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Quantitative radiology

Sara Guerri, Daniele Mercatelli, Maria Pilar Aparisi Gómez, Alessandro Napoli, Giuseppe Battista, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Alberto Bazzocchi
Bone and muscle are two deeply interconnected organs and a strong relationship between them exists in their development and maintenance. The peak of both bone and muscle mass is achieved in early adulthood, followed by a progressive decline after the age of 40. The increase in life expectancy in developed countries resulted in an increase of degenerative diseases affecting the musculoskeletal system. Osteoporosis and sarcopenia represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly population and are associated with a significant increase in healthcare costs...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
J Alcaraz-Martínez, J M Aranaz-Andrés, A Cantero-Sandoval, P Piñera-Salmerón, J Mas-Luzón, J A Serrano-Martínez, E González Garro
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the use of complementary tests and their relationship with safety incidents in hospital emergency departments. METHODOLOGY: An analysis was performed on 935 patients seen in the 9 hospital emergency departments. The source of data used for the detection of incidents were: emergency department clinical record and reports, together with face-to-face observation in the department, plus a telephone survey of the patient or family member at one week after the care...
March 10, 2018: Revista de Calidad Asistencial: Organo de la Sociedad Española de Calidad Asistencial
T E Murray, S D Ma, F Doyle, M J Lee
AIM: To determine whether obesity information obtained via imaging techniques is desirable for clinicians and patients, and to investigate whether it impacts clinical decision-making. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parallel surveys were designed to assess patient and clinician attitudes to the medical utility and social stigma of reporting obesity on radiology reports performed for other reasons. RESULTS: Where obesity was noted at medical imaging performed for any reason, clinicians and patients strongly agreed that it should be included in the radiology report (5...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Yu-Mee Sohn, Mirinae Seo
PURPOSE: To compare breast stiffness based on shear-wave elastography (SWE) quantitative parameters with histopathologic results diagnosed by ultrasound (US)-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) to determine their association with upgrade rates after surgical excision or follow-up US as well as clinico-radiologic differences between upgrade and non-upgrade groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled 225 breast lesions from 225 patients, including 159 benign lesions, 38 high risk lesions and 28 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) diagnosed by US-guided CNB...
March 3, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Karen Tan, Sai Mun Leong, Zizheng Kee, Patrick Vincent Caramat, James Teo, Michael Vito Martin Blanco, Evelyn S C Koay, Wai Kit Cheong, Thomas I-Peng Soh, Wei Peng Yong, Angela Shien-Ling Pang
We evaluated the changes in CTC count and CTC-associated miRNAs during the course of chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Blood samples were collected from 9 metastatic colorectal cancer patients prior to chemotherapy and at every other chemotherapy session during the course of treatment. CTCs were isolated and enumerated using a size-exclusion method (CellSievo, Singapore). CTC-associated miRNAs were isolated using a paper-based, partitioning method, and analyzed using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (MiRXES, Singapore)...
March 5, 2018: Cancer Letters
Anwar S Shatil, Md Nasir Uddin, Kant M Matsuda, Chase R Figley
Purpose: Postmortem MRI can be used to reveal important pathologies and establish radiology-pathology correlations. However, quantitative MRI values are altered by tissue fixation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate time-dependent effects of formalin fixation on MRI relaxometry (T1 and T2 ), diffusion tensor imaging (fractional anisotropy, FA; and mean diffusivity, MD), and myelin water fraction (MWF) measurements throughout intact human brain specimens. Methods: Two whole, neurologically-healthy human brains were immersed in 10% formalin solution and scanned at 13 time points between 0 and 1,032 h...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Matea Pavic, Marta Bogowicz, Xaver Würms, Stefan Glatz, Tobias Finazzi, Oliver Riesterer, Johannes Roesch, Leonie Rudofsky, Martina Friess, Patrick Veit-Haibach, Martin Huellner, Isabelle Opitz, Walter Weder, Thomas Frauenfelder, Matthias Guckenberger, Stephanie Tanadini-Lang
BACKGROUND: Radiomics is a promising methodology for quantitative analysis and description of radiological images using advanced mathematics and statistics. Tumor delineation, which is still often done manually, is an essential step in radiomics, however, inter-observer variability is a well-known uncertainty in radiation oncology. This study investigated the impact of inter-observer variability (IOV) in manual tumor delineation on the reliability of radiomic features (RF). METHODS: Three different tumor types (head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)) were included...
March 7, 2018: Acta Oncologica
Gloria Richard-Davis, Brianna Whittemore, Anthony Disher, Valerie Montgomery Rice, Rathinasamy B Lenin, Camille Dollins, Eric R Siegel, Hari Eswaran
Objective: Increased mammographic breast density is a well-established risk factor for breast cancer development, regardless of age or ethnic background. The current gold standard for categorizing breast density consists of a radiologist estimation of percent density according to the American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) criteria. This study compares paired qualitative interpretations of breast density on digital mammograms with quantitative measurement of density using Hologic's Food and Drug Administration-approved R2 Quantra volumetric breast density assessment tool...
2018: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Piotr Kijanka, Bo Qiang, Pengfei Song, Carolina Amador Carrascal, Shigao Chen, Matthew W Urban
Ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) is emerging as a promising imaging modality for the noninvasive evaluation of tissue mechanical properties. One of the ways to explore the viscoelasticity is through analyzing the shear wave velocity dispersion curves. To explore the dispersion, it is necessary to estimate the shear wave velocity at each frequency. An increase of the available spectrum to be used for phase velocity estimation is significant for a tissue dispersion analysis in vivo. A number of available methods suffer because the available spectrum that one can work with is limited...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Ricarda Seemann, Frank Graef, Anja Garbe, Johannes Keller, Fan Huang, Georg Duda, Kate Schmidt-Bleek, Klaus-Dieter Schaser, Serafeim Tsitsilonis
INTRODUCTION: The combination of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and long-bone fracture leads to increased formation of callus and mineral density in wild-type (WT) mice. However, this effect was not detected radiologically in leptin-deficient mice. Due to the complex interactions between hormonal and bone metabolism and the important role of leptin in this setting, our aim was to investigate morphologic properties and the tissue composition in the fracture callus comparing WT and leptin-deficient mice...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
Burcu Bal, Idil Dikbas, Ozlem Malkondu, Koray Oral
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ramus asymmetries related to age and gender in a young population and the influence of growth spurt on ramus asymmetry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study consisted of 776 panoramic radiographs of individuals aged 9 to 21 years (335 males and 441 females). Individuals were divided into two groups with respect of linear growth spurt as age 12 in females and age 14 in males. The first group consisted of females aged between 9-11 and males between 9-13...
March 3, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Niven Mehra, David Dolling, Semini Sumanasuriya, Rossitza Christova, Lorna Pope, Suzanne Carreira, George Seed, Wei Yuan, Jane Goodall, Emma Hall, Penny Flohr, Gunther Boysen, Diletta Bianchini, Oliver Sartor, Mario A Eisenberger, Karim Fizazi, Stephane Oudard, Mustapha Chadjaa, Sandrine Macé, Johann S de Bono
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive biomarkers are needed to guide metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treatment. OBJECTIVE: To clinically qualify baseline and on-treatment cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations as biomarkers of patient outcome following taxane chemotherapy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Blood for cfDNA analyses was prospectively collected from 571 mCRPC patients participating in two phase III clinical trials, FIRSTANA (NCT01308567) and PROSELICA (NCT01308580)...
February 27, 2018: European Urology
Serkan Yener, Mustafa Secil, Omer Demir, Basak Ozgen, Kutsal Yorukoglu
CONTEXT: To investigate whether any association between chemical shift magnetic resonance (MRI) findings, cortisol secretion and pathological findings exist that could predict subclinical hypercortisolism (SCH) in patients with adrenal incidentalomas (AI). DESIGN: Retrospective, cross sectional study in a tertiary centre. PATIENTS: Sixty-eight subjects with AIs and 13 patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS). Patients with AIs were categorized according to cortisol levels post 1mg dexamethasone (post-DST)...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Antony Colombo, Menno Hoogland, Hélène Coqueugniot, Olivier Dutour, Andrea Waters-Rist
A 66 year-old woman with a disproportionate dwarfism and who bore seven children was discovered at the Middenbeemster archaeological site (The Netherlands). Three are perinates and show no macroscopic or radiological evidence for a FGFR3 mutation causing hypo-or achondroplasia. This mutation induces dysfunction of the growth cartilage, leading to abnormalities in the development of trabecular bone. Because the mutation is autosomal dominant, these perinates have a 50% risk of having been affected. This study determines whether trabecular bone microarchitecture (TBMA) analysis is useful for detecting genetic dwarfism...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Maria Gonzalez-Cao, Clara Mayo de Las Casas, Nuria Jordana Ariza, Jose L Manzano, Miguel Á Molina-Vila, Virtudes Soriano, Teresa Puertolas, Ariadna Balada, Ainara Soria, Margarita Majem, Clara Montagut, Eva Muñoz, Delvys Rodriguez-Abreu, Elisabeth Perez, Almudena Garcia, Javier Cortes, Ana Drozdowskyj, Niki Karachaliou, Rafael Rosell
Serial analysis of BRAF mutations in circulating-free DNA (cfDNA) could be of prognostic value in melanoma patients. We collected blood samples from 63 advanced BRAFV600E/K melanoma patients and determined BRAFV600E/K status in cfDNA using a quantitative 5'-nuclease PCR-based assay. Levels of BRAF mutation in pre-cfDNAs were associated significantly with tumour burden, progression-free survival and overall survival. Changes in BRAF status in cfDNA after initiation of treatment (early-cfDNA) had a significant correlation with outcome...
February 23, 2018: Melanoma Research
Yuki Matsui, Tadanao Funakoshi, Daisuke Momma, Azusa Miyamoto, Kaori Endo, Kozo Furushima, Kazuhiro Fujisaki, Norimasa Iwasaki
BACKGROUND: Predictive factors for the development of osteoarthritis in adolescent osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the humeral capitellum remain unclear. The objectives of this study were to assess subchondral bone density in the radial head fovea of patients with OCD and to evaluate stress distribution in the radiocapitellar joint. The relationship between radiologic classification and stress distribution, according to multivariate ordinal regression analysis, was also investigated...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Anshit Goyal, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Mohammed Ali Alvi, Sandy Goncalves, Mohamad Bydon
A variety of surgical approaches have been described to treat low grade lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Minimally invasive spinal fusion techniques were first introduced to minimize morbidities associated with invasive surgical treatments. Minimally invasive lateral transpsoas interbody fusion, also known as lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF), is a relatively new method of lumbar arthrodesis that avoids various approach related complications compared to its posterior and anterior counterparts...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Daisuke Komatsu, Akira Yamada, Takeshi Suzuki, Masahiro Kurozumi, Yasunari Fujinaga, Kazuhiko Ueda, Masumi Kadoya
AIM: To verify the utility of the 2-in-1-out-compartment model analysis (CMA) of intravenous contrast-enhanced dynamic computed tomography (IV-CT) for evaluating hepatic arterial and portal venous flow using intra-arterial contrast-enhanced CT (IA-CT). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 49 consecutive patients who underwent IV-CT and were radiologically or histologically diagnosed as having hepatic malignant lesion (51 classical hepatocellular carcinomas [HCC], 4 early HCC, 3 cholangiolocellular carcinomas, 1 mixed HCC, 3 cholangiocellular carcinomas)...
February 23, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Adrian J Meixel, Henrik Hauswald, Stefan Delorme, Björn Jobke
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence rate, time-to-onset and recovery, MRI morphology and occurrence of insufficiency fractures in radiation-induced changes in the sacrum following pelvic radiotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 410 patients with pelvic malignancies treated with radiotherapy were reviewed. Follow-up was 1-124 months (mean 22 months). Serial MRI (average four studies/patient) were analysed using a new semi-quantitative score (Radiation-Induced Sacral Changes=RISC)...
February 23, 2018: European Radiology
Ales Tichy, Sylwia Kabacik, Grainne O'Brien, Jaroslav Pejchal, Zuzana Sinkorova, Adela Kmochova, Igor Sirak, Andrea Malkova, Caterina Gomila Beltran, Juan Ramon Gonzalez, Jakub Grepl, Matthaeus Majewski, Elizabeth Ainsbury, Lenka Zarybnicka, Jana Vachelova, Alzbeta Zavrelova, Marie Davidkova, Marketa Markova Stastna, Michael Abend, Eileen Pernot, Elisabeth Cardis, Christophe Badie
The increasing risk of acute large-scale radiological/nuclear exposures of population underlines the necessity of developing new, rapid and high throughput biodosimetric tools for estimation of received dose and initial triage. We aimed to compare the induction and persistence of different radiation exposure biomarkers in human peripheral blood in vivo. Blood samples of patients with indicated radiotherapy (RT) undergoing partial body irradiation (PBI) were obtained soon before the first treatment and then after 24 h, 48 h, and 5 weeks; i...
2018: PloS One
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