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Imaging biomarker

Neha Berry, Saroj Kant Sinha, Anish Bhattacharya, K K Prasad, Chetana Vaishnavi, Kim Vaiphei, Jayanta Samanta, Raghavendra Prasada, Narendra Dhaka, Rakesh Kochhar
BACKGROUND: Disease activity in ulcerative colitis (UC) is best assessed clinically by Mayo score. 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computerized tomography (FDG PET-CT) is a noninvasive imaging technique to assess extent, disease activity and response to treatment of UC, especially in high risk population or patients unwilling for endoscopy. AIMS: We conducted a prospective observational study with the aim of assessing and correlating UC disease activity by clinical criteria, endoscopy, histology, serum and fecal biomarkers, and FDG PET-CT...
March 21, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Jeffrey Lambe, Olwen C Murphy, Shiv Saidha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the recognition that neurodegeneration represents the principal substrate of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS), there has been increased strives towards identifying biomarkers for accurately quantifying and tracking neurodegeneration during the disease course. The retina provides an opportune "window" into the central nervous system (CNS) in MS, with retinal changes in MS reflecting not only local, but also global aspects of neurodegeneration and inflammation operative in the disease...
March 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Zhi-Cheng Li, Hongmin Bai, Qiuchang Sun, Qihua Li, Lei Liu, Yan Zou, Yinsheng Chen, Chaofeng Liang, Hairong Zheng
OBJECTIVES: To build a reliable radiomics model from multiregional and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for pretreatment prediction of O6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promotor methylation status in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). METHODS: In this retrospective multicentre study, 1,705 multiregional radiomics features were automatically extracted from multiparametric MRI. A radiomics model with a minimal set of all-relevant features and a radiomics model with univariately-predictive and non-redundant features were built for MGMT methylation prediction from a primary cohort (133 patients) and tested on an independent validation cohort (60 patients)...
March 21, 2018: European Radiology
Ana Filipa Geraldo, João Pereira, Pedro Nunes, Sofia Reimão, Rita Sousa, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Susana Pinto, Jorge Guedes Campos, Mamede de Carvalho
PURPOSE: This paper aims to analyze the contribution of mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) in the detection of microstructural abnormalities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to evaluate the degree of agreement between structural and functional changes through concomitant diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and clinical assessment. METHODS: Fourteen patients with ALS and 11 healthy, age- and gender-matched controls were included...
March 22, 2018: Neuroradiology
Mitul A Mehta, Anne Schmechtig, Vasileia Kotoula, Juliet McColm, Kimberley Jackson, Claire Brittain, Sitra Tauscher-Wisniewski, Bruce J Kinon, Paul D Morrison, Thomas Pollak, Timothy Mant, Steven C R Williams, Adam J Schwarz
BACKGROUND: Aberrant glutamate neurotransmission, and in particular dysfunction of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), has been implicated in psychiatric disorders and represents a novel therapeutic target. Low-dose administration of the NMDA antagonist ketamine in healthy volunteers elicits a strong blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging signal that can be attenuated by pretreatment with single, therapeutically effective doses of marketed medicines interacting with the glutamate system...
March 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Fei Chen, Yong Peng, Mao Chen
Cardiac involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) attracts more attention than it ever did because of its morbidity and impact on worse prognosis, although the accurate information needs further epidemiological studies. Early identification and intervention for the diseased heart may help improve the clinical outcomes of IIMs with cardiac involvement. Cardiac troponin assays, allowing for sensitive detection of minor myocardium injury, may provide a new way for early detection for heart involvement in IIMs...
March 20, 2018: International Heart Journal
Ralph N Martins, Victor Villemagne, Hamid R Sohrabi, Pratishtha Chatterjee, Tejal M Shah, Giuseppe Verdile, Paul Fraser, Kevin Taddei, Veer B Gupta, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Eugene Hone, Steve Pedrini, Wei Ling Lim, Ian Martins, Shaun Frost, Sunil Gupta, Sid O'Bryant, Alan Rembach, David Ames, Kathryn Ellis, Stephanie J Fuller, Belinda Brown, Samantha L Gardener, Binosha Fernando, Prashant Bharadwaj, Samantha Burnham, Simon M Laws, Anna M Barron, Kathryn Goozee, Eka J Wahjoepramono, Prita R Asih, James D Doecke, Olivier Salvado, Ashley I Bush, Christopher C Rowe, Samuel E Gandy, Colin L Masters
Worldwide there are over 46 million people living with dementia, and this number is expected to double every 20 years reaching about 131 million by 2050. The cost to the community and government health systems, as well as the stress on families and carers is incalculable. Over three decades of research into this disease have been undertaken by several research groups in Australia, including work by our original research group in Western Australia which was involved in the discovery and sequencing of the amyloid-β peptide (also known as Aβ or A4 peptide) extracted from cerebral amyloid plaques...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Anders Wallin, Gustavo C Román, Margaret Esiri, Petronella Kettunen, Johan Svensson, George P Paraskevas, Elisabeth Kapaki
Subcortical small-vessel disease (SSVD) is a disorder well characterized from the clinical, imaging, and neuropathological viewpoints. SSVD is considered the most prevalent ischemic brain disorder, increasing in frequency with age. Vascular risk factors include hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, elevated homocysteine, and obstructive sleep apnea. Ischemic white matter lesions are the hallmark of SSVD; other pathological lesions include arteriolosclerosis, dilatation of perivascular spaces, venous collagenosis, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, microbleeds, microinfarcts, lacunes, and large infarcts...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Kichang Kwak, Hyuk Jin Yun, Gilsoon Park, Jong-Min Lee
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are age-related neurodegenerative diseases characterized by progressive loss of memory and irreversible cognitive functions. The hippocampus, a brain area critical for learning and memory processes, is especially susceptible to damage at early stages of AD. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop prediction model using a multi-modality sparse representation approach. METHODS: We proposed a sparse representation approach to the hippocampus using structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to distinguish AD/MCI from healthy control subjects (HCs)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Jie Gao, Jun Li, Wen-Chao Geng, Fang-Yuan Chen, Xingchen Duan, Zhe Zheng, Dan Ding, Dong-Sheng Guo
Activatable phototheranostics is highly appealing to meet the demand of precision medicine. However, although displaying the efficacy in construction of activatable photosensitizers (PSs), direct covalent decoration still shows some inevitable issues, such as complex molecular design, tedious synthesis, possible photoactivity changes and potential toxicity. Herein, we propose a novel concept of biomarker displacement activation (BDA) using host-guest strategy. To exemplify BDA, we engineered a PS-loaded nanocarrier by utilizing a macrocyclic amphiphile, where the fluorescence and photoactivity of PS were completely annihilated by the complexation of macrocyclic receptor (OFF state)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Francesca Bagnato, Simon Hametner, Emma Boyd, Verena Endmayr, Yaping Shi, Vasiliki Ikonomidou, Guanhua Chen, Siddharama Pawate, Hans Lassmann, Seth Smith, E Brian Welch
T2*-weighted multi-echo gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging and its reciprocal R2* are used in brain imaging due to their sensitivity to iron content. In patients with multiple sclerosis who display pathological alterations in iron and myelin contents, the use of R2* may offer a unique way to untangle mechanisms of disease. Coronal slices from 8 brains of deceased multiple sclerosis patients were imaged using a whole-body 7.0 Tesla MRI scanner. The scanning protocol included three-dimensional (3D) T2*-w multi-echo gradient-echo and 2D T2-w turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences...
2018: PloS One
Andrea I Guaricci, Delia De Santis, Mark G Rabbat, Gianluca Pontone
: Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have proven to be the most effective preventive therapy of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Based on current guidelines, the indication for prophylactic ICD therapy is primarily based on a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 35%. However, patients with low LVEF may never have an arrhythmic event while patients with normal to moderately reduced LVEF, who are traditionally felt to be at lower risk, can experience SCD. Therefore, LVEF alone is not an ideal risk stratification parameter to determine ICD therapy...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Nicholas I Bradfield, Kathryn A Ellis, Greg Savage, Paul Maruff, Samantha Burnham, David Darby, Nicola T Lautenschlager, Ralph N Martins, Colin L Masters, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Joanne Robertson, Christopher Rowe, Michael Woodward, David Ames
BACKGROUND: Given the long preclinical disease course of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology, novel treatments may be more efficacious if administered before the emergence of dementia. Thus, accurate prediction of who will develop AD dementia is of key importance in selecting individuals for trials of treatment and may become crucial for future selection of patients for therapy. METHODS: As part of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing, 901 individuals who did not have dementia were recruited...
March 20, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
G V Ponomarev, T V Lalayan, S A Dambinova, A A Skoromets
The study aimed at assessing the level of glutamate receptors antibodies (Abs) in blood serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with spinal cord ischemia along with traditional diagnostic approaches. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty patients with spinal cord ischemia (10 with spinal stroke and 30 with subacute and chronic course of the disease) were enrolled. After exclusion of some participants, 27 patients continued the study. Comparison groups included 30 patients with ischemic stroke and 30 patients with radiculopathy...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Ena Xiao, Qiang Chen, Aaron L Goldman, Hao Yang Tan, Kaitlin Healy, Brad Zoltick, Saumitra Das, Bhaskar Kolachana, Joseph H Callicott, Dwight Dickinson, Karen F Berman, Daniel R Weinberger, Venkata S Mattay
BACKGROUND: We explored the cumulative effect of several late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk loci using a polygenic risk profile score (RPS) approach on measures of hippocampal function, cognition, and brain morphometry. METHODS: In a sample of 231 healthy control subjects (19-55 years of age), we used an RPS to study the effect of several LOAD risk loci reported in a recent meta-analysis on hippocampal function (determined by its engagement with blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging during episodic memory) and several cognitive metrics...
November 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Daniel Appel, Miriam Seeberger, Edzard Schwedhelm, Patrick Czorlich, Alwin E Goetz, Rainer H Böger, Juliane Hannemann
BACKGROUND: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is the major cause of lethality and neuronal damage in patients who survived the primary subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginines (ADMA and SDMA) inhibit nitric oxide production from L-arginine via distinct mechanisms. Elevated ADMA levels are associated with vasospasm after SAH. We aimed to study the time course of ADMA and SDMA in plasma and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and their associations with DCI and outcome...
March 20, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Amber Kempton, Matt Cefalu, Cody Justice, Tesla Baich, Mohamed Derbala, Benjamin Canan, Paul M L Janssen, Peter J Mohler, Sakima A Smith
Background: Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have revolutionized and improved the care of the sickest heart failure (HF) patients, and it is imperative that they receive appropriate ventricular unloading. Assessing this critical parameter with current methodologies (labs, imaging) is usually suboptimal in this patient population. Hence it is imperative to elucidate the molecular underpinnings involved in ventricular unloading. We have previously identified the cytoskeletal protein βII spectrin as an essential nodal protein involved in post-translational targeting and βII spectrin protein levels are significantly altered in multiple forms of human and animal HF...
January 2018: Heliyon
Anne Ségolène Cottereau, Annibale Versari, Stefano Luminari, Jehan Dupuis, Loïc Chartier, René-Olivier Casasnovas, Alina Berriolo-Riedinger, Massimo Menga, Corinne Haioun, Hervé Tilly, Vittoria Tarantino, Massimo Federico, Gilles Salles, Judith Trotman, Michel Meignan
Both total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV), computed on baseline PET, and end of induction PET (EOI PET) are imaging biomarkers showing promise for early risk stratification in patients with high tumor burden follicular lymphoma. A model was built incorporating these two factors in 159 patients from three prospective trials. Median follow up was 64 months. High TMTV (>510cm3 ) and positive EOI PET were independent, significant risk factors for progression. Their combination stratified the population into three risk groups: patients with no risk factors (n = 102;64%) had a 5-year PFS of 67%, versus 33% (HR = 2...
March 20, 2018: Blood
Eric Seiti Yamanaka, Luis A Tortajada-Genaro, Nuria Pastor, Ángel Maquieira
The genotyping of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is addressed through methods based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with user-friendly optical read-outs to cover the current demand for point-of-care DNA biomarker detection. The modification of primer design and reaction composition improved the assay selectivity yielding allele-specific results and reducing false-positive frequency. Furthermore, the reduced cost, ease of use and effectiveness of colorimetric detection (solution and hybridisation chip formats) were availed for the image capture by a smartphone, reching high sensitivity...
March 8, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Li Cui, Kai Yang, Hong-Zhe Li, Han Zhang, Jian-Qiang Su, Maria Paraskevaidi, Francis Luke Martin, Bin Ren, Yong-Guan Zhu
Nitrogen (N) fixation is the conversion of inert nitrogen gas (N2) to bioavailable N essential for all forms of life. N2-fixing microorganisms (diazotrophs), which play a key role in global N cycling, remain largely obscure because a large majority are uncultured. Direct probing of active diazotrophs in the environment is still a major challenge. Herein, a novel culture-independent single-cell approach combining resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy with 15N2 stable isotope probing (SIP) was developed to discern N2-fixing bacteria in a complex soil community...
March 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
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