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Positron emission tomography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656584/improving-lymph-node-characterization-in-staging-malignant-lymphoma-using-first-order-adc-texture-analysis-from-whole-body-diffusion-weighted-mri
#1
Katja N De Paepe, Frederik De Keyzer, Pascal Wolter, Oliver Bechter, Daan Dierickx, Ann Janssens, Gregor Verhoef, Raymond Oyen, Vincent Vandecaveye
BACKGROUND: Correct staging and treatment initiation in malignant lymphoma depends on accurate lymph node characterization. However, nodal assessment based on conventional and diffusion-weighted (DWI) MRI remains challenging, particularly in smaller nodes. PURPOSE: To evaluate first-order apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) texture parameters compared to mean ADC for lymph node characterization in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) using whole-body DWI (WB-DWI). STUDY TYPE: Retrospective...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655552/binge-eating-disorder-and-morbid-obesity-are-associated-with-lowered-mu-opioid-receptor-availability-in-the-brain
#2
Juho Joutsa, Henry K Karlsson, Joonas Majuri, Pirjo Nuutila, Semi Helin, Valtteri Kaasinen, Lauri Nummenmaa
Both morbid obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) have previously been linked with aberrant brain opioid function. Behaviorally these two conditions are however different suggesting also differences in neurotransmitter function. Here we directly compared mu-opioid receptor (MOR) availability between morbidly obese and BED subjects. Seven BED and nineteen morbidly obese (non-BED) patients, and thirty matched control subjects underwent positron emission tomography (PET) with MOR-specific ligand [11 C]carfentanil...
March 9, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652908/automatic-lesion-detection-and-segmentation-of-18f-fet-pet-in-gliomas-a-full-3d-u-net-convolutional-neural-network-study
#3
Paul Blanc-Durand, Axel Van Der Gucht, Niklaus Schaefer, Emmanuel Itti, John O Prior
INTRODUCTION: Amino-acids positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly used in the diagnostic workup of patients with gliomas, including differential diagnosis, evaluation of tumor extension, treatment planning and follow-up. Recently, progresses of computer vision and machine learning have been translated for medical imaging. Aim was to demonstrate the feasibility of an automated 18F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine (18F-FET) PET lesion detection and segmentation relying on a full 3D U-Net Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651945/modeling-of-a-cyclotron-target-for-the-production-of-11c-with-geant4
#4
Andrea Chiappiniello, Federico Zagni, Angelo Infantino, Sara Vichi, Gianfranco Cicoria, Maria Pia Morigi, Mario Marengo
BACKGROUND: In medical cyclotron facilities, 11C is produced according to the 14N(p,α)11C reaction and widely employed in studies of prostate and brain cancers by Positron Emission Tomography. It is known from literature [1] that the 11C-target assembly shows a reduction in efficiency during time, meaning a decrease of activity produced at the end of bombardment. This effect might depend on aspects still not completely known. OBJECTIVE: Possible causes of the loss of performance of the 11C-target assembly were addressed by Monte Carlo simulations...
April 12, 2018: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651896/cerebral-serotonin-transporter-measurements-with-11-c-dasb-a-review-on-acquisition-and-preprocessing-across-21-pet-centres
#5
Martin Nørgaard, Melanie Ganz, Claus Svarer, Ling Feng, Masanori Ichise, Rupert Lanzenberger, Mark Lubberink, Ramin V Parsey, Marios Politis, Eugenii A Rabiner, Mark Slifstein, Vesna Sossi, Tetsuya Suhara, Peter S Talbot, Federico Turkheimer, Stephen C Strother, Gitte M Knudsen
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging has become a prominent tool to capture the spatiotemporal distribution of neurotransmitters and receptors in the brain. The outcome of a PET study can, however, potentially be obscured by suboptimal and/or inconsistent choices made in complex processing pipelines required to reach a quantitative estimate of radioligand binding. Variations in subject selection, experimental design, data acquisition, preprocessing, and statistical analysis may lead to different outcomes and neurobiological interpretations...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651580/hepatotoxic-dose-thresholds-by-positron-emission-tomography-after-yttrium-90-radioembolization-of-liver-tumors-a-prospective-single-arm-observational-study
#6
Keith T Chan, Adam M Alessio, Guy E Johnson, Sandeep Vaidya, Sharon W Kwan, Wayne Monsky, Ann E Wilson, David H Lewis, Siddharth A Padia
PURPOSE: To define a threshold radiation dose to non-tumoral liver from 90 Y radioembolization that results in hepatic toxicity using pair-production PET. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective single-arm study enrolled 35 patients undergoing radioembolization. A total of 34 patients (27 with HCC and 7 with liver metastases) were included in the final analysis. Of 27 patients with underlying cirrhosis, 22 and 5 patients were Child-Pugh A and B, respectively. Glass and resin microspheres were used in 32 (94%) and 2 (6%) patients, respectively...
April 12, 2018: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651571/correlation-of-neuropsychological-and-metabolic-changes-after-epilepsy-surgery-in-patients-with-left-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#7
Canan Güvenç, Patrick Dupont, Jan Van den Stock, Laura Seynaeve, Kathleen Porke, Eva Dries, Karen Van Bouwel, Johannes van Loon, Tom Theys, Karolien E Goffin, Wim Van Paesschen
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy surgery often causes changes in cognition and cerebral glucose metabolism. Our aim was to explore relationships between pre- and postoperative cerebral metabolism as measured with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and neuropsychological test scores in patients with left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), who were rendered seizure-free after epilepsy surgery. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were included...
April 12, 2018: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651368/synchronous-pulmonary-neoplasms-a-chance-occurrence-or-is-there-more-than-meets-the-eye
#8
Uroosa Ibrahim, Amina Saqib, Manisha Pant, Gwenalyn Garcia, Marcel Odaimi
Primary bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma comprises 5% of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and usually has an indolent course. Synchronous primary lung cancers with BALT lymphoma are seldom seen in patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung. Synchronous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and BALT lymphoma is an extremely rare occurrence. We report an unusual case of stage 4 BALT lymphoma requiring treatment that revealed an underlying ipsilateral mass causing a diagnostic dilemma. An 84-year-old female with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus, deep vein thrombosis, and thrombotic microangiopathy presented to the hospital with cough and dyspnea on exertion...
February 6, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651367/-lazarus-response-to-olaparib-in-a-virtually-chemonaive-breast-cancer-patient-carrying-gross-brca2-gene-deletion
#9
Vladimir M Moiseyenko, Vyacheslav A Chubenko, Fedor V Moiseyenko, Lyudmila A Zagorskaya, Yuliya A Zaytseva, Nataliya E Gesha, Evgeny N Zykov, Valeriya I Ni, Elena V Preobrazhenskaya, Anna P Sokolenko, Evgeny N Imyanitov
This report describes an estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patient, who relapsed at two and a half years after the completion of adjuvant chemotherapy while being on the aromatase inhibition. Based on the clinical evidence for potential sensitivity of the tumor to hormone ablation, everolimus was added to continuing exemestane treatment. Oral chemotherapy was administered at further disease progression, however, it lasted only for 10 days due to rapidly deteriorating condition of the patient. BRCA test was performed just before the failure of endocrine therapy and revealed a gross deletion within BRCA2 gene...
February 4, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650904/-a-case-of-resected-esophageal-endocrine-cell-carcinoma-that-responded-to-combination-therapy-comprising-irinotecan-and-cisplatin
#10
Yoshio Kuga, Shosuke Kitamura, Teruo Mouri, Tomohiro Miwata, Hideto Sakimoto, Toshihiro Nishida
We report a case of resected esophagealcancer that responded wellto first-line combination therapy comprising irinotecan and cisplatin. The patient was a 71-year-old woman being treated for liver cirrhosis. She was admitted to our hospital in April 2015 because of dysphasia. Endoscopic examination revealed a tumor in the mid-thoracic esophagus, which was diagnosed as an endocrine cell carcinoma following pathological examination. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography and positron emission tomography did not show lymph node or distant metastases...
March 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650773/cannabinoid-type-1-receptors-are-upregulated-during-acute-activation-of-brown-adipose-tissue
#11
Minna Lahesmaa, Olof Eriksson, Thorsten Gnad, Vesa Oikonen, Marco Bucci, Jussi Hirvonen, Kalle Koskensalo, Jarmo Teuho, Tarja Niemi, Markku Taittonen, Salla Lahdenpohja, Mueez U Din, Merja Haaparanta-Solin, Alexander Pfeifer, Kirsi A Virtanen, Pirjo Nuutila
Activating brown adipose tissue (BAT) could provide a potential approach for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disease in humans. Obesity is associated with up-regulation of the endocannabinoid system, and blocking the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) has been shown to cause weight loss and decrease cardiometabolic risk factors. These effects may partly be mediated via increased BAT metabolism, since there is evidence that CB1R antagonism activates BAT in rodents. To investigate the significance of CB1R in BAT function, we quantified the density of CB1R in human and rodent BAT using the positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand [18 F]FMPEP- d 2 , and in parallel measured BAT activation with the glucose analogue [18 F]FDG...
April 12, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650638/-actinomyces-cavernous-sinus-infection-a-case-and-systematic-literature-review
#12
Michal Lubomski, James Dalgliesh, Kenneth Lee, Omprakash Damodaran, Genevieve McKew, Stephen Reddel
A 63-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of progressive right-sided exophthalmos, painful ophthalmoplegia and fevers. As more features developed, he was diagnosed with giant cell arteritis then Tolosa-Hunt syndrome and transiently responded to corticosteroids. A bland cerebrospinal fluid and highly metabolically active brain (18 F)-fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography suggested lymphoma. Biopsy of the mass showed sulphur granules with Gram-positive filamentous bacteria with Actinomyces -like colonies...
April 12, 2018: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650390/-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-parameters-to-predict-survival-and-recurrence-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-cervical-cancer-treated-with-chemoradiotherapy
#13
N Scher, J Castelli, A Depeursinge, J Bourhis, J O Prior, F G Herrera, M Ozsahin
PURPOSE: To identify predictive (18 F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT)-based parameters for locoregional control, disease-free survival and overall survival, by testing different thresholds of metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis in patients with locally-advanced cervical cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven patients treated with standard chemoirradiation underwent a pretreatment (18 F)-FDG-PET/CT...
April 9, 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649587/a-novel-tool-against-multiresistant-bacterial-pathogens-lipopeptide-modification-of-the-natural-antimicrobial-peptide-ranalexin-for-enhanced-antimicrobial-activity-and-improved-pharmacokinetics
#14
Cornelius Domhan, Philipp Uhl, Anna Meinhardt, Stefan Zimmermann, Christian Kleist, Thomas Lindner, Karin Leotta, Walter Mier, Michael Wink
As evolutionary optimized defense compounds, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent a powerful tool against bacterial infections. Ranalexin, an AMP found in the skin of the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), is primarily active against Gram-positive bacteria with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8 - 16 mg/L but shows weaker activity against Gram-negative bacteria (> 64 mg/L). By substitution of 6 N-terminal amino acids by decanoic (C10:0) to myristic (C14:0) acid, we were able to develop lipopeptide derivatives with enhanced antimicrobial activity...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649045/clinical-usefulness-of-18f-fdg-pet-ct-for-staging-cancer-of-the-external-auditory-canal
#15
Akira Toriihara, Masashi Nakadate, Tomoyuki Fujioka, Jun Oyama, Takeshi Tsutsumi, Takahiro Asakage, Atsunobu Tsunoda, Ukihide Tateishi
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of positron emission tomography/computed tomography using 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG-PET/CT) for staging cancer of the external auditory canal (EAC). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Twenty-three patients (seven men, 16 women, mean age of 59.6-year-old) who underwent FDG-PET/CT and high-resolution CT within 1 month for staging cancer of the EAC between July 2006 and December 2014 were enrolled in this study...
April 11, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648910/usefulness-of-positron-emission-tomography-ct-for-diagnosis-of-primary-bone-marrow-lymphoma-in-children
#16
Kyoko Moritani, Naoko Nakano, Sachiko Yonezawa, Fumihiro Ochi, Hisamichi Tauchi, Minenori Eguchi-Ishimae, Mariko Eguchi, Eiichi Ishii, Kozo Nagai
Primary bone marrow lymphoma (PBML) is hard to diagnose in children, due to the difficult identification of malignant cells in bone marrow. The first case, a 5-year-old boy, showed knee swelling with an intermittent fever. The second case, a 12-year-old girl, showed fever of unknown origin without lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. In both cases, the diagnosis was not confirmed despite the repeated bone marrow aspirations. Finally, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy at the positive site by positron emission tomography (PET)-CT contributed to definitive diagnosis of PBML...
April 12, 2018: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644713/deuterium-substituted-2-2-dimethylamino-methyl-4-18-f-fluoropropoxy-phenyl-thio-benzenamine-as-a-serotonin-transporter-imaging-agent
#17
Futao Liu, Lin Zhu, Seok Rye Choi, Karl Plössl, Zhihao Zha, Hank F Kung
Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of serotonin transporter (SERT) is useful for studying brain diseases with altered serotonergic function. A deuterated imaging agent, ([18 F]2-((2-((bis(methyl-d3)amino)methyl)-4-(3-fluoropropoxy- 1,1,2,2,3,3-d6)phenyl)thio)aniline, [18 F]D12FPBM, [18 F]1), was prepared as a new chemical entity (NCE). The deuterated agent, 1, showed excellent binding affinity to SERT; Ki was 0.086 nM, comparable to the un-deuterated FPBM. In vivo biodistribution studies in rats with [18 F]1 showed good brain uptake (1...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644496/inter-subject-fdg-pet-brain-networks-exhibit-multi-scale-community-structure-with-different-normalization-techniques
#18
Megan M Sperry, Sonia Kartha, Eric J Granquist, Beth A Winkelstein
Inter-subject networks are used to model correlations between brain regions and are particularly useful for metabolic imaging techniques, like 18F-2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Since FDG PET typically produces a single image, correlations cannot be calculated over time. Little focus has been placed on the basic properties of inter-subject networks and if they are affected by group size and image normalization. FDG PET images were acquired from rats (n = 18), normalized by whole brain, visual cortex, or cerebellar FDG uptake, and used to construct correlation matrices...
April 11, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644341/uptake-of-99m-tc-mibi-by-sclerosing-pneumocytoma-raising-a-false-suspicion-of-metastasis-from-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma
#19
Georgios E Papadakis, Flavian Tabotta, Igor Levotanec, Michel Gonzalez, John O Prior, Stefano La Rosa, Gerasimos P Sykiotis
Technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (99m Tc-MIBI; sestamibi) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) performed for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas or for other indications can reveal incidentalomas. Interpretation of such findings can be challenging, particularly when thyroid or other endocrine tumors are also present. Preoperative staging of a 59-year-old female patient with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) showing moderate hypermetabolism on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT also detected a slightly hypermetabolic pulmonary nodule (standardized uptake value normalized by body weight max = 2...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644248/mri-and-pet-ct-failed-to-differentiate-between-hepatic-malignancy-and-brucelloma
#20
Peter W Schreiber, Adrian Schmid, Stefania Fagagnini, Arne Kröger, Bart Vrugt, Cäcilia S Reiner, Katia Boggian, Marc Schiesser, Beat Müllhaupt, Huldrych F Günthard
Brucellosis is a common, worldwide zoonosis. Clinical presentation is protean and often goes unrecognized. Hepatic brucelloma is a rare local complication of chronic brucellosis. We report a case in which magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography imaging prompted suspicion of a hepatic malignancy. Diagnosis was ultimately made by serology and polymerase chain reaction of resected liver tissue.
April 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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