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Quantitative radiology

Yukihisa Sanada, Tadashi Orita, Tatsuo Torii
Aerial radiological survey using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was applied to measurement surface contamination around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (FDNPS). An unmanned helicopter monitoring system (UHMS) was developed to survey the environmental effect of radioactive cesium scattered as a result of the FDNPS accident. The UHMS was used to monitor the area surrounding the FDNPS six times from 2012 to 2015. Quantitative changes in the radioactivity distribution trend were revealed from the results of these monitoring runs...
October 3, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Aikaterini Kotrotsou, Pascal O Zinn, Rivka R Colen
The role of radiomics in the diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy planning of brain tumors is becoming increasingly clear. Incorporation of quantitative approaches in radiology, in combination with increased computer power, offers unique insights into macroscopic tumor characteristics and their direct association with the underlying pathophysiology. This article presents the most recent findings in radiomics and radiogenomics with respect to identifying potential imaging biomarkers with prognostic value that can lead to individualized therapy...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
H Ogino, Y Fujimichi, M Sasaki, N Hamada, T Iwasaki, K Yoshida, T Hattori
The attribution of stochastic effects to exposure to ionizing radiation has been qualitatively discussed by introducing two distinct concepts of provability and probability. This study aims to develop a method of quantitatively assessing the provability of radiation-related cancers. To this end, the 'minimum provable dose' (MPD) was developed and applied to actual cancer mortality in Japan. The background lifetime risk of cancer mortality was calculated for the esophagus, stomach, colon, liver, lungs, skin, breasts, ovaries, bladder, and bone marrow as well as the age-specific risk coefficients reproducing those given in the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Aldo José Fontes-Pereira, Marcio Amorim, Fernanda Catelani, Daniel Patterson Matusin, Paulo Rosa, Douglas Magno Guimarães, Marco Antônio von Krüger, Wagner Coelho de Albuquerque Pereira
BACKGROUND: Low-intensity physiotherapeutic ultrasound has been used in physical therapy clinics; however, there remain some scientific issues regarding the bone-healing process. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of low-intensity physiotherapeutic ultrasound on the initial stage of bone healing in rats. METHODS: Twenty-two male adult rats were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively using radiographic, biochemical, and histological analyses...
2016: Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound
Mark J Kransdorf, Mark D Murphey
Radiologic evaluation of musculoskeletal soft-tissue masses has changed dramatically with the continued improvements in imaging technology. The integration of advanced imaging has provided the radiologist with a wide range of assessment tools, but as with all powerful arsenals, selection and application of the appropriate imaging method can be problematic. Although the choices available for imaging evaluation of musculoskeletal masses have changed dramatically, the basic objectives of this assessment have remained constant: diagnosis and staging...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Justin A Neira, Timothy H Ung, Jennifer S Sims, Hani R Malone, Daniel S Chow, Jorge L Samanamud, George J Zanazzi, Xiaotao Guo, Stephen G Bowden, Binsheng Zhao, Sameer A Sheth, Guy M McKhann, Michael B Sisti, Peter Canoll, Randy S D'Amico, Jeffrey N Bruce
OBJECTIVE Extent of resection is an important prognostic factor in patients undergoing surgery for glioblastoma (GBM). Recent evidence suggests that intravenously administered fluorescein sodium associates with tumor tissue, facilitating safe maximal resection of GBM. In this study, the authors evaluate the safety and utility of intraoperative fluorescein guidance for the prediction of histopathological alteration both in the contrast-enhancing (CE) regions, where this relationship has been established, and into the non-CE (NCE), diffusely infiltrated margins...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Clairelyne Dupin, Sylvain Marchand-Adam, Olivier Favelle, Romain Costes, Philippe Gatault, Philippe Diot, Leslie Grammatico-Guillon, Laurent Guilleminault
PURPOSE: Little is known about hypogammaglobulinemia (HGG) in asthma patients. No data are available on the characteristics of adult patients with asthma and HGG. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective monocentric study between January 2006 and December 2012. Asthma patients with a serum immunoglobulin (Ig) quantitative analysis were included and classified into two groups depending on their serum IgG concentration: presence or absence of HGG. Clinical, biological, functional, and radiologic characteristics were compared in univariate and multivariate analysis, using a logistic regression model...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
F Reed Johnson, Mo Zhou
Demands for greater transparency in US regulatory assessments of benefits and risks, together with growing interest in engaging patients in Food and Drug Administration regulatory decision making, have resulted in several recent regulatory developments. Although Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) and Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) have established patient-engagement initiatives, CDRH has proposed guidelines for considering quantitative data on patients' benefit-risk perspectives, while CDER has focused on a more qualitative approach...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Ying Hou, Stephanie Lee, Vishesh Agrawal, John Romano, Elizabeth H Baldini, Aileen B Chen, David E Kozono, Joseph H Killoran, Matthew Wagar, Fred L Hacker, Hugo Jwl Aerts, John H Lewis, Raymond H Mak
INTRODUCTION: Quantification of volume changes on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) during lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may provide a useful radiological marker for radiation response and for adaptive treatment planning. This study quantifies inter-scan and inter-observer variability in tumour volume delineation on CBCT. METHODS: Three clinicians independently contoured the primary gross tumour volume (GTV) manually on CBCTs taken immediately before SBRT treatment (pre) and after the same SBRT treatment (post) for 19 NSCLC patients...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Dan Wu, Can Ceritoglu, Michael I Miller, Susumu Mori
MRI brain atlases are widely used for automated image segmentation, and in particular, recent developments in multi-atlas techniques have shown highly accurate segmentation results. In this study, we extended the role of the atlas library from mere anatomical reference to a comprehensive knowledge database with various patient attributes, such as demographic, functional, and diagnostic information. In addition to using the selected (heavily-weighted) atlases to achieve high segmentation accuracy, we tested whether the non-anatomical attributes of the selected atlases could be used to estimate patient attributes...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Jacobo Kirsch, Felipe Martinez, David Lopez, Gian M Novaro, Craig R Asher
Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a known risk factor for adverse outcomes in the general population and in patients with coronary artery disease. We performed a survey of United States radiologists to evaluate the trends in reporting the presence or absence of CAC on NCCT examinations. An 11 multiple-choice questionnaire was distributed to members of the American College of Radiology, and 530 members participated in the study. Eighty-seven percent of the analyzed group report the presence of CAC on standard CT scans of the chest, and approximately half them (52 %) use a qualitative modifier...
September 27, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Joohyun Kim, Junseok W Hur, Jang-Bo Lee, Jung Yul Park
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical and radiological factors as predictors for successful outcomes in lumbar disc herniation (LDH) treatment. METHODS: Two groups of patients with single level LDH (L4-5) requiring treatment were retrospectively studied. The surgery group (SG) included 34 patients, and 30 patients who initially refused the surgery were included in the nerve blocks group (NG). A visual analogue scale (VAS) for leg and back pain and motor deficit were initially evaluated before procedures, and repeated at 1, 6, and 12 months...
September 2016: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
Adel Mahmoud, Dalia Fayez, Mervat Mammdouh Abou Gabal, Sherin Mohamed Hosny Hamza, Takwa Badr
INTRODUCTION: Fusion of joints as well as intervertebral spaces by the formation of bony spurs appearing as syndesmophytes and osteophytes are the hallmark of spondyloarthropathies which accounts for disability. The aim of this study was to assess the serum level of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7 in ankylosing spondylitis and its relationship with disease activity and the radiographic damage. METHODS: This longitudinal case control study was conducted in Ain Shams University Hospitals (Egypt)...
July 2016: Electronic Physician
Alberto Stefano Tagliafico
Peripheral nerve imaging is recognized as a complement to clinical and neurophysiological assessment in the evaluation of peripheral nerves with the ability to impact patient management, even for small and difficult nerves. The European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology, suggest to use ultrasound (US) for nerve evaluation due to the fact that, in sever anatomical area, magnetic resonance imaging is not able to give additional informations. US could be considered the first-choice approach for the assessment of peripheral nerves...
August 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Thalia Velho Barreto de Araújo, Laura Cunha Rodrigues, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes, Demócrito de Barros Miranda-Filho, Ulisses Ramos Montarroyos, Ana Paula Lopes de Melo, Sandra Valongueiro, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de Albuquerque, Wayner Vieira Souza, Cynthia Braga, Sinval Pinto Brandão Filho, Marli Tenório Cordeiro, Enrique Vazquez, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Souza Cruz, Cláudio Maierovitch Pessanha Henriques, Luciana Caroline Albuquerque Bezerra, Priscila Mayrelle da Silva Castanha, Rafael Dhalia, Ernesto Torres Azevedo Marques-Júnior, Celina Maria Turchi Martelli
BACKGROUND: The microcephaly epidemic, which started in Brazil in 2015, was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by WHO in 2016. We report the preliminary results of a case-control study investigating the association between microcephaly and Zika virus infection during pregnancy. METHODS: We did this case-control study in eight public hospitals in Recife, Brazil. Cases were neonates with microcephaly. Two controls (neonates without microcephaly), matched by expected date of delivery and area of residence, were selected for each case...
September 15, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Edwin Jr van Beek
Multimodality medical imaging offers a key role in disease diagnosis, while providing accurate staging and defining disease extent in many instances. Recent developments are increasingly leading to quantitative assessment of medical images, allowing both definition of disease extent, giving insight into the phenotypes of diseases and offering capabilities of monitoring response to therapy. Combined with other tools, such as genetic profiling, this is a powerful way of improving diagnosis and treatment of patients, enabling a personalized approach to delivering healthcare...
October 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Kum Ju Chae, Gong Yong Jin, Hyun Nyeong Jung, Keun Sang Kwon, Hyemi Choi, Yong Chul Lee, Myoung Ja Chung, Ho Sung Park
OBJECTIVE: To differentiate smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF) from usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) with emphysema on CT in combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was approved by the institutional review board and informed consent was waived. We included 65 patients who underwent lung biopsy under the suspicion of UIP pattern on HRCT, and after radiologic-pathologic correlation, they were divided into three groups: UIP without emphysema (n = 30), UIP with emphysema (n = 26), and SRIF (n = 9)...
2016: PloS One
Ha Manh Luu, Camiel Klink, Wiro Niessen, Adriaan Moelker, Theo van Walsum
CT-guided percutaneous ablation for liver cancer treatment is a relevant technique for patients not eligible for surgery and with tumors that are inconspicuous on US imaging. The lack of real-time imaging and the use of a limited amount of CT contrast agent make targeting the tumor with the needle challenging. In this study, we evaluate a registration framework that allows the integration of diagnostic pre-operative contrast enhanced CT images and intra-operative non-contrast enhanced CT images to improve image guidance in the intervention...
2016: PloS One
Jennifer B Permuth, Jung Choi, Yoganand Balarunathan, Jongphil Kim, Dung-Tsa Chen, Lu Chen, Sonia Orcutt, Matthew P Doepker, Kenneth Gage, Geoffrey Zhang, Kujtim Latifi, Sarah Hoffe, Kun Jiang, Domenico Coppola, Barbara A Centeno, Anthony Magliocco, Qian Li, Jose Trevino, Nipun Merchant, Robert Gillies, Mokenge Malafa
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are pancreatic cancer precursors incidentally discovered by cross-sectional imaging. Consensus guidelines for IPMN management rely on standard radiologic features to predict pathology, but they lack accuracy. Using a retrospective cohort of 38 surgically-resected, pathologically-confirmed IPMNs (20 benign; 18 malignant) with preoperative computed tomography (CT) images and matched plasma-based 'miRNA genomic classifier (MGC)' data, we determined whether quantitative 'radiomic' CT features (+/- the MGC) can more accurately predict IPMN pathology than standard radiologic features 'high-risk' or 'worrisome' for malignancy...
August 31, 2016: Oncotarget
Jesse Courtier, Emily M Webb, Andrew S Phelps, David M Naeger
BACKGROUND: Games with educational intent offer a possible advantage of being more interactive and increasing learner satisfaction. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a two-armed experiment to evaluate student satisfaction and content mastery for an introductory pediatric radiology topic, taught by either an interactive digital game or with a traditional didactic lecture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical students participating in a fourth-year radiology elective were invited to participate...
August 31, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
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