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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335509/novel-diagnostic-and-predictive-biomarkers-in-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#1
REVIEW
John C Chang, Madappa Kundranda
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal disease for a multitude of reasons including very late diagnosis. This in part is due to the lack of understanding of the biological behavior of PDAC and the ineffective screening for this disease. Significant efforts have been dedicated to finding the appropriate serum and imaging biomarkers to help early detection and predict response to treatment of PDAC. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) has been the most validated serum marker and has the highest positive predictive value as a stand-alone marker...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334882/decreased-integration-and-information-capacity-in-stroke-measured-by-whole-brain-models-of-resting-state-activity
#2
Mohit H Adhikari, Carl D Hacker, Josh S Siegel, Alessandra Griffa, Patric Hagmann, Gustavo Deco, Maurizio Corbetta
While several studies have shown that focal lesions affect the communication between structurally normal regions of the brain, and that these changes may correlate with behavioural deficits, their impact on brain's information processing capacity is currently unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that focal lesions decrease the brain's information processing capacity, of which changes in functional connectivity may be a measurable correlate. To measure processing capacity, we turned to whole brain computational modelling to estimate the integration and segregation of information in brain networks...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333699/biomarker-of-extracellular-matrix-remodelling-c1m-and-proinflammatory-cytokine-il-6-are-related-to-synovitis-and-pain-in-endstage-knee-osteoarthritis-patients
#3
Maja R Radojčić, Christian S Thudium, Kim Henriksen, Keith Tan, Rolf Karlsten, Amanda Dudley, Iain Chessell, Morten A Karsdal, Anne-Christine Bay-Jensen, Michel D Crema, Ali Guermazi
Little is known about local and systemic biomarkers in relation to synovitis and pain in end-stage osteoarthritis (OA) patients. We investigated the associations between the novel extracellular matrix biomarker, C1M, and local and systemic interleukin 6 (IL-6) with synovitis and pain. Serum C1M, plasma and synovial fluid IL-6 (p-IL-6, sf-IL-6) were measured in 104 end-stage knee OA patients. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to semi-quantitatively assess an 11-point synovitis score; pain was assessed by the Western Ontario & McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and the Neuropathic Pain Questionnaire (NPQ)...
March 22, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332209/quantitation-and-mapping-of-the-epigenetic-marker-5-hydroxymethylcytosine
#4
Ying Qing, Zhiqi Tian, Ying Bi, Yongyao Wang, Jiangang Long, Chun-Xiao Song, Jiajie Diao
We here review primary methods used in quantifying and mapping 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), including global quantification, restriction enzyme-based detection, and methods involving DNA-enrichment strategies and the genome-wide sequencing of 5hmC. As discovered in the mammalian genome in 2009, 5hmC, oxidized from 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenases, is increasingly being recognized as a biomarker in biological processes from development to pathogenesis, as its various detection methods have shown...
March 23, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332132/redefining-the-role-of-biomarkers-in-heart-failure-trials-expert-consensus-document
#5
REVIEW
Frank Kramer, Hani N Sabbah, James J Januzzi, Faiez Zannad, J Peter van Tintelen, Erik B Schelbert, Raymond J Kim, Hendrik Milting, Richardus Vonk, Brien Neudeck, Richard Clark, Klaus Witte, Wilfried Dinh, Burkert Pieske, Javed Butler, Mihai Gheorghiade
Heart failure is a growing cardiovascular disease with significant epidemiological, clinical, and societal implications and represents a high unmet need. Strong efforts are currently underway by academic and industrial researchers to develop novel treatments for heart failure. Biomarkers play an important role in patient selection and monitoring in drug trials and in clinical management. The present review gives an overview of the role of available molecular, imaging, and device-derived digital biomarkers in heart failure drug development and highlights capabilities and limitations of biomarker use in this context...
March 23, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330542/-lewy-body-dementias
#6
Annemette Løkkegaard, Lise Korbo
Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease dementia share the same pathophysiology. Together they are called Lewy body dementias and are the second most common type of dementia. Lewy body dementias receive little attention, and patients are often misdiagnosed, leading to less than ideal management. In this article, diagnostic criteria combined with imaging and other biomarkers as well as current treatment recommendations are summarized, and some of the challenges for the future are outlined. Refinement of diagnosis and clarification of the pathogenesis are required in search for disease-modifying treatments...
March 20, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330539/-state-of-the-art-work-up-of-dementia-disorder
#7
Steen Gregers Hasselbalch
Early diagnosis of a dementia disorder is required for early support, treatment and information. A basic programme including history taking, somatic and neurological examination, blood screening and a structural scan will suffice in typical cases. For patients with uncertain or atypical symptoms or disease course, supplementary investigations are warranted, including biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid, functional imaging and neuropsychological testing. Also, imaging of specific protein accumulations in Alzheimer's disease may serve to monitor disease progression and effects of interventions...
March 20, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328955/treatment-monitoring-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-patients-by-quantification-and-kras-genotyping-of-circulating-cell-free-dna
#8
Andreas W Berger, Daniel Schwerdel, Hanna Welz, Ralf Marienfeld, Stefan A Schmidt, Alexander Kleger, Thomas J Ettrich, Thomas Seufferlein
Treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) has continuously improved over the last decade. However, disease monitoring remains underdeveloped and mostly dependent on imaging e.g. RECIST 1.1 criteria. The genetic landscape of individual cancers and subsequently occurring treatment-induced evolution remain neglected in current surveillance strategies. Novel biomarkers demand minimally invasive and repetitive tracking of the cancer mutagenome for therapy stratification and to make prognostic predictions. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a routinely used tumor marker for CRC, does not meet these goals and thus prevents its use as a reliable monitoring tool...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327964/imaging-approaches-to-stroke-and-neurovascular-disease
#9
Seena Dehkharghani, Jalal Andre
Imaging is paramount to the diagnosis and management of ischemic stroke, offering a battery of structural and functional probes of cerebrovascular physiology. The technical underpinnings of stroke imaging continue to evolve, bringing the neuroscience community increasingly closer to high-resolution, tissue-level biomarkers of brain perfusion, metabolism, and viability. The rapid expansion of neuroimaging in this domain has met with controversies, and in many respects, a lack of generalizable conclusions regarding optimized use in cerebrovascular disease...
January 28, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326120/structural-mri-and-amyloid-pet-imaging-for-prediction-of-conversion-to-alzheimer-s-disease-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-meta-analysis
#10
Eun Hyun Seo, Woon Yeong Park, Il Han Choo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the prognostic values of biomarkers of neurodegeneration as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and amyloid burden as measured by amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) in predicting conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for structural MRI or amyloid PET imaging studies published between January 2000 and July 2014 that reported conversion to AD in patients with MCI...
March 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326033/subcortical-shape-changes-hippocampal-atrophy-and-cortical-thinning-in-future-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#11
Andrea M Kälin, Min T M Park, M Mallar Chakravarty, Jason P Lerch, Lars Michels, Clemens Schroeder, Sarah D Broicher, Spyros Kollias, Roger M Nitsch, Anton F Gietl, Paul G Unschuld, Christoph Hock, Sandra E Leh
Efficacy of future treatments depends on biomarkers identifying patients with mild cognitive impairment at highest risk for transitioning to Alzheimer's disease. Here, we applied recently developed analysis techniques to investigate cross-sectional differences in subcortical shape and volume alterations in patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 23, age range 59-82, 47.8% female), future converters at baseline (n = 10, age range 66-84, 90% female) and at time of conversion (age range 68-87) compared to group-wise age and gender matched healthy control subjects (n = 23, age range 61-81, 47...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326027/accessible-neurobehavioral-anger-related-markers-for-vulnerability-to-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-in-a-population-of-male-soldiers
#12
Tamar Lin, Gadi Gilam, Gal Raz, Ayelet Or-Borichev, Yair Bar-Haim, Eyal Fruchter, Talma Hendler
Identifying vulnerable individuals prone to develop post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) is of paramount importance, especially in populations at high risk for stress exposure such as combat soldiers. While several neural and psychological risk factors are known, no post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) biomarker has yet progressed to clinical use. Here we present novel and clinically applicable anger-related neurobehavioral risk markers for military-related PTSS in a large cohort of Israeli soldiers. The psychological, electrophysiological and neural (Simultaneous recording of scalp electroencephalography [EEG] and functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]) reaction to an anger-inducing film were measured prior to advanced military training and PTSS were recorded at 1-year follow-up...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324887/association-between-hypoxic-volume-and-underlying-hypoxia-induced-gene-expression-in-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#13
Yae-Eun Suh, Katherine Lawler, Rhonda Henley-Smith, Lucy Pike, Russell Leek, Sally Barrington, Edward W Odell, Tony Ng, Francesco Pezzella, Teresa Guerrero-Urbano, Mahvash Tavassoli
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia imaging is a promising tool for targeted therapy but the links between imaging features and underlying molecular characteristics of the tumour have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to compare hypoxia biomarkers and gene expression in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) diagnostic biopsies with hypoxia imaged with (64)Cu-ATSM PET/CT. METHODS: (64)Cu-ATSM imaging, molecular and clinical data were obtained for 15 patients...
March 21, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324703/arousal-amplifies-biased-competition-between-high-and-low-priority-memories-more-in-women-than-in-men-the-role-of-elevated-noradrenergic-activity
#14
David Clewett, Michiko Sakaki, Ringo Huang, Shawn E Nielsen, Mara Mather
Recent findings indicate that emotional arousal can enhance memory consolidation of goal-relevant stimuli while impairing it for irrelevant stimuli. According to one recent model, these goal-dependent memory tradeoffs are driven by arousal-induced release of norepinephrine (NE), which amplifies neural gain in target sensory and memory processing brain regions. Past work also shows that ovarian hormones modulate activity in the same regions thought to support NE's effects on memory, such as the amygdala, suggesting that men and women may be differentially susceptible to arousal's dual effects on episodic memory...
February 24, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324303/subtypes-of-parkinson-s-disease-what-do-they-tell-us-about-disease-progression
#15
REVIEW
Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Ronald B Postuma
Parkinson's disease is a widely heterogeneous disorder with a broad list of motor and nonmotor manifestations. Identifying subtypes of Parkinson's disease is one of the top clinical and research priorities. This review aims to summarize the most valid conventional and recent subtyping solutions that have been introduced so far and to update our current knowledge with recent discoveries on the association between subtypes and disease progression. We also discuss the challenges of subtyping in the context of Parkinson's disease, stability of the subtypes over time, and potential clinical implications...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322105/clinical-features-and-biological-markers-of-lung-cancer-associated-stroke
#16
Xingrui Xie, Li Chen, Jinsheng Zeng, Chao Qin, Daobin Cheng, Xinxian Wei, Zhijian Liang
Objective To identify the unique clinical features and biological markers of lung cancer-associated stroke. Methods We recruited 102 patients with lung cancer plus stroke, 102 with lung cancer, and 102 with stroke. Detailed information was analysed and compared among groups. Results The groups were age-matched. Patients with lung cancer plus stroke showed multiple lesions involving multiple cerebral artery territories on magnetic resonance imaging, compared with stroke-alone patients. These patients also had a poorer modified Rankin Scale score at 30 days, and high mortality (18...
December 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321390/metabonomics-research-progress-on-liver-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Mengqian Yu, Ying Zhu, Qingwei Cong, Chunyan Wu
Metabolomics as the new omics technique develops after genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics and has rapid development at present. Liver diseases are worldwide public health problems. In China, chronic hepatitis B and its secondary diseases are the common liver diseases. They can be diagnosed by the combination of history, virology, liver function, and medical imaging. However, some patients seldom have relevant physical examination, so the diagnosis may be delayed. Many other liver diseases, such as drug-induced liver injury (DILI), alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and autoimmune liver diseases, still do not have definite diagnostic markers; the diagnosis consists of history, medical imaging, and the relevant score...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321323/total-kidney-volume-as-a-biomarker-of-disease-progression-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease
#18
REVIEW
Navdeep Tangri, Ingrid Hougen, Ahsan Alam, Ronald Perrone, Phil McFarlane, York Pei
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited disorder characterized by the formation of kidney cysts and kidney enlargement, which progresses to kidney failure by the fifth to seventh decade of life in a majority of patients. Disease progression is evaluated primarily through serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements; however, it is known that serum creatinine and eGFR values typically do not change until the fourth or fifth decade of life...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320758/tumor-cell-free-dna-copy-number-instability-predicts-therapeutic-response-to-immunotherapy
#19
Glen J Weiss, Julia Beck, Donald P Braun, Kristen Bornemann-Kolatzki, Heather Barilla, Rhiannon Cubello, Walter Quan, Ashish Sangal, Vivek Khemka, Jordan Waypa, William M Mitchell, Howard Urnovitz, Ekkehard Schütz
PURPOSE: Chromosomal instability is a fundamental property of cancer, which can be quantified by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) from plasma/serum derived cell-free DNA (cfDNA). We hypothesized that cfDNA could be used as a real time surrogate for imaging analysis of disease status as a function of response to immunotherapy and as a more reliable tool than tumor biomarkers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Plasma cfDNA sequences from 56 patients with diverse advanced cancers, were prospectively collected and analyzed in a single-blinded study for copy number variations, expressed as a quantitative chromosomal number instability (CNI) score versus 126 non-cancer controls in a training set of 23 and a blinded validation set of 33...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320165/hla-genotype-as-a-marker-of-multiple-sclerosis-prognosis-a-pilot-study
#20
Andreas P Lysandropoulos, Nicolas Mavroudakis, Massimo Pandolfo, Kaoutar El Hafsi, Wim van Hecke, Anke Maertens, Thibo Billiet, Annemie Ribbens
OBJECTIVE: The identification of a biomarker with prognostic value is an unmet need in multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study was to investigate a possible association of HLA genotype with disease status and progression in MS, based on comprehensive and sensitive clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters to measure disease effects. METHOD: A total of 118 MS patients (79 females, 39 males) underwent HLA typing. Patient MS status was assessed at two time points in a 2-year interval, based on clinical scores (including EDSS, MSSS, T25FW, 9-HPT, SDMT, BVMT, CVLT-II) and MRI evaluations...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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