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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786861/temporally-feathered-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-a-planning-technique-to-reduce-normal-tissue-toxicity
#1
Juan Carlos López Alfonso, Shireen Parsai, Nikhil Joshi, Andrew Godley, Chirag Shah, Shlomo A Koyfman, Jimmy J Caudell, Clifton D Fuller, Heiko Enderling, Jacob G Scott
PURPOSE: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has allowed optimization of three-dimensional spatial radiation dose distributions permitting target coverage while reducing normal tissue toxicity. However, radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity is a major contributor to patients' quality of life and often a dose-limiting factor in the definitive treatment of cancer with radiation therapy. We propose the next logical step in the evolution of IMRT using canonical radiobiological principles, optimizing the temporal dimension through which radiation therapy is delivered to further reduce radiation-induced toxicity by increased time for normal tissue recovery...
May 22, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785440/an-immunoconjugated-up-conversion-nanocomplex-for-selective-imaging-and-photodynamic-therapy-against-her2-positive-breast-cancer
#2
Gonzalo Ramírez-García, Sandeep S Panikar, Tzarara López-Luke, Valeria Piazza, Miguel Angel Honorato-Colin, Tanya Camacho-Villegas, Rodolfo Hernández-Gutiérrez, Elder De la Rosa
Photodynamic therapy represents a very attractive therapeutic tool considered to be effective, minimally invasive and minimally toxic. However, conventional photodynamic therapy actually has two main constraints: the limited penetration depth of visible light needed for its activation, and the lack of selectivity. Considering this, this work reports the synthesis and evaluation of a novel nanoconjugate for imaging and selective photodynamic therapy against HER2-positive breast cancer, a particularly aggressive form of the disease...
May 22, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779919/radiation-dose-constraints-for-organs-at-risk-in-neuro-oncology-the-european-particle-therapy-network-consensus
#3
REVIEW
Maarten Lambrecht, Daniëlle B P Eekers, Claire Alapetite, Neil G Burnet, Valentin Calugaru, Ida E M Coremans, Piero Fossati, Morten Høyer, Johannes A Langendijk, Alejandra Méndez Romero, Frank Paulsen, Ana Perpar, Laurette Renard, Dirk de Ruysscher, Beate Timmermann, Pavel Vitek, Damien C Weber, Hiske L van der Weide, Gillian A Whitfield, Ruud Wiggenraad, Erik Roelofs, Petra Witt Nyström, Esther G C Troost
PURPOSE: For unbiased comparison of different radiation modalities and techniques, consensus on delineation of radiation sensitive organs at risk (OARs) and on their dose constraints is warranted. Following the publication of a digital, online atlas for OAR delineation in neuro-oncology by the same group, we assessed the brain OAR-dose constraints in a follow-up study. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search to identify the current papers on OAR dose constraints for normofractionated photon and particle therapy in PubMed, Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science...
May 17, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778321/submandibular-gland-sparing-when-irradiating-neck-level-ib-in-the-treatment-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#4
William C Jackson, Peter G Hawkins, George S Arnould, John Yao, Charles Mayo, Michelle Mierzwa
Patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSqCCA) frequently require postoperative radiation (PORT), which may include contralateral level IB within the clinical target volume (CTV). The submandibular gland (SMG) is typically included within the level IB CTV; however, the SMG does not contain lymph nodes or lymphatic vessels. We hypothesized that level IB could be adequately irradiated while sparing the SMG to reduce xerostomia. Twelve patients with OSqCCA receiving PORT, which included the contralateral level IB within the planning target volume (PTV), were retrospectively reviewed and replanned using volumetric modulated arc therapy...
May 16, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774056/epigenetic-regulation-of-inflammation-in-stroke
#5
REVIEW
Gavin Yong-Quan Ng, Lim Yun-An, Christopher G Sobey, Thameem Dheen, David Yang-Wei Fann, Thiruma V Arumugam
Despite extensive research, treatments for clinical stroke are still limited only to the administration of tissue plasminogen activator and the recent introduction of mechanical thrombectomy, which can be used in only a limited proportion of patients due to time constraints. A plethora of inflammatory events occur during stroke, arising in part due to the body's immune response to brain injury. Neuroinflammation contributes significantly to neuronal cell death and the development of functional impairment and death in stroke patients...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771745/national-institute-on-drug-abuse-international-program-improving-opioid-use-disorder-treatment-through-international-research-training
#6
Steven W Gust, Judy McCormally
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: For more than 25 years, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has supported research-training programs, establishing a global research network and expanding the knowledge base on substance use disorders. International research to inform approaches to opioid addiction is particularly important and relevant to the United States, where opioid misuse, addiction, and overdose constitute an emerging public health crisis. This article summarizes the NIDA International Program and illustrates its impact by reviewing recent articles about treatment approaches for opioid use disorders (OUD)...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764879/quest-for-certainty-regarding-early-discharge-in-paediatric-low-risk-febrile-neutropenia-a-multicentre-qualitative-focus-group-discussion-study-involving-patients-parents-and-healthcare-professionals-in-the-uk
#7
Jessica E Morgan, Bob Phillips, Lesley A Stewart, Karl Atkin
OBJECTIVES: A systematic review of paediatric low-risk febrile neutropenia found that outpatient care is safe, with low rates of treatment failure. However, this review, and a subsequent meta-ethnography, suggested that early discharge of these patients may not be acceptable to key stakeholders. This study aimed to explore experiences and perceptions of patients, parents and healthcare professionals involved in paediatric febrile neutropenia care in the UK. SETTING: Three different centres within the UK, purposively selected from a national survey on the basis of differences in their service structure and febrile neutropenia management...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764593/-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-centrally-located-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
Yuming Wan, Jing Huang, Feng Xu
A few study has proven that about 90% of local control rates might be benefit from stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with medically inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it is reported SBRT associated overall survival and tumor specific survival is comparable with those treated with surgery. SBRT has been accepted as the first line treatment for inoperable patients with peripheral located stage I NSCLC. However, the role of SBRT in centrally located lesions is controversial for potential toxic effects from the adjacent anatomical structure...
May 20, 2018: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756513/self-directed-therapy-programmes-for-arm-rehabilitation-after-stroke-a-systematic-review
#9
Ruth H Da-Silva, Sarah A Moore, Christopher I Price
AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of self-directed arm interventions in adult stroke survivors. METHODS: A systematic review of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS and IEEE Xplore up to February 2018 was carried out. Studies of stroke arm interventions were included where more than 50% of the time spent in therapy was initiated and carried out by the participant. Quality of the evidence was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RESULTS: A total of 40 studies ( n = 1172 participants) were included (19 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 21 before-after studies)...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755168/amount-and-content-of-sensorimotor-therapy-delivered-in-three-stroke-rehabilitation-units-in-quebec-canada
#10
Carol L Richards, Francine Malouin, Sylvie Nadeau, Joyce Fung, Line D'Amours, Claire Perez, Anne Durand
Purpose: This study creates a baseline clinical portrait of sensorimotor rehabilitation in three stroke rehabilitation units (SRUs) as a first step in implementing a multi-centre clinical research platform. Method: Participants in this cross-sectional, descriptive study were the patients and rehabilitation teams in these SRUs. Prospective (recording of therapy time and content and a Web-based questionnaire) and retrospective (chart audit) methods were combined to characterize the practice of the rehabilitation professionals...
2018: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754382/3d-2d-model-to-image-registration-by-imitation-learning-for-cardiac-procedures
#11
Daniel Toth, Shun Miao, Tanja Kurzendorfer, Christopher A Rinaldi, Rui Liao, Tommaso Mansi, Kawal Rhode, Peter Mountney
PURPOSE: In cardiac interventions, such as cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), image guidance can be enhanced by involving preoperative models. Multimodality 3D/2D registration for image guidance, however, remains a significant research challenge for fundamentally different image data, i.e., MR to X-ray. Registration methods must account for differences in intensity, contrast levels, resolution, dimensionality, field of view. Furthermore, same anatomical structures may not be visible in both modalities...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749688/effect-of-type-of-language-therapy-on-expressive-language-skills-in-patients-with-post-stroke-aphasia
#12
Jasmina Vuksanović, Tanja Milovanović, Ljubica Konstantinović, Saša R Filipović
BACKGROUND: Constraint-induced (language) aphasia therapy (CIAT), based on constraint usage of the language channel only, massed practice and shaping through therapeutic language games, has been suggested as a more efficient therapy approach than traditional aphasia therapies. AIMS: To examine the comparative efficacy of CIAT and a traditional therapy approach on expressive language ability, with the intensity of therapy controlled and matched, in the treatment of post-stroke aphasia...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744527/inherited-primary-arrhythmia-disorders-cardiac-channelopathies-and-sports-activity
#13
REVIEW
S Marrakchi, I Kammoun, E Bennour, L Laroussi, M Ben Miled, S Kachboura
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in an apparently healthy individual is a tragedy. It is important to identify the cause of death and to prevent SCD in potentially at-risk family members. Inherited primary arrhythmia disorders are associated with exercise-related SCD. Despite the well-known benefits of exercise, exercise restriction has been a historical mainstay of therapy for these conditions. However, since familiarity with inherited arrhythmia conditions has increased and patients are often children and young adults, it is necessary to reassess the treatment guidelines regarding exercise constraints...
May 9, 2018: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743054/australian-integrative-oncology-services-a-mixed-method-study-exploring-the-views-of-cancer-survivors
#14
Jennifer Hunter, Jane Ussher, Chloe Parton, Andrew Kellett, Caroline Smith, Geoff Delaney, Eleanor Oyston
BACKGROUND: The significant use of traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) by cancer survivors is well documented. The aim of this study was to explore cancer survivors' views on integrating T&CM services with conventional cancer care. METHOD: A mixed-method study design with an emphasis on qualitative methodology was used to conduct and analyse four focus group interviews and an on-line survey. Purposive sampling recruited 33 cancer survivors and caregivers from Arabic, Vietnamese, Chinese and Anglo-European Australian backgrounds who participated in one of four focus group interviews, and 121 cancer survivors who responded to an on-line survey...
May 9, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742436/the-assembly-activating-protein-promotes-stability-and-interactions-between-aav-s-viral-proteins-to-nucleate-capsid-assembly
#15
Anna C Maurer, Simon Pacouret, Ana Karla Cepeda Diaz, Jessica Blake, Eva Andres-Mateos, Luk H Vandenberghe
The adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector is a preferred delivery platform for in vivo gene therapy. Natural and engineered variations of the AAV capsid affect a plurality of phenotypes relevant to gene therapy, including vector production and host tropism. Fundamental to these aspects is the mechanism of AAV capsid assembly. Here, the role of the viral co-factor assembly-activating protein (AAP) was evaluated in 12 naturally occurring AAVs and 9 putative ancestral capsid intermediates. The results demonstrate increased capsid protein stability and VP-VP interactions in the presence of AAP...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732047/rehabilitation-of-upper-limb-in-children-with-acquired-brain-injury-a-preliminary-comparative-study
#16
Elena Beretta, Ambra Cesareo, Emilia Biffi, Carolyn Schafer, Sara Galbiati, Sandra Strazzer
Acquired brain injuries (ABIs) can lead to a wide range of impairments, including weakness or paralysis on one side of the body known as hemiplegia. In hemiplegic patients, the rehabilitation of the upper limb skills is crucial, because the recovery has an immediate impact on patient quality of life. For this reason, several treatments were developed to flank physical therapy (PT) and improve functional recovery of the upper limbs. Among them, Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) and robot-aided therapy have shown interesting potentialities in the rehabilitation of the hemiplegic upper limb...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726722/can-differences-in-linear-energy-transfer-and-thus-relative-biological-effectiveness-compromise-the-dosimetric-advantage-of-intensity-modulated-proton-therapy-as-compared-to-passively-scattered-proton-therapy
#17
Drosoula Giantsoudi, Judith Adams, Shannon MacDonald, Harald Paganetti
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of differences in linear energy transfer (LET) and thus the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) between passively scattered proton therapy (PS) and pencil-beam scanning intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). METHODS: IMPT treatment plans were generated for six ependymoma patients, originally treated with PS, using the original plan's computed tomography image sets and beam directions, and its dose-volume values as optimization constraints...
May 4, 2018: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722297/4d-cone-beam-computed-tomography-cbct-using-a-moving-blocker-for-simultaneous-radiation-dose-reduction-and-scatter-correction
#18
Cong Zhao, Yuncheng Zhong, Xinhui Duan, You Zhang, Xiaokun Huang, Jing Wang, Mingwu Jin
Four-dimensional (4D) X-ray cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is important for a precise radiation therapy for lung cancer. Due to the repeated use and 4D acquisition over a course of radiotherapy, the radiation dose becomes a concern. Meanwhile, the scatter contamination in CBCT deteriorates image quality for treatment tasks. In this work, we propose to use a moving blocker (MB) during the 4D CBCT acquisition ("4D MB") and to combine motion-compensated reconstruction to address these two issues simultaneously...
May 3, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722125/sample-size-determination-and-treatment-screening-in-two-stage-phase-ii-clinical-trials-via-roc-curve
#19
Wong-Shian Huang, Yuan-Chin Ivan Chang
In pharmaceutical-related research, we usually use clinical trials methods to identify valuable treatments and compare their efficacy with that of a standard control therapy. Although clinical trials are essential for ensuring the efficacy and postmarketing safety of a drug, conducting clinical trials is usually costly and time-consuming. Moreover, to allocate patients to the little therapeutic effect treatments is inappropriate due to the ethical and cost imperative. Hence, there are several 2-stage designs in the literature where, for reducing cost and shortening duration of trials, they use the conditional power obtained from interim analysis results to appraise whether we should continue the lower efficacious treatments in the next stage...
May 2, 2018: Pharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716617/focal-dose-escalation-for-prostate-cancer-using-68-ga-hbed-cc-psma-pet-ct-and-mri-a-planning-study-based-on-histology-reference
#20
Constantinos Zamboglou, Benedikt Thomann, Khodor Koubar, Peter Bronsert, Tobias Krauss, Hans C Rischke, Ilias Sachpazidis, Vanessa Drendel, Nasr Salman, Kathrin Reichel, Cordula A Jilg, Martin Werner, Philipp T Meyer, Michael Bock, Dimos Baltas, Anca L Grosu
BACKGROUND: Focal radiation therapy has gained of interest in treatment of patients with primary prostate cancer (PCa). The question of how to define the intraprostatic boost volume is still open. Previous studies showed that multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) or PSMA PET alone could be used for boost volume definition. However, other studies proposed that the combined usage of both has the highest sensitivity in detection of intraprostatic lesions. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and to evaluate the tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of radiation therapy dose painting using 68 Ga-HBED-CC PSMA PET/CT, mpMRI or the combination of both in primary PCa...
May 2, 2018: Radiation Oncology
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