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Constraint therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211818/comparison-of-the-effects-of-bilateral-and-unilateral-training-after-stroke-a-meta-analysis
#1
Yejin Lee, Moon Young Kim, Ji-Hyuk Park, Hae Yean Park
BACKGROUND: The differential effects of bilateral and unilateral training on upper extremity (UE) function remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of bilateral and unilateral training on UE function and activities of daily living (ADL) after stroke. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected for inclusion by two reviewers after searching the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and KoreaMed...
February 15, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211070/use-of-proximal-operator-graph-solver-for-radiation-therapy-inverse-treatment-planning
#2
Xinmin Liu, Charles Pelizzari, Andrew H Belcher, Zachary Grelewicz, Rodney D Wiersma
PURPOSE: Most radiation therapy optimization problems can be formulated as an unconstrained problem and solved efficiently by quasi-Newton methods such as the Limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) algorithm. However, several next generation planning techniques such as total variation regularization based optimization and MV+kV optimization, involve constrained or mixed-norm optimization, and cannot be solved by quasi-Newton methods. Using standard optimization algorithms on such problems often leads to prohibitively long optimization times and large memory requirements...
February 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205533/a-data-driven-approach-for-evaluating-multi-modal-therapy-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Jenny Haefeli, Adam R Ferguson, Deborah Bingham, Adrienne Orr, Seok Joon Won, Tina I Lam, Jian Shi, Sarah Hawley, Jialing Liu, Raymond A Swanson, Stephen M Massa
Combination therapies targeting multiple recovery mechanisms have the potential for additive or synergistic effects, but experimental design and analyses of multimodal therapeutic trials are challenging. To address this problem, we developed a data-driven approach to integrate and analyze raw source data from separate pre-clinical studies and evaluated interactions between four treatments following traumatic brain injury. Histologic and behavioral outcomes were measured in 202 rats treated with combinations of an anti-inflammatory agent (minocycline), a neurotrophic agent (LM11A-31), and physical therapy consisting of assisted exercise with or without botulinum toxin-induced limb constraint...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202655/constraints-in-cancer-evolution
#4
REVIEW
Subramanian Venkatesan, Nicolai J Birkbak, Charles Swanton
Next-generation deep genome sequencing has only recently allowed us to quantitatively dissect the extent of heterogeneity within a tumour, resolving patterns of cancer evolution. Intratumour heterogeneity and natural selection contribute to resistance to anticancer therapies in the advanced setting. Recent evidence has also revealed that cancer evolution might be constrained. In this review, we discuss the origins of intratumour heterogeneity and subsequently focus on constraints imposed upon cancer evolution...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193241/present-state-and-issues-in-iort-physics
#5
REVIEW
Frank W Hensley
Literature was reviewed to assess the physical aspects governing the present and emerging technologies used in intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). Three major technologies were identified: treatment with electrons, treatment with external generators of kV X-rays and electronic brachytherapy. Although also used in IORT, literature on brachytherapy with radioactive sources is not systematically reviewed since an extensive own body of specialized literature and reviews exists in this field. A comparison with radioactive sources is made in the use of balloon catheters for partial breast irradiation where these are applied in almost an identical applicator technique as used with kV X-ray sources...
January 27, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161395/somatic-clonal-evolution-a-selection-centric-perspective
#6
Jacob Scott, Andriy Marusyk
It is generally accepted that the initiation and progression of cancers is the result of somatic clonal evolution. Despite many peculiarities, evolution within populations of somatic cells should obey the same Darwinian principles as evolution within natural populations, i.e. variability of heritable phenotypes provides the substrate for context-specific selection forces leading to increased population frequencies of phenotypes, which are better adapted to their environment. Yet, within cancer biology, the more prevalent way to view evolution is as being entirely driven by the accumulation of "driver" mutations...
February 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152927/reducing-wait-time-wt-in-the-infusion-center-ic
#7
Lianne Lopez, Angela Aschian, Betty Chan, Martha Inofuentes, Zoraida Truax, Sally Golingay, Gwendoyn Lynch, Peggy Matsuura, Afsaneh Barzi
: 249 Background: Lengthy WT is the primary source of dis-satisfaction with IC services. We created a patient (PT) flow diagram outlining each step beginning from PT check-in to discharge and plotted the impact of multiple disciplines on the WT. A team of nurses, pharmacists, physicians, and administrators, analyzed the flow and identified ways to improve efficiencies. METHODS: First attempt was to improve communications between pharmacy and nursing, coordinating the preparation of medications with patient's check-in time; use of a simple clipboard facilitated this task and improved the efficiency of the system...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152619/a-multinational-report-of-technical-factors-on-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-oligometastases
#8
Kristin J Redmond, Simon S Lo, Roi Dagan, Ian Poon, Matthew C Foote, Darby Erler, Young Lee, Frank Lohr, Tithi Biswas, Umberto Ricardi, Arjun Sahgal
AIM: Oligometastatic cancer is being increasingly managed with aggressive local therapy using stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). However, few guidelines exist. We summarize the results of an international survey reviewing technical factors for extracranial SBRT for oligometastatic disease to guide safe management. MATERIALS & METHODS: Seven high-volume centers contributed. Levels of agreement were categorized as strong (6-7 common responses), moderate (4-5), low (2-3) or no agreement...
February 3, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145917/barriers-to-pelvic-floor-physical-therapy-regarding-treatment-of-high-tone-pelvic-floor-dysfunction
#9
Dani Zoorob, Margaret Higgins, Kimberly Swan, Jennifer Cummings, Sarah Dominguez, Erin Carey
OBJECTIVE: Chronic pelvic pain is a prevalent and debilitating condition with a wide range of etiologies. An estimated 30% to 70% of chronic pelvic cases involve musculoskeletal component pain including high-tone pelvic floor dysfunction (HTPFD). Pelvic floor physical therapy has been shown to be a beneficial treatment for HTPFD, yet many patients do not have access to this treatment. The objective of this study was to identify the barriers preventing patients from following through with the first-line management, physical therapy...
January 31, 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143623/fully-automated-treatment-planning-of-spinal-metastases-a-comparison-to-manual-planning-of-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-for-conventionally-fractionated-irradiation
#10
Daniel Buergy, Abdul Wahab M Sharfo, Ben J M Heijmen, Peter W J Voet, Sebastiaan Breedveld, Frederik Wenz, Frank Lohr, Florian Stieler
BACKGROUND: Planning for Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) may be time consuming and its use is limited by available staff resources. Automated multicriterial treatment planning can eliminate this bottleneck. We compared automatically created (auto) VMAT plans generated by Erasmus-iCycle to manually created VMAT plans for treatment of spinal metastases. METHODS: Forty-two targets in 32 patients were analyzed. Lungs and kidneys were defined as organs at risk (OARs)...
January 31, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143487/helical-tomotherapy-of-spinal-chordomas-french-multicentric-retrospective-study-of-a-cohort-of-30-cases
#11
Maxime Bobin, Christina Zacharatou, Paul Sargos, Véronique Brouste, Albert Lisbona, Marc-André Mahé, Georges Noël, Amandine Halley, Loïc Feuvret, Louis Gras, Stéphanie Hoppe, Bénédicte Henriques de Figueiredo, Guy Kantor
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of helical tomotherapy (HT) in the management of spine chordomas when proton therapy is unavailable or non-feasible. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 2007 and 2013, 30 patients with biopsy-proven chordomas were treated by HT in five French institutions. Information regarding local control (LC), overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and metastasis-free survival (MFS) was collected. Clinical efficacy, toxicity and treatment quality were evaluated...
January 31, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134792/from-immunologically-archaic-to-neoteric-glycovaccines
#12
REVIEW
Marco Cavallari, Gennaro De Libero
Polysaccharides (PS) are present in the outermost surface of bacteria and readily come in contact with immune cells. They interact with specific antibodies, which in turn confer protection from infections. Vaccines with PS from pneumococci, meningococci, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and Salmonella typhi may be protective, although with the important constraint of failing to generate permanent immunological memory. This limitation has in part been circumvented by conjugating glycovaccines to proteins that stimulate T helper cells and facilitate the establishment of immunological memory...
January 27, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125617/adaptive-estimation-of-personalized-maximum-tolerated-dose-in-cancer-phase-i-clinical-trials-based-on-all-toxicities-and-individual-genomic-profile
#13
Zhengjia Chen, Zheng Li, Run Zhuang, Ying Yuan, Michael Kutner, Taofeek Owonikoko, Walter J Curran, Jeanne Kowalski
BACKGROUND: Many biomarkers have been shown to be associated with the efficacy of cancer therapy. Estimation of personalized maximum tolerated doses (pMTDs) is a critical step toward personalized medicine, which aims to maximize the therapeutic effect of a treatment for individual patients. In this study, we have established a Bayesian adaptive Phase I design which can estimate pMTDs by utilizing patient biomarkers that can predict susceptibility to specific adverse events and response as covariates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119829/can-short-term-constraint-induced-movement-therapy-combined-with-visual-biofeedback-training-improve-hemiplegic-upper-limb-function-of-subacute-stroke-patients
#14
Hyun Seok, Seung Yeol Lee, Jihoon Kim, Jungho Yeo, Hyungdong Kang
OBJECTIVE: To Investigate the synergic effects of short-term constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) and visual biofeedback training (VBT) in subacute stroke patients. METHODS: Thirty-two subacute stroke patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of three groups: short-term CIMT with VBT, VBT only, and control groups. We applied CIMT for an hour daily during VBT instead of the ordinary restraint time, referred to as 'short-term' CIMT. Short-term CIMT with VBT group received simultaneous VBT with CIMT, whereas the VBT the only group received VBT without CIMT for an hour a day for 2 weeks...
December 2016: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115864/continuous-ambulatory-peritoneal-dialysis-perspectives-on-patient-selection-in-low-to-middle-income-countries
#15
REVIEW
Nicola Wearne, Kajiru Kilonzo, Emmanuel Effa, Bianca Davidson, Peter Nourse, Udeme Ekrikpo, Ikechi G Okpechi
Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem that continues to show an unrelenting global increase in prevalence. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease has been predicted to grow the fastest in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs). There is evidence that people living in LMICs have the highest need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) despite the lowest access to various modalities of treatment. As continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) does not require advanced technologies, much infrastructure, or need for dialysis staff support, it should be an ideal form of RRT in LMICs, particularly for those living in remote areas...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113225/system-integration-and-in-vivo-testing-of-a-robot-for-ultrasound-guidance-and-monitoring-during-radiotherapy
#16
Hasan Sen, Muyinatu Lediju Bell, Yin Zhang, Kai Ding, Emad Boctor, John Wong, Iulian Iordachita, Peter Kazanzides
We are developing a cooperatively-controlled robot system for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) in which a clinician and robot share control of a 3D ultrasound (US) probe. IGRT involves two main steps: (1) planning/ simulation and (2) treatment delivery. The goals of the system are to provide guidance for patient setup and realtime target monitoring during fractionated radiotherapy of soft tissue targets, especially in the upper abdomen. To compensate for soft tissue deformations created by the probe, we present a novel workflow where the robot holds the US probe on the patient during acquisition of the planning computerized tomography (CT) image, thereby ensuring that planning is performed on the deformed tissue...
October 3, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109466/definitive-proton-beam-therapy-for-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-of-the-nasopharynx-involving-the-base-of-skull
#17
Michelle S Gentile, Darwin Yip, Norbert J Liebsch, Judith A Adams, Paul M Busse, Annie W Chan
OBJECTIVES: Management of unresectable adenocystic carcinoma (ACC) of the nasopharynx is challenging given the high dose required for tumor control while respecting dose constraints. We evaluated long-term outcomes and toxicity in patients with unresectable ACC of the nasopharynx treated with definitive proton beam therapy. METHODS: Between 2000 and 2013, 14 patients with ACC of the nasopharynx were treated. Ninety-three percent had T4 disease. All had involvement of the skull base...
February 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105468/simulating-the-effect-of-spectroscopic-mri-as-a-metric-for-radiation-therapy-planning-in-patients-with-glioblastoma
#18
J Scott Cordova, Shravan Kandula, Saumya Gurbani, Jim Zhong, Mital Tejani, Oluwatosin Kayode, Kirtesh Patel, Roshan Prabhu, Eduard Schreibmann, Ian Crocker, Chad A Holder, Hyunsuk Shim, Hui-Kuo Shu
Due to glioblastoma's infiltrative nature, an optimal radiation therapy (RT) plan requires targeting infiltration not identified by anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, high-resolution, whole-brain spectroscopic MRI (sMRI) is used to describe tumor infiltration alongside anatomical MRI and simulate the degree to which it modifies RT target planning. In 11 patients with glioblastoma, data from preRT sMRI scans were processed to give high-resolution, whole-brain metabolite maps normalized by contralateral white matter...
December 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094211/likelihood-of-unacceptable-normal-tissue-doses-in-breast-cancer-patients-undergoing-regional-nodal-irradiation-in-routine-clinical-practice
#19
Jose Bazan, Dominic DiCostanzo, Karla Kuhn, Lonika Majithia, Allison Quick, Nilendu Gupta, Julia White
PURPOSE: As indications for regional nodal irradiation (RNI) for breast cancer have expanded, so too has scrutiny over potential late toxicity from radiotherapy. This emphasizes the need for careful radiation treatment planning to maximize the therapeutic ratio. We sought to evaluate how often unacceptable doses (UDs) to organs at risk (OARs) occur and the associated factors for patients receiving RNI in daily practice. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Treatment records of patients who received RNI from February 2012 to May 2015 were studied...
October 19, 2016: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093714/neuroplasticity-based-technologies-and-interventions-for-restoring-motor-functions-in-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Sofia Straudi, Nino Basaglia
Motor impairments are very common in multiple sclerosis (MS), leading to a reduced Quality of Life and active participation. In the past decades, new insights into the functional reorganization processes that occur after a brain injury have been introduced. Specifically, the motor practice seems to be determinant to induce neuroplastic changes and motor recovery. More recently, these findings have been extended to multiple sclerosis, in particular, it has been hypothesized that disease progression, functional reorganization and disability are mutually related...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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