceding-major-oncologic-surgery-increases-risk-for-adverse-postoperative-events
#6
Catherine E Sharoky, Karole T Collier, Christopher J Wirtalla, Andrew J Sinnamon, Madalyn G Neuwirth, Lindsay E Kuo, Robert E Roses, Douglas L Fraker, Giorgos C Karakousis, Rachel R Kelz
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization is associated with negative clinical effects that last beyond discharge. This study aimed to determine whether hospitalization in the year before major oncologic surgery is associated with adverse outcomes. METHODS: Patients 18 years of age or older with stomach, pancreas, colon, or rectal cancer who underwent resection in California and New York (2008-2010) were included in the study. Patients with hospitalization in the year prior to oncologic resection (HYPOR) were identified...
August 14, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808290/molecular-mr-imaging-of-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-pancreatic-cancer
#7
Miloslav Polasek, Yan Yang, Daniel T Schühle, Mohammad A Yaseen, Young R Kim, Yu Sub Sung, Alexander R Guimaraes, Peter Caravan
Fibrosis with excessive amounts of type I collagen is a hallmark of many solid tumours, and fibrosis is a promising target in cancer therapy, but tools for its non-invasive quantification are missing. Here we used magnetic resonance imaging with a gadolinium-based probe targeted to type I collagen (EP-3533) to image and quantify fibrosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. An orthotopic syngeneic mouse model resulted in tumours with 2.3-fold higher collagen level compared to healthy pancreas. Animals were scanned at 4...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807841/racial-disparity-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-risk
#8
REVIEW
Hassan Ashktorab, Sonia S Kupfer, Hassan Brim, John M Carethers
Cancer from the gastrointestinal tract and its associated excretory organs will occur in over 300,000 Americans in 2017, with colorectal cancer responsible for over forty percent of that burden; there will be over 150,000 deaths from this group of cancers in the same time period. Disparities among subgroups related to these cancers' incidence and mortality exist. The epidemiology and risk factors associated with each cancer bear out differences for racial groups in the United States. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is more frequent in Non-Hispanic Whites, whereas esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with risk factors of tobacco and alcohol is more frequent among Blacks...
August 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795998/paraduodenal-pancreatitis-imaging-and-pathologic-correlation-of-47-cases-elucidates-distinct-subtypes-and-the-factors-involved-in-its-etiopathogenesis
#9
Takashi Muraki, Grace E Kim, Michelle D Reid, Pardeep Mittal, Gabriela Bedolla, Bahar Memis, Burcin Pehlivanoglu, Alexa Freedman, Ipek Erbarut Seven, Hyejeong Choi, David Kooby, Shishir K Maithel, Juan M Sarmiento, Alyssa Krasinskas, Volkan Adsay
Clinicopathologic characteristics of paraduodenal (groove) pancreatitis (PDP) remain to be fully unraveled. In this study, 47 PDPs with preoperative enhanced images available were subjected to detailed comparative analysis in conjunction with pathologic findings. PDP were predominantly in males (3:1) with a mean age of 50 years, and 60% had a preoperative diagnosis of cancer. Mean lesional size was 3.1 cm. Three distinct subtypes were identified by imaging. Solid-tumoral (type-1) with groove-predominant (type-1A, 36%) forming a distinct solid band between the duodenum and pancreas often with histologic microabscesses (69% vs...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795589/a-novel-series-of-n-pyridin-2-yl-4-thiazol-5-yl-pyrimidin-2-amines-as-highly-potent-cdk4-6-inhibitors
#10
Solomon Tadesse, Ge Zhu, Laychiluh B Mekonnen, Jimma L Lenjisa, Mingfeng Yu, Michael P Brown, Shudong Wang
AIM: Inhibitors of CDK4/6 have emerged as a powerful class of therapeutics for treatment of several malignancies. We herein describe the identification of a new series of molecules that demonstrated excellent selectivity for CDK4/6 over CDKs1, 7 and 9. RESULTS: Medicinal chemistry optimization led to the discovery of 58 and 69 that inhibited CDK4 and CDK4/6, respectively, with high potency and selectivity, and 58 and 69 exhibited potent antiproliferative activities in a panel of human cancer cell lines including leukemia, and cancers of the breast, colon, ovary, pancreas and prostate...
August 10, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795293/endoscopic-palliation-of-pancreatic-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Vishal B Gohil, Jason B Klapman
Pancreas cancer is a fourth-leading cause of cancer death in the USA and its incidence is rising as the population is aging. The majority of patients present at an advanced stage due to the silent nature of the disease and treatment have focused more on palliation than curative intent. Gastroenterologists have become integral in the multidisciplinary care of these patients with a focus on providing endoscopic palliation of pancreas cancer. The three most common areas that gastroenterologists palliate endoscopically are biliary obstruction, cancer-related pain, and gastric outlet obstruction...
August 9, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778024/a-combination-of-radiation-and-the-hypoxia-activated-prodrug-evofosfamide-th-302-is-efficacious-against-a-human-orthotopic-pancreatic-tumor-model
#12
Carla Hajj, James Russell, Charles P Hart, Karyn A Goodman, Maeve A Lowery, Adriana Haimovitz-Friedman, Joseph O Deasy, John L Humm
This study was designed to investigate the effect of single-dose radiation therapy (RT) in combination with evofosfamide (TH-302), a hypoxia-activated prodrug, in a pre-clinical model of pancreatic cancer. AsPC1 tumors were implanted orthotopically in the pancreas of nude mice. Tumors were treated with 15 Gy of RT, using a 1 cm diameter field, and delivered as a continuous arc. Image-guidance to center the field on the tumor was based on CT imaging with intraperitoneal contrast. Evofosfamide (100 mg/kg, i.p...
July 21, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777194/pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-with-high-radiotracer-uptake-in-68ga-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-pet-ct
#13
Samine Sahbai, Petra Rieping, Christina Pfannenberg, Christian la Fougére, Matthias Reimold
Prostate-specific membrane antigen imaging with PET/CT is increasingly used in prostate cancer and was shown to have a high diagnostic performance. We report a clinical case of a 67-year-old man with previous history of operated prostate cancer and increasing prostate-specific antigen blood level. Ga-HBED-CC prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/CT imaging was indicated for the assessment of local recurrence and lymph node metastases of prostate cancer. In addition, a soft tissue mass in the body of the pancreas with high radiotracer uptake was detected...
September 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776935/shorter-telomere-length-increases-age-related-tumor-risks-in-von-hippel-lindau-disease-patients
#14
Jiang-Yi Wang, Shuang-He Peng, Xiang-Hui Ning, Teng Li, Sheng-Jie Liu, Jia-Yuan Liu, Bao-An Hong, Nie-Nie Qi, Xiang Peng, Bo-Wen Zhou, Jiu-Feng Zhang, Lin Cai, Kan Gong
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a rare autosomal dominant cancer syndrome caused by alterations of VHL gene. Patients are predisposed to develop pheochromocytomas and solid or cystic tumors of the central nervous system, kidney, pancreas, and retina. Remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity exits in organ involvement and tumor onset age between and within VHL families. However, no reliable markers have been found to predict the age-related tumor risks in VHL patients. A large Chinese cohort composed of 300 VHL patients and 92 healthy family controls was enrolled in our study...
August 4, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770444/benefits-of-marriage-on-relative-and-conditional-relative-cancer-survival-differ-between-males-and-females-in-the-usa
#15
Ray M Merrill, Erin Johnson
PURPOSE: The purpose of the paper is to assess the influence of marital status on conditional relative survival of cancer according to sex. METHODS: Analyses involved 779,978 males and 1,032,868 females diagnosed with 1 of 13 cancer types between 2000 and 2008, and followed through 2013. Data are from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Regression models were adjusted for age, sex, race, and tumor stage. RESULTS: Five-year relative survival conditional on years already survived is higher among married patients with less lethal cancers (oral cavity and pharynx, colon and rectum, breast, urinary bladder, kidney and renal pelvis, melanoma of the skin, thyroid, lymphoma)...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767448/selective-cytotoxicity-of-vanadium-complexes-on-human-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-cell-line-by-inducing-necroptosis-apoptosis-and-mitotic-catastrophe-process
#16
Szymon Kowalski, Stanisław Hać, Dariusz Wyrzykowski, Agata Zauszkiewicz-Pawlak, Iwona Inkielewicz-Stępniak
The pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death and characterized by one of the lowest five-year survival rate. The current therapeutic options are demonstrating minimal effectiveness, therefore studies on new potential anticancer compounds, with non-significant side effects are highly desirable. Recently, it was demonstrated that vanadium compounds, in particular organic derivatives, exhibit anticancer properties against different type of tumor as well as favorable biodistribution from a pancreatic cancer treatment perspective...
July 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766348/roles-of-adiponectin-and-leptin-as-diagnostic-markers-in-pancreatic-cancer
#17
M Kadri Colakoglu, E B Bostanci, Y Ozdemir, T Dalgic, E Aksoy, I Ozer, Y Ozogul, V Oter
NTRODUCTION:   Obesity is one of the most serious public health problem worldwide. Adipose tissue synthetize and secrete many growth factors and several cytokines known as adipokines. Studies demonstrated changes in the levels of these adipokines in many types of cancer associated with obesity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the possible relationship between adiponectin and leptin levels with pancreas cancer and disease stage, representative of Turkish population. MATERIALS AND METHODS:   The study was conducted between April 2012 - November 2013...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765528/pdx1-cre-driven-conditional-gene-depletion-suggests-pak4-as-dispensable-for-mouse-pancreas-development
#18
Miao Zhao, Parisa Rabieifar, Tânia D F Costa, Ting Zhuang, Audrey Minden, Matthias Löhr, Rainer Heuchel, Staffan Strömblad
Constitutive depletion of p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) in the mouse causes embryonic lethality associated with heart and brain defects. Given that conventional gene depletion of PAK1 or PAK3 caused functional deficits in the mouse pancreas, while gene depletion of PAK5 or PAK6 did not, we asked if PAK4 might have a functional role in pancreas development. We therefore introduced conditional, Pdx1-Cre-mediated, pancreatic PAK4 gene depletion in the mouse, verified by loss of PAK4 protein expression in the pancreas...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761381/nmda-receptors-are-important-regulators-of-pancreatic-cancer-and-are-potential-targets-for-treatment
#19
William G North, Fuli Liu, Liz Z Lin, Ruiyang Tian, Bonnie Akerman
Pancreatic cancer, particularly adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, is a common disease with a poor prognosis. In this study, the importance of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors for the growth and survival of pancreatic cancer was investigated. Immunohistochemistry performed with antibodies against GluN1 and GluN2B revealed that all invasive adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors likely express these two NMDA receptor proteins. These proteins were found to be membrane components of pancreatic cancer cell lines, and both channel-blocker antagonist and GluN2B antagonist significantly reduced cell viability in vitro...
2017: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757181/tumor-organoids-as-a-pre-clinical-cancer-model-for-drug-discovery
#20
REVIEW
Fleur Weeber, Salo N Ooft, Krijn K Dijkstra, Emile E Voest
Tumor organoids are 3D cultures of cancer cells that can be derived on an individual patient basis with a high success rate. This creates opportunities to build large biobanks with relevant patient material that can be used to perform drug screens and facilitate drug development. The high take rate will also allow side-by-side comparison to evaluate the translational potential of this model system to the patient. These tumors-in-a-dish can be established for a variety of tumor types including colorectal, pancreas, stomach, prostate, and breast cancers...
July 27, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
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